AM General

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AM General LLC
IndustryVehicles, automotive, military
PredecessorKaiser Jeep
Founded1970; 49 years ago (1970)
Area served
Key people
R. Andrew Hove (CEO and President)[1]
ProductsHMMWV/Hummer H2, M35, and 5-ton trucks, Humvee C-Series, Mercedes-Benz R-Class (former)
ParentMacAndrews & Forbes
Renco Group
SubsidiariesGeneral Engine Products
General Transmission Products

AM General is an American heavy vehicle and contract automotive manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. It is best known for the civilian Hummer and the military Humvee that are assembled in Mishawaka, Indiana.[2] For a relatively brief period, 1974–1979, the company also manufactured transit buses, making more than 5,400.[3]

Corporate history[edit]

AM General traces its roots to the Standard Wheel Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, which expanded in 1903 to include the Overland Automotive Division.[4] In 1908, John North Willys purchased the Overland company, then based in Indianapolis, Indiana, and renamed it Willys-Overland Motors, Inc. In the 1940s, Willys-Overland developed a vehicle to U.S. Army's requirements and later mass-produced "America's first four-wheel drive one-fourth-ton tactical utility truck"—the Jeep of World War II fame.[4] In 1953, Kaiser Motors purchased Willys-Overland, and changed the name to Kaiser-Willys Motor Company. In 1963 the company's name changed again to Kaiser-Jeep Corporation. In 1970 Kaiser-Jeep was purchased by American Motors Corporation after which AMC set up AM General for AMC's military vehicle production.

Defense and Government Products Division[edit]

In 1964, Kaiser-Jeep purchased the Studebaker facilities in South Bend, Indiana, which included Studebaker's "General Products Division", along with its substantial defense contracts.

At the time, Kaiser had been awarded a US$87 million Army truck contract, and under government pressure agreed to perform the work at the South Bend plant it had recently acquired from Studebaker.

American Motors[edit]

American Motors Corporation (AMC) purchased the Jeep Corporation from Kaiser in 1970 when Kaiser decided to leave the auto business.[5]

In 1971, AMC made the General Products Division of Jeep (producing military trucks, as well as contract and non-commercial vehicles) a wholly owned subsidiary and renamed it AM General Corporation.[6]

American Motors ended its history as an independent automaker in 1982 when controlling interest in the company was purchased by France's Renault.[7]

U.S. government regulations at that time forbade ownership of defense contractors by foreign governments, and Renault was partially owned by the French government.[8]

LTV Corporation[edit]

In 1983, the LTV Corporation bought AM General from American Motors Corporation and established it as a wholly owned subsidiary of the LTV Aerospace and Defense Company.

In 1984, the AM General headquarters moved from the American Motors AMTEK Building in Detroit, Michigan, to Livonia, Michigan, and two years later to South Bend, Indiana, where the primary manufacturing operations were located.

Renco Group[edit]

In 1992, LTV sold AM General to The Renco Group, Inc., who in 2002 converted it to a limited liability company.

Hummer brand[edit]

In 1992 AM General began marketing the HUMVEE to the civilian market under the Hummer brand.

In 1999 they sold the rights to the Hummer brand to General Motors.

It continued production of the original civilian Hummer (marketed by GM as the H1) until June 2006 when it ceased production.[9]

AM General built a separate factory to build a new Hummer H2, designed by and marketed by General Motors; the vehicle went on the market in 2002, and was produced under contract to GM until January 2009. AM General did not build the Hummer H3, and the firm was not part of General Motors Corporation.

GM was sued early in 2003 by DaimlerChrysler, owners of the Jeep brand, for the Hummer's seven slot grille which resembled the design DaimlerChrysler argued consumers associated with Jeep vehicles;[10] the lawsuit was dismissed due to the past corporate history involving AMC and Jeep.[citation needed]

2004 - Present[edit]

On August 20, 2004, it was announced that Ronald Perelman's MacAndrews & Forbes company would form a joint venture with AM General's current owner, Renco Group, to give Perelman 70% ownership of AM General; the deal reportedly cost close to US$1 billion[11]

In 2008, AM General and the Vehicle Production Group (VPG), of Troy, Michigan, announced that contracts had been signed for AM General to begin producing purpose-built taxi-cabs, beginning in 2009.[12] Actual production began in October 2011; the first vehicle off the line was presented to Marc Buoniconti, a former linebacker for The Citadel who was injured playing football in 1985.[13]

In May 2010, Azure Dynamics Corp. announced it had chosen AM General to assemble its electric drivetrain into Ford Transit Connect vehicles for the North American market.[14] This product is being produced at AM General's facility in Livonia, Michigan.

September 2013, AM General reached an agreement to purchase the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) secured loan to the Vehicle Production Group (VPG). Prior to this, AM General acted as sole vehicle assembler for VPG; as a result of this transaction, AM General created a wholly owned company, Mobility Ventures LLC, to operate the Mobility Vehicle-1 (MV-1) business and receive all VPG assets.[15]

In 2015, production of Mercedes-Benz R-Class began at the Mishawaka assembly plant.[16] Without this deal, "the German automaker would likely have had to shut down production of the vehicle, currently only sold in China."[17] Production ended in October 2017.[citation needed]

Jeep Dispatcher 100[edit]

1975 AM General RHD postal delivery van

Another familiar product from the AM General line was the Jeep DJ-5 series—a purpose built "Dispatch Jeep" 2-wheel drive (RWD) version of the Jeep CJ-5—used in huge numbers as a right-hand drive mail delivery vehicle by the United States Postal Service.


A 1976 AM General bus of Tri-Met, in Portland, Oregon, showing AM General logo on front

The AM General Metropolitan buses were manufactured for city transit use from 1974 until 1979, producing a total of 5,431 buses (including 219 electric trolley buses);[3][3] the Metropolitan was built under a 1971 agreement with Flyer Industries, of Winnipeg, Canada; AM General licensed the rights to build and market the Western Flyer D700 for the United States market. The D700 itself was similar in design to the contemporaneous GM New Look buses.[18] However, before starting production, AMG redesigned the front end of the Flyer D700, and thus the resulting Metropolitan was not simply a Flyer design built under license but rather a jointly designed vehicle. Flyer later adopted the design changes for its own production (as the models D800 and E800).[3] Buses were built in lengths of either 35 ft (10.7 m) or 40 ft (12.2 m), and widths of 96 in (2,438 mm) or 102 in (2,591 mm).[18] The model numbers reflected the chosen dimensions; for example, model "10240" indicated a 102-inch-wide, 40-foot-long bus. Suffixes "A" or "B" were used for later models, to indicate certain options. In total, 3,571 40-foot diesel buses and 1,641 35-foot diesel buses were produced.[3]

Articulated buses[edit]

A MAN articulated bus in Seattle that was completed by AM General

In 1977–1979, AM General also worked under a partnership with MAN of Germany to build SG 220 articulated buses for U.S. transit systems. MAN fabricated the bodyshells in Germany and shipped them to the US, where AM General completed the buses and was the primary contractor with the buyers.[19] Two different lengths were offered, 55 ft (16.8 m) and 60 ft (18.3 m); 93 buses were built to the shorter length, and all others were 60 feet long. By October 1978,[19] the company had decided to discontinue its bus production, and the last MAN articulated bus completed by AM General was finished in March 1979;[3] the total number built was just under 400 (392[19] or 399[3]), the largest group by far being 150 for Seattle's Metro Transit.[3] MAN subsequently set up its own factory for U.S. production of its articulated buses, in the small town of Cleveland, North Carolina.[3]


Production of complete motor buses (and of any two-axle motor buses) had ended in 1978, and aside from the fitting-out of the last articulated MAN shells, the only production in 1979 was that of two batches of trolleybuses (and the only such vehicles ever built by the company);[20] these were all 40-foot (12.2 m) vehicles, model 10240T: 110 trackless trolleys for the Philadelphia trolleybus system, operated by SEPTA, and 109 for the Seattle trolleybus system, operated by Metro Transit (now King County Metro). One of the latter has been preserved (following its retirement in 2003) by King County Metro (see King County Metro fleet).

Development and production of the HMMWV[edit]

AM General HMMWV in Iraq

In 1979, AM General began preliminary design work on the M998 Series High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, pronounced Humvee); a 1.25-ton truck intended to replace the M151 and other Light Utility Vehicles. The U.S. Army awarded AM General a prototype contract in 1981 and the development and operational testing was conducted over a five-month period in 1982. In March 1983, AM General won an initial $1.2 billion contract to produce 55,000 Humvees to be delivered in five basic models and 15 different configurations over a five-year period.

Production began at the Mishawaka, Indiana, assembly plant in the fall of 1984 and the first deliveries were made in early 1985; the total production by mid-1991 was more than 72,000 vehicles including international sales.

By March 1995 about 100,000 HMMWVs had been built. Since 1991, an additional 20,000 HMMWVs were ordered by governments.

Late in 2000, AM General was awarded another production contract for 2,962 trucks in the M998A2 series; the contract contained six single-year options running to fiscal year 2007. This contract was extended. To date, nearly 250,000 units have been produced.

Humvees feature full-time four-wheel drive, independent suspension, steep approach and departure angles, 60-percent gradeability and 16 inches (406 mm) of ground clearance. Most recent production models included the M1151, M1152, M1165, and M1167; as of 2015, Humvees are in use by the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Navy; the combined fleet is about 140,000 Humvees.[21] More than 50 friendly foreign nations also have Humvees.

The Humvee's replacement, a completely new Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) design, will be produced by Oshkosh Corporation with the first deliveries to the U.S. Army expected in 2016.[21] AM General competed in the program but lost in the final selection, leading to fears that the company may be sold off having lost the opportunity to produce its signature product's replacement for an up to $30 billion program through 2040. Although they were still making foreign Humvee sales, that may not last long after the JLTV enters production and it seems second-best on the market; there is speculation that larger defense companies like General Dynamics and BAE Systems may be interested in acquiring AM General. Even so, they are likely to have business for years sustaining and upgrading Humvees since the U.S. Humvee fleet will still be triple the number of JLTVs, and even announced the award of a contract to supply the Army with Humvee ambulances within an hour of saying they would not protest the JLTV decision.[22]

Other military vehicles[edit]

Prior to the development of newer vehicles, such as the HMMWV, AM General also acquired contracts from the Department of Defense to build medium and heavy trucks for the armed forces; these included the M151 series of trucks[23] M35 series of trucks and heavier 5-ton series of trucks.

In 2005, AM General was contracted to take over militarization, sales, and marketing of LSSV vehicles.[24]


  1. ^ "R. Andrew Hove - AM General". AM General. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Track Record - AM General". AM General. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Stauss, Ed (1988). The Bus World Encyclopedia of Buses. Stauss Publications. pp. 20–22, 116–117. ISBN 978-0-9619830-0-0.
  4. ^ a b "Company History". AM General. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  5. ^ Statham, Steve (2002). Jeep Color History. MotorBooks International. pp. 97–100. ISBN 978-0-7603-0636-9. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  6. ^ Hyde, Charles K. (2009). Storied Independent Automakers: Nash, Hudson, and American Motors. Wayne State University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-8143-3446-1.
  7. ^ Foster, Patrick (2002). "Biography: Roy Chapin, Jr". Automobile Quarterly. 42 (3): 109.
  8. ^ Olsen, Byron; Cabadas, Joseph P.; Cabadas, Joseph (2002). The American Auto Factory. MotorBooks International. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-7603-1059-5. Retrieved 21 September 2010. The Pentagon didn't want a French-controlled company making American military equipment
  9. ^ "GM: End of Production Line for Hummer H1". Fox News. Associated Press. 12 May 2006. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  10. ^ "DaimlerChrysler Files Suit to Block Copycat Jeep Grille". 21 February 2001. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  11. ^ Sorkin, Andrew Ross; Hakim, Danny (10 August 2004). "Perelman Seeks Controlling Stake in Maker of Hummer". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  12. ^ "VPG Partners with AM General to Build the Standard Taxi!". Vehicle Production Group. Archived from the original on August 15, 2008. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  13. ^ Ewing, Steven J. (6 October 2011). "2011 VPG Autos MV-1". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  14. ^ Snavely, Brent (28 May 2010). "AM General to assemble electric Transit Connect". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  15. ^ "AM General Announces Agreement Leading To Ownership And Control Of The Vehicle Production Group" (Press release). AM General. 5 September 2013. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  16. ^ Gardner, Greg (27 January 2015). "Mercedes-Benz moves R-Class output to AM General". USAToday. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  17. ^ Naughton, Nora (11 August 2015). "Mercedes R class production launched at AM General". Automotive News. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  18. ^ a b Brophy, Jim (March 12, 2016). "Bus Stop Classic: Flxible and AM General New Look Buses – Playing Second Fiddle to GM". Curbside Classic. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  19. ^ a b c "AM General Corporation (history of)". Motor Coach Age: 3–18. February 1985. ISSN 0739-117X.
  20. ^ Murray, Alan (2000). World Trolleybus Encyclopaedia. Trolleybooks. ISBN 978-0-904235-18-0.
  21. ^ a b Shalal, Andrea (2015-08-25). "UPDATE 3-Oshkosh Corp wins U.S. Army award for Humvee replacement". Reuters. Retrieved 2015-08-25.
  22. ^ Joint Light Tactical Vehicle Award Shakes Up Industry Archived 2017-02-09 at the Wayback Machine -, October 2015
  23. ^ M151 Truck, Utility, l/4-Ton, 4×4
  24. ^ "Light Service Support Vehicle (LSSV)". Olive-Drab. Retrieved 17 May 2015.

External links[edit]