The Rede Ferroviária Federal, Sociedade Anônima was the state owned national railway company of Brazil created from Brazilian Federal Law #3.115 on March 16, 1957, after several railroads were nationalized by the Brazilian government. However, the railroad did not take full effect until September 30, 1957; the RFFSA linked 42 railways together. The goal of the RFFSA was to promote and advance the railroad sector of Brazil, creating a north-south-east-west rail network in all five regions of Brazil, but it failed and the RFFSA only served four of the five regions with a north-south rail network win 19 units of the federation of Brazil. By 1999, the railroad was liquidated and privatized, with the last liquidations occurring in 2007. According to Article 7 of Law #3.115 which created the RFFSA, the company was given the following powers for the operation of the railroads: The company must manage, maintain, expand and maintain traffic on the railways it built. Introduce bearer bonds of its own issue or the issue of the companies that will be organized with a limit of two for paid-in capital, with or without a guarantee from the Treasury.
Subscription of capital from companies under its control and the consent to grant them loans or guarantees. Organize and supervise the management of the companies under its control, as well as its methods and procedures for operation under contract to provide services to guarantee these companies technical assistance, accounting and administrative services. Propose revisions and modifications of tariffs, as necessary, to the Departamento Nacional de Estradas de Ferro who would review the proposals and submit the final approval to the Ministro da Viação e Obras Públicas. Create a business plan and approve the budgets of the companies under its control, monitoring their respective operations. Restructure staffing quarters of personnel according to the needs of service and regional standards of living set on a fixed number in the companies’ organization, remuneration and duties. Conduct all the works of studies and construction of railroads which have been approved by the União for which they are provided resources.
The following powers were given to the RFFSA from Law #6.171 in 1974 Monitor the railway services throughout the country. Promote a coordination of studies and tariff costs for general rail transport. Create a unification and standardization of the Brazilian Railway System. Promote a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the national railway system. Conduct research relating to the improvement of rail activities in the country. Enforce the railway into the Plano Nacional de Viação; the twenty-two railways that composed the RFFSA were nationalized by the Brazilian government which chose to merge them administratively. The following railways were: Estrada de Ferro Madeira-Mamoré Estrada de Ferro de Bragança Estrada de Ferro São Luís-Teresina Estrada de Ferro Central do Piauí Rede de Viação Cearense Estrada de Ferro Mossoró-Sousa Estrada de Ferro Sampaio Correia Rede Ferroviária do Nordeste Viação Férrea Federal do Leste Brasileiro Estrada de Ferro Bahia-Minas Estrada de Ferro Leopoldina Estrada de Ferro Central do Brasil Rede Mineira de Viação Estrada de Ferro Goiás Estrada de Ferro Santos a Jundiaí Estrada de Ferro Noroeste do Brasil Rede de Viação Paraná-Santa Catarina Estrada de Ferro Dona Teresa CristinaThe following railroads were merged into the RFFSA: Estrada de Ferro Ilhéus Estrada de Ferro Nazaré Estrada de Ferro Santa Catarina and the Viação Férrea do Rio Grande do Sul Estrada de Ferro Tocantins Privatization was one of the alternatives for investments to return in railroads.
The government of the PSDB gave the public rail lines access to transport cargo. However, most of the railroad companies were not interested in seeing a transport of passengers, as the service was nearly extinct. Between 1996 and 1998, over 22,000 km of rail lines in Brazil were being transferred to various private organizations, which signed 30-year concessions to operate the railroad systems; the organized private railroad companies will invest $2.1 billion within the 30-year concession as well as increase the volume of traffic and expand their railroad systems. The main goal of privatizing the RFFSA and FEPASA was to end the financial and labor troubles of the railroads due to a lack of investment by Brazil from the 1980s and the 1990s. On December 9, 1999, the liquidation of the Ferrovia Paulista S. A. began as a merger to the RFFSA, as an auction in the form of a concession for 20 years. Ferroban was the winner. However, the control was split between América Latina Brasil Ferrovias. On December 17, 1999, the liquidation of the RFFSA began by the General Meeting of Shareholders.
By May 31, 2007, the liquidation was complete, becoming Brazilian Federal Law #11.483. From the first appearance of diesel locomotives in 1957 to the adoption of the SIGO System in 1983, the standard colors of the RFFSA were Cadmium Red accented with two Lemon yellow stripes and black undercarriage. Depending on the RFFSA subsidiary that existed, the lower stripe was widened to accommodat
The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Class I railroad, established in 1846 and was headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was so named; the PRR was the largest railroad by traffic and revenue in the U. S. for the first half of the 20th century. Over the years, it acquired, merged with or owned part of at least 800 other rail lines and companies. At the end of 1925, it operated 10,515 miles of rail line, its only formidable rival was the New York Central, which carried around three-quarters of PRR's ton-miles. By 1882 it had become the largest railroad, the largest transportation enterprise, the largest corporation in the world. With 30,000 miles of track, it had longer mileage than any other country in the world, except Britain and France, its budget was second only to the U. S. government. The corporation still holds the record for the longest continuous dividend history: it paid out annual dividends to shareholders for more than 100 consecutive years. In 1968, PRR merged with rival NYC to form the Penn Central Transportation Company, which filed for bankruptcy within two years.
The viable parts were transferred in 1976 to Conrail, itself broken up in 1999, with 58 percent of the system going to the Norfolk Southern Railway, including nearly all of the former PRR. Amtrak received the electrified segment of the Main Line east of Harrisburg. With the opening of the Erie Canal and the beginnings of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Philadelphia business interests became concerned that the port of Philadelphia would lose traffic; the state legislature was pressed to build a canal across Pennsylvania and thus the Main Line of Public Works was commissioned in 1826. It soon became evident that a single canal would not be practical and a series of railroads, inclined planes, canals was proposed; the route consisted of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, canals up the Susquehanna and Juniata rivers, an inclined plane railroad and tunnel across the Allegheny Mountains, canals down the Conemaugh and Allegheny rivers to Pittsburgh on the Ohio River. Because freight and passengers had to change cars several times along the route and canals froze in winter, it soon became apparent that the system was cumbersome and a better way was needed.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania granted a charter to the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1846 to build a private rail line that would connect Harrisburg to Pittsburgh. The Directors chose John Edgar Thomson, an engineer from the Georgia Railroad, to survey and construct the line, he chose a route that followed the west bank of the Susquehanna River northward to the confluence with the Juniata River, following its banks until the foothills of the Allegheny Mountains were reached at a point that would become Altoona, Pennsylvania. To traverse the mountains, the line climbed a moderate grade for 10 miles until it reached a split of two mountain ravines which were cleverly crossed by building a fill and having the tracks ascend a 220-degree curve known as Horseshoe Curve that limited the grade to less than 2 percent; the crest of the mountain was penetrated by the 3,612-foot Gallitzin Tunnels and descended by a more moderate grade to Johnstown. At the end of its first year of operation, it paid a dividend, continued the dividend without interruption until 1946.
The western end of the line was built from Pittsburgh east along the banks of the Allegheny and Conemaugh rivers to Johnstown. PRR was granted trackage rights over the Philadelphia and Columbia and gained control of the three short lines connecting Lancaster and Harrisburg, instituting an all-rail link between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh by 1854. In 1857, the PRR purchased the Main Line of Public Works from the state of Pennsylvania, abandoned most of its canals and inclined planes; the line was double track from its inception, by the end of the century a third and fourth track were added. Over the next 50 years, PRR expanded by gaining control of other railroads by stock purchases and 999-year leases. Thomson was the entrepreneur who led the PRR from 1852 until his death in 1874, making it the largest business enterprise in the world and a world-class model for technological and managerial innovation, he served as PRR's first Chief Engineer and third President. Thomson's sober, technical and non-ideological personality had an important influence on the Pennsylvania Railroad, which in the mid-19th century was on the technical cutting edge of rail development, while nonetheless reflecting Thomson's personality in its conservatism and its steady growth while avoiding financial risks.
His Pennsylvania Railroad was in his day the largest railroad in the world, with 6,000 miles of track, was famous for steady financial dividends, high quality construction improving equipment, technological advances, innovation in management techniques for a large complex organization. In 1861 the PRR gained control of the Northern Central Railway, giving it access to Baltimore, Maryland, as well as points along the Susquehanna River via connections at Columbia, Pennsylvania or Harrisburg. On December 1, 1871, the PRR leased the United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company, which included the original Camden and Amboy Railroad from Camden, New Jersey to South Amboy, New Jersey, as well as a newer line from Philadelphia to Jersey City, New Je
Norfolk Southern Railway
The Norfolk Southern Railway is a Class I railroad in the United States. With headquarters in Norfolk, the company operates 19,420 miles route miles in 22 eastern states, the District of Columbia, has rights in Canada over the Albany to Montréal route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, on CN from Buffalo to St. Thomas. NS is responsible for maintaining 28,400 miles, with the remainder being operated under trackage rights from other parties responsible for maintenance; the most common commodity hauled on the railway is coal from mines in Indiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and West Virginia. The railway offers the largest intermodal network in eastern North America. NS is a major transporter of export coal; the railway's major sources of the mineral are located in: Pennsylvania's Cambria and Indiana counties, as well as the Monongahela Valley. In Pennsylvania, NS receives coal through interchange with R. J. Corman Railroad/Pennsylvania Lines at Cresson, originating in the "Clearfield Cluster". NS's export of West Virginia bituminous coal begins transport on portions of the well-engineered former Virginian Railway and the former N&W double-tracked line in Eastern Virginia to its Lambert's Point coal pier on Hampton Roads at Norfolk.
Coal transported by NS is thus exported to steel mills and power plants around the world. The company is a major transporter of auto parts and completed vehicles, it operates some in conjunction with other railways. NS was the first railway to employ roadrailers which are highway truck trailers with interchangeable wheel sets; the Norfolk Southern Railway's parent Norfolk Southern Corporation is based in Virginia. Norfolk Southern Corporation was incorporated on July 23, 1980 in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol NSC; the primary business function of Norfolk Southern Corporation is the rail transportation of raw materials, intermediate products, finished goods across the Southeast and Midwest United States. The corporation further facilitates transport to the remainder of the United States through interchange with other rail carriers while serving overseas transport needs by serving several Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports; as of April 10, 2019, Norfolk Southern Corporation's total public stock value was over $51.6 billion.
On December 12, 2018, Norfolk Southern announced that it would be relocating its headquarters to Atlanta, leaving its hometown of Norfolk, Virginia after 38 years. The move is expected to be completed by the year 2021; the system began in 1982 with the creation of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, a holding company for the Southern Railway and Norfolk & Western Railway. The new company was given the name of the Norfolk Southern Railway, an older line acquired by SOU in 1974, that served North Carolina and the southeastern tip of Virginia. Headquarters for the new NS were established in Virginia; the company suffered a slight embarrassment when the marble headpiece at the building's entrance was unveiled, which read "Norfork Southern Railway". A new headpiece replaced the erroneous one several weeks later. NS aimed to compete in the eastern United States with CSX Transportation, formed after the Interstate Commerce Commission's 1980 approval of the merger of the Chessie System and the Seaboard System.
Norfolk Southern's predecessor railroads date to the early 19th century. The SR's earliest predecessor line was Rail Road. Chartered in 1827, the South Carolina Canal & Rail Road Company became the first to offer scheduled passenger train service with the inaugural run of the Best Friend of Charleston in 1830. Another early predecessor, the Richmond & Danville Railroad, was formed in 1847 and expanded into a large system after the American Civil War under Algernon S. Buford; the R&D fell on hard times and in 1894, it became a major portion of the new Southern Railway. Financier J. P. Morgan selected veteran railroader Samuel Spencer as president. Profitable and innovative, Southern became, in 1953, the first major U. S. railroad to switch to diesel-electric locomotives from steam. The City Point Railroad, established in 1838, was a 9-mile railroad in Virginia that started south of Richmond — City Point on the navigable portion of the James River, now part of the independent city of Hopewell — and ran to Petersburg.
It was acquired by the South Side Railroad in 1854. After the Civil War, it became part of the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, a trunk line across Virginia's southern tier formed by mergers in 1870 by William Mahone, who had built the Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad in the 1850s; the AM&O was the oldest portion of the Norfolk & Western when it was formed in 1881, under new owners with a keen interest and financial investments in the coal fields of Western Virginia and West Virginia, a product which came to define and enrich the railroad. In the second half of the 20th century, the N&W acquired the Virginian Railway, the Wabash Railway, the Nickel Plate Road, among others. In 1982, the two systems formed the Norfolk Southern Railway; the system grew with the acquisition of over half of Conrail. In 1996, CSX bid to buy Conrail. S. responded with a bid of its own. On June 23, 1997, NS and CSX filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchas
ALCO HH series
The ALCO HH series were an early series of switcher diesel-electric locomotives built by the American Locomotive Company of Schenectady, New York between 1931 and 1940, when they were replaced by the S series. They were ALCO's first diesel switchers to enter true series production, among the first land vehicles anywhere to use the revolutionary diesel-electric power transmission; the "HH" name stood for "High Hood", a name ALCO came to use in an official context, but an unofficial name. Model designations such as HH600 are only semi-official. Original ALCO designations were either descriptive or based on the internal order/design number. A total of 177 of the HH series were produced; the first HH series locomotive, ALCO demonstrator #600 was mechanically identical to the others, but the appearance differed. The sides of the locomotive's hood sloped outward from top to bottom, brake equipment was exposed beneath the cab. After a period of demonstration on a number of railroads, the unit was sold to the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad who numbered it as 0900, this number being used to describe the locomotive, although the classification on the builder's data card was "404-OE-200".
It rode on a unique pattern of trucks. This first unit was built in July 1931; the locomotive was equipped with a four-stroke McIntosh & Seymour 531 straight-6 diesel engine, powering a General Electric GT551A1 main generator. Four nose-suspended GE-287-D traction motors in the trucks were geared at a ratio of 4.25:1 to the wheels. The HH600 was nearly identical to the previous #0900 of the New Haven internally and mechanically, but it was clad in new bodywork, with a straight-sided hood and cab sides that came all the way to the frame; the HH600 was powered by a 6-cylinder McIntosh & Seymour 531 engine of 600 hp, was built from July 1932 through May 1939. The first-built units had sharp-edged front hood corners, but in 1934 ALCO employed industrial designer Otto Kuhler to clean up the appearance. Late versions of this locomotive used the 6-cylinder 538 engine; the HH900 was a 900 hp version of the HH series using a turbocharged version of the McIntosh & Seymour 531 engine. Both turbocharged models needed a greater cooling capacity, this was reflected in the larger bodyside radiator space of both models, which distinguishes them from the lower-powered HH600 and HH660.
The 21 HH900 units were produced between March 1937 and January 1939, after which it was replaced by the McIntosh & Seymour 538T-engined HH1000. Several HH900s were built with the 538T engine; the HH660 started production in ALCO's lineup in October 1938. It used a aspirated version of the 6-cylinder McIntosh and Seymour 538 engine, producing 660 hp. Externally, HH660s are indistinguishable from late HH600s; the HH1000 replaced the HH900, replacing the 531 engine with the new McIntosh and Seymour 538T engine, turbocharged to produce 1000 hp, a 100 hp increase on the previous model. It was produced during May 1939 and December 1940. M&STL D539 was the only HH1000 built with the 531T engine. A few HH series switchers still survive in revenue service, more are in museums. Working HH locomotives include an HH660 at Gopher Scrap in Mankato, two more owned by RELCO, one owned by Behr Iron and Steel of Portage, Indiana. Preserved locomotives include an HH600, four HH660s, an HH900 and an HH1000. Birmingham Southern #82, the solve surviving ALCO HH900, is on static display at the Heart of Dixie Railroad Museum in Calera, Alabama.
List of ALCO diesel locomotives Pinkepank, Jerry A.. The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide. Kalmbach Publishing Co. Milwaukee, WI. ISBN 0-89024-026-4. Sweetland, David. Santa Fe's Alco Switcher Fleet. Diesel Era Vol. 15 No. 6, November/December 2004, pp. 10–31. Withers Publishing, Pennsylvania. Laundry, Mark. Alco High Hood Models. Retrieved March 29, 2005. Komaneski, John. ALCO HH600 Roster. Retrieved March 27, 2005. States information from Extra 2200 South. Komaneski, John. ALCO HH660 Roster. Retrieved March 27, 2005. States information from Extra 2200 South. Komaneski, John. ALCO HH900 and HH1000 Roster. Retrieved March 27, 2005. States information from Extra 2200 South. Data sheets: HH-600, HH-660 Steinbrenner, Richard The American Locomotive Company A Centennial Remembrance. Chapter VI subchapter "ALCO's First Production Diesels"
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion. A diesel–electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator, creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. No clutch is required. Before diesel engines came into widespread use, a similar system, using a petrol engine and called petrol–electric or gas–electric, was sometimes used. Diesel–electric transmission is used on railways by diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units, as electric motors are able to supply full torque at 0 RPM. Diesel–electric systems are used in submarines and surface ships and some land vehicles. In some high-efficiency applications, electrical energy may be stored in rechargeable batteries, in which case these vehicles can be considered as a class of hybrid electric vehicle; the first diesel motorship was the first diesel–electric ship, the Russian tanker Vandal from Branobel, launched in 1903.
Steam turbine–electric propulsion has been in use since the 1920s, using diesel–electric powerplants in surface ships has increased lately. The Finnish coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen laid down in 1928–1929, were among the first surface ships to use diesel–electric transmission; the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers. In World War II the United States built diesel–electric surface warships. Due to machinery shortages destroyer escorts of the Evarts and Cannon classes were diesel–electric, with half their designed horsepower; the Wind-class icebreakers, on the other hand, were designed for diesel–electric propulsion because of its flexibility and resistance to damage. Some modern diesel–electric ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360° rotation, making the ships far more maneuverable. An example of this is Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship as of 2019. Gas turbines are used for electrical power generation and some ships use a combination: Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted near the main funnel.
This provides a simple way to use the high-speed, low-torque output of a turbine to drive a low-speed propeller, without the need for excessive reduction gearing. Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller, switching between diesel engines for surface running and electric motors for submerged propulsion; this was a "parallel" type of hybrid, since the motor and engine were coupled to the same shaft. On the surface, the motor was used as a generator to recharge the batteries and supply other electric loads; the engine would be disconnected for submerged operation, with batteries powering the electric motor and supplying all other power as well. True diesel–electric transmissions for submarines were first proposed by the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering in 1928—instead of driving the propeller directly while running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would instead drive a generator that could either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor.
This meant that motor speed was independent of the diesel engine's speed, the diesel could run at an optimum and non-critical speed, while one or more of the diesel engines could be shut down for maintenance while the submarine continued to run using battery power. The concept was pioneered in 1929 in the S-class submarines S-3, S-6, S-7 to test the concept; the first production submarines with this system were the Porpoise-class, it was used on most subsequent US diesel submarines through the 1960s. The only other navy to adopt the system before 1945 was the British Royal Navy in the U-class submarines, although some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy used separate diesel generators for low-speed running. In a diesel–electric transmission arrangement, as used on 1930s and US Navy, German and other nations' diesel submarines, the propellers are driven directly or through reduction gears by an electric motor, while two or more diesel generators provide electric energy for charging the batteries and driving the electric motors.
This mechanically isolates the noisy engine compartment from the outer pressure hull and reduces the acoustic signature of the submarine when surfaced. Some nuclear submarines use a similar turbo-electric propulsion system, with propulsion turbo generators driven by reactor plant steam. During World War I, there was a strategic need for rail engines without plumes of smoke above them. Diesel technology was not yet sufficiently developed but a few precursor attempts were made for petrol–electric transmissions by the French and British. About 300 of these locomotives, only 96 being standard gauge, were in use at various points in the conflict. Before the war, the GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab had been produced in the USA. In the 1920s, diesel–electric technology first saw limited use in switchers, locomotives used for moving trains around in railroad yards and assembling and disassembling them. An early company offering "Oil-Electric" locomotives was the American Locomotive Company; the ALCO HH series of diesel–electric switcher entered series production in 1931.
In the 1930s, the system was adapted for the fastest trains of their day. Diesel–electric powerplants became popular
American Locomotive Company
The American Locomotive Company shortened to ALCO, ALCo or Alco, designed and sold steam locomotives, diesel-electric locomotives, diesel engines and generators, specialized forgings, high quality steel, armed tanks and automobiles and produced nuclear energy. The American Locomotive Company was formed in 1901 by the merger of Schenectady Locomotive Engine Manufactory of Schenectady, New York, with seven smaller locomotive manufacturers; the American Locomotive Automobile Company subsidiary designed and manufactured automobiles under the Alco brand from 1905 to 1913 and produced nuclear energy from 1954 to 1962. The company changed its name to Alco Products, Incorporated in 1955. In 1964 the Worthington Corporation acquired the company; the company went out of business in 1969. The company was created in 1901 from the merger of seven smaller locomotive manufacturers with Schenectady Locomotive Engine Manufactory of Schenectady, New York: Brooks Locomotive Works in Dunkirk, New York Cooke Locomotive and Machine Works in Paterson, New Jersey Dickson Manufacturing Company in Scranton, Pennsylvania Manchester Locomotive Works in Manchester, New Hampshire Pittsburgh Locomotive and Car Works in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Rhode Island Locomotive Works in Providence, Rhode Island Richmond Locomotive Works in Richmond, VirginiaThe newly formed company was headquartered in Schenectady, New York.
Samuel R. Callaway left the presidency of the New York Central Railroad to become president of Alco; when Callaway died on June 1, 1904, Albert J. Pitkin succeeded him as president of Alco. In 1904, the American Locomotive Company acquired control of the Locomotive and Machine Company of Montreal, Canada. In 1905, Alco purchased Rogers Locomotive Works of Paterson, New Jersey, the second largest locomotive manufacturer in the United States behind Baldwin Locomotive Works. In the post World War II period, Alco operated manufacturing plants only in Schenectady and Montreal, having closed all the others. After the American Locomotive Company ceased locomotive manufacturing in the United States in 1969, Montreal Locomotive Works continued to manufacture locomotives based on Alco designs. Alco was the second-largest steam locomotive builder in the United States, producing over 75,000 locomotives. Among these were a large number of well-known locomotives. Railroads that favored Alco products included the Delaware & Hudson Railway, the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, the New York Central Railroad, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Milwaukee Road.
Alco was known for its steam locomotives of which the 4-6-4 Hudson, 4-8-2 Mohawk and the 4-8-4 Niagara built for the New York Central and the 4-8-4 FEF and the 4-6-6-4 built for the Union Pacific were fine examples. Alco built many of the biggest locomotives constructed, including Union Pacific's Big Boy. Alco built the fastest American locomotives, the Class A Atlantic and Class F7 Hudson streamliners for the Milwaukee Road's Twin Cities Hiawatha run. Among the ambitious state-of-the-art designs of the late steam era, Alco's Challengers, Big Boys and high speed streamliners stood out for their in-service success. Other than the Delaware & Hudson's application of SKF roller bearings to the drivers and side rods of their own 4-6-2 locomotives in 1924, Alco built the first production steam locomotive in North America to use roller bearings: Timken 1111, a 4-8-4 commissioned in 1930 by Timken Roller Bearing Company was used for 100,000 miles on fifteen major United States railroads before it was purchased in 1933 by the Northern Pacific Railway.
During World War II, Alco produced many 2-10-0 Decapods for the USSR. Many of these were undelivered at the end of the war, ten of these were sold to Finland in 1947. One, Alco builder's No. 75214, is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum. Though the dual-service 4-8-4 steam locomotive had shown great promise, 1948 was the last year that steam locomotives were manufactured in Schenectady; these were the seven A-2a class 9400-series Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad 2-8-4 "Berkshires." Their tenders had to be subcontracted to Lima Locomotive Works, as Alco's tender shop had been closed. The building was converted to diesel locomotive manufacture, to compete with locomotives manufactured by the automobile industry. Joseph Burroughs Ennis was a senior vice president between 1917 and 1947 and was responsible for the design of many of the locomotives manufactured; the company diversified into the automobile business in 1906, producing French Berliet designs under license. Production was located at Alco's Rhode Island Locomotive Works in Rhode Island.
Two years the Berliet license was abandoned, the company began to produce its own designs instead. An Alco racing car won the Vanderbilt Cup in both 1909 and 1910 and competed in the first Indianapolis 500 in 1911, driven on all three occasions by Harry Grant. But, ALCO's automotive venture was unprofitable, they abandoned automobile manufacture in 1913; the Alco automobile story is notable chiefly as a step in the automotive career of Walter P. Chrysler, who worked as the plant manager. In 1911 he left Alco for Buick in Detroit, where he subsequently founded the Chrysler Corporation in 1925. For a list of Alco diesel locomotive models, see List of ALCO diesel locomotives. Although committed to the steam locomotive, ALCo produced the first
Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional
Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional is the second major steel-maker company in Brazil. Its main plant is located in the cities of Volta Redonda and Barra Mansa, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, its current CEO is Benjamin Steinbruch. Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional is the largest integrated steel producer in Brazil and one of the largest in South America in terms of crude steel production, its annual crude steel capacity and rolled product capacity are 5.6 million and 5.1 million tons, respectively. It produces a broad line of steel products, including slabs, hot- and cold-rolled and tin mill products, its products are used by the distribution, automotive, home appliance and construction industries. CSN accounted for 49% of the galvanized steel products sold in Brazil. In 2004, it accounted for 98% of the tin mill products sold in Brazil, it is one of the world's leading producers of tin mill products. CSN owns its own source of iron ore. Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional was created as a state-owned company on April 9, 1941, during the "Estado Novo era", during the term of Brazilian president, Getúlio Vargas, after an agreement between the American and the Brazilian governments for the construction of a facility that would provide steel for the Allies during the Second World War and be an aid for Brazil's development.
It began its operations under Eurico Gaspar Dutra's presidency. CSN was a Brazilian corporation incorporated in 1941 pursuant to a decree of Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas; the Presidente Vargas Steelworks, located at Volta Redonda, in Rio de Janeiro State, started production in 1946. It produced coke, pig iron castings and long products. Two major expansions were undertaken at the Presidente Vargas Steelworks during the 1970s; the first, completed in 1974, increased installed annual production capacity to 1.6 million tons of crude steel. The second, completed in 1977, raised capacity to 2.4 million tons of crude steel. CSN underwent another expansion in 1989; the company was privatized through a series of auctions held in 1993 and early 1994, through which the Brazilian government sold its 91% interest in the company. In 1993, CSN adopted a capital improvement program, revised and extended in 1995; the goals were: an increase in annual production of crude steel. Since February 1996, all production has been based on the continuous casting process, rather than ingot casting, an alternative method that results in higher energy use and metal loss.
From 1996 through 2002, CSN spent the equivalent of US$2.4 billion under the capital improvement program and for operational capacity maintenance, culminating with the revamping in 2001 of Blast Furnace #3 and Hot Strip Mill #2 at the Presidente Vargas Steelworks increasing annual production capacity to 5.6 million tons of crude steel and 5.1 million tons of rolled products, from 5.0 million tons in each case. In 2005 reinforced its position as the largest iron-mining operation in the country, through a controlling stake in Companhia Vale do Rio Doce. In January 2004, the CSN board announced the approval of investments up to US$820 million to be made through 2007, including: expansion of production at the Casa de Pedra iron ore mine from 15.5 to 40 million tons. The company explored opportunities for acquisitions or mergers abroad in order to expand output, proposed to build a new steel plant which would have doubled current annual production of 5.8 million tons of raw steel, at an estimated investment cost of US$2.6 billion.
Seeking to maintain focus on its program of acquisitions and growth, CSN set aside $520 million for investments in 2005. In 1993 the company was privatized by Itamar Franco's government, during the National Program for Privatization led by the federal government, started by Fernando Collor and continued by Franco, its main factories were located in Volta Redonda, at the Vale do Paraíba region, southern Rio de Janeiro state, its iron mines at Congonhas and Arcos, both of them cities in the Minas Gerais state, the coal mines at Siderópolis, Santa Catarina state. During 50 years of state control, the Brazilian flat steel sector was coordinated on a national basis under the auspices of Siderbrás, the national steel monopoly; the state had far less involvement in the non-flat steel sector, which has traditionally been made up of smaller private sector companies. The larger integrated flat steel producers operated as semiautonomous companies under the control of Siderbrás and were individually privatized during 1991 to 1993.
Main article Corus § TakeoverIn 2006 CSN made a rival bid to acquire the Anglo-Dutch steel firm Corus, following an announcement the acquisition of Corus by Tata Steel of India for $8.1 billion. Competitive bidding between the two companies raised the final price to £6.08 per share in 2007, with Tata outbidding CSN. CSN and Corus had earlier been partners in a Portuguese venture until early this year, when Corus sold its stake to CSN. CSN operates as an integrated steel producer in Brazil, it produces a line of steel products, including slabs, which are semi-finished products used for processing hot-rolled, cold-rolled, or coated coils and sheet products.