The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a short-range air-to-air missile which entered service with the US Navy in 1956 and subsequently was adopted by the US Air Force in 1964. Since the Sidewinder has proved to be an enduring international success, its latest variants are still standard equipment in most western-aligned air forces; the Soviet K-13, a reverse-engineered copy of the AIM-9, was widely adopted by a number of nations. Low-level development started in the late 1940s, emerging in the early 1950s as a guidance system for the modular Zuni rocket; this modularity allowed for the introduction of newer seekers and rocket motors, including the AIM-9C variant, which used semi-active radar homing and served as the basis of the AGM-122 Sidearm anti-radar missile. A tail-chasing system, early models saw extensive use during the Vietnam War but had a low success rate; this led to all-aspect capabilities in the L version which proved to be an effective weapon during combat in the Falklands War and the Operation Mole Cricket 19 in Lebanon.
Its adaptability has kept it in service over newer designs like the AIM-95 Agile and SRAAM that were intended to replace it. The Sidewinder is the most used air-to-air missile in the West, with more than 110,000 missiles produced for the U. S. and 27 other nations, of which one percent have been used in combat. It has been built under license by some other nations including Sweden, can equip helicopters, such as the Bell AH-1Z Viper; the AIM-9 is one of the oldest, least expensive, most successful air-to-air missiles, with an estimated 270 aircraft kills in its history of use. When firing a Sidewinder, NATO pilots use the brevity code FOX-2; the United States Navy hosted a 50th-anniversary celebration for the Sidewinder in 2002. Boeing won a contract in March 2010 to support Sidewinder operations through to 2055, guaranteeing that the weapons system will remain in operation until at least that date. Air Force Spokeswoman Stephanie Powell noted that due to its low cost and reliability it is "very possible that the Sidewinder will remain in Air Force inventories through the late 21st century".
The AIM-9 is made up of a number of different components manufactured by different companies, including Aerojet and Raytheon. The missile is divided into four main sections: guidance, target detector and rocket motor; the guidance and control unit contains most of the electronics and mechanics that enable the missile to function. At the front is the IR seeker head utilizing the rotating reticle and five CdS cells or "pan and scan" staring array, electric motor, armature, all protruding into a glass dome. Directly behind this are the electronics that gather data, interpret signals, generate the control signals that steer the missile. An umbilical on the side of the GCU attaches to the launcher, which detaches from the missile at launch. To cool the seeker head, a 5,000 psi argon bottle is carried internally in Air Force AIM-9L/M variants, while the Navy uses a rail-mounted nitrogen bottle; the AIM-9X model contains a Stirling cryo-engine to cool the seeker elements. Two electric servos power the canards to steer the missile.
At the back of the GCU is a gas grain generator or thermal battery to provide electrical power. The AIM-9X features high off-boresight capability; the AIM-9X has several unique design features including built-in test to aid in maintenance and reliability, an electronic safe and arm device, an additional digital umbilical similar to the AMRAAM and jet vane control. Next is a target detector with four IR emitters and detectors that detect whether the target is moving farther away; when it detects this action taking place, it sends a signal to the warhead safe and arm device to detonate the warhead. Versions older than the AIM-9L featured an influence fuze that relied on the target's magnetic field as input. Current trends in shielded wires and non-magnetic metals in aircraft construction rendered this obsolete; the AIM-9H model contained a 25 lb expanding rod-blast fragmentary warhead. All other models up to the AIM-9M contained; the missile's warhead rods can break rotor blades. Recent models of the AIM-9 are configured with an annular-blast fragmentation warhead, the WDU-17B by Argotech Corporation.
The case is made from spirally wound spring steel filled with 8 lb of PBXN-3 explosive. The warhead features a safe/arm device requiring five seconds at 20 g acceleration before the fuze is armed, giving a minimum range of 2.5 km. The Mk36 solid-propellant rocket motor provides propulsion for the missile. A reduced-smoke propellant makes it difficult for a target to avoid the missile; this section features the launch lugs used to hold the missile to the rail of the missile launcher. The forward of the three lugs has two contact buttons; the fins provide stability from an aerodynamic point of view, but it is the "rollerons" at the end of the wings providing gyroscopic precession to free-hinging control surfaces in the tail that prevent the missile from spinning in flight. The wings and fins of the AIM-9X are much smaller and control surfaces are reversed from earlier Sidewinders with the control section located in the rear, while the wings up front provide stability; the AIM-9X features vectored thrust or jet vane control to increase maneuverability and accuracy, wit
Balaraju Katha is a 1970 Telugu-language drama film written by Mullapudi Venkata Ramana and directed by Bapu. It is a remake of the 1969 Tamil film Vaa Raja Vaa, has won the Nandi Award for Best Feature Film; this is the story of a young boy Balaraju in a historical town Mahabalipuram. He becomes a tourist guide to support his entire family. An elderly childless couple wants to adopt him; the story is the results of his ordeals. Master Prabhakar as Balaraju Nagabhushanam Suryakantham Dhulipala Mikkilineni Allu Ramalingaiah Baby Sumathi Sakshi Ranga Rao Hemalatha Raavi Kondala Rao Pushpa Kumari Director: Bapu Story: A. P. Nagarajan Dialogues: Mullapudi Venkata Ramana Producer: Nidamarthi Pamakshi Production Company: Lakshmi Enterprises Music Director: K. V. Mahadevan Assistant Composer: Puhalendi Director of Photography: P. S. Selvaraj Film Editing: Kotagiri Gopal Rao Choreography: Raju - Sehu Art Director: Bhaskara Raju Lyrics: Arudra and Kosaraju Raghavaiah Playback Singers: P. Susheela, Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao, Raghuram Soundtrack was composed by K. V. Mahadevan.
"Adiganani Anukovaddu Cheppakunda Dateyoddu" - "Cheppu Cheppu Bhai Jarigedi Vippi Cheppu" - "Choodu Choodu Tamasha Bhale Tamasha Aidu Vella Tamasha" - "Hippie Hippie Aadapillalo Veellu Chepparani Goppa Goppa Tarajuvvalo" - "Mahabalipuram... Bharateeya Kalajagatikidi Goppa Gopuram" - "Okati Rendu Moodaite Muddu Antaku Minchina Santanamaite Vaddu" - Nandi Award for Best Feature Film in 1971 Balaraju Katha on IMDb
Satyavati Devi was an Indian freedom fighter and Gandhian. At the time of her death on 26 October 2010, she was India's oldest living freedom fighter, she did her schooling from Jalandhar. She married Lala Achint Ram in 1925, her marriage was a dowry-less one and she wore no veil, the condition set by Achint Ram for marriage. She was popularly known as Mataji, she was the mother of Krishan Kant. She had two daughters Nirmala and Subhadra. On 26 August 1942 she was arrested along with her children for participation in the Indian freedom movement. Along with other women prisoners she hoisted the Indian tricolour in Lahore Jail where she was imprisoned by the British. In prison she protested against the condition of barracks of political prisoners and went on a satyagraha. Post India's independence, she took an active part in Vinoba Bhave's bhoodan movement along with her husband Lala Achint Ram, popularly called "Gandhi of Punjab", he had been member of Lok Sabha twice. They both urged the landowners to give their land to landless laborers.
The revolutionary leader Chandrashekhar Azad stayed at her home for three days before his escape to Lahore. She had fed the patriot Bhagat Singh with her own hands, her daughter Subhadra, when arrested was only 13 years old and was the youngest freedom fighter to be arrested. In 1965, she donated all her jewels to the Prime Minister's National Relief Fund, she was always respected by everyone. Her son Krishna Kant became the Governor of Andhra Pradesh in 1989 and continued there until 1997, when he was elevated to the post of Vice President. Krishna Kant took his mother to his home during both occasions; when her son died in 2002, she was sitting beside his body. She outlived him for eight years dying on 26 October 2010 aged 105, outliving many of her younger co-workers, she was cremated with all state honours at her native village on the next day. A year before death on 9 August 2009, she was honoured by President Pratibha Patil as a part of the 67th anniversary commemoration celebrations of Quit India Day