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Attached Resource Computer NETwork is a communications protocol for local area networks. ARCNET was the first available networking system for microcomputers, it was applied to embedded systems where certain features of the protocol are useful. ARCNET was developed by principal development engineer John Murphy at Datapoint Corporation in 1976 under Victor Poor, announced in 1977, it was developed to connect groups of their Datapoint 2200 terminals to talk to a shared 8" floppy disk system. It was the first loosely coupled LAN-based clustering solution, making no assumptions about the type of computers that would be connected; this was in contrast to contemporary larger and more expensive computer systems such as DECnet or SNA, where a homogeneous group of similar or proprietary computers were connected as a cluster. The token-passing bus protocol of that I/O device-sharing network was subsequently applied to allowing processing nodes to communicate with each other for file-serving and computing scalability purposes.

An application could be developed in DATABUS, Datapoint's proprietary COBOL-like language and deployed on a single computer with dumb terminals. When the number of users outgrew the capacity of the original computer, additional'compute' resource computers could be attached via ARCNET, running the same applications and accessing the same data. If more storage was needed, additional disk resource computers could be attached; this incremental approach broke new ground and by the end of the 1970s over ten thousand ARCNET LAN installations were in commercial use around the world, Datapoint had become a Fortune 500 company. As microcomputers took over the industry, well-proven and reliable ARCNET was offered as an inexpensive LAN for these machines. ARCNET remained proprietary until the early-to-mid 1980s; this did not cause concern at the time. The move to non-proprietary, open systems began as a response to the dominance of International Business Machines and its Systems Network Architecture. In 1979, the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model was published.

In 1980, Digital and Xerox published an open standard for Ethernet, soon adopted as the basis of standardization by the IEEE and the ISO. IBM responded by proposing Token ring as an alternative to Ethernet but kept such tight control over standardization that competitors were wary of using it. ARCNET was less expensive than either, more reliable, more flexible, by the late 1980s it had a market share about equal to that of Ethernet. Tandy/Radio Shack offered ARCNET as an application and file sharing medium for their TRS-80 Model II, Model 12, Model 16, Tandy 6000, Tandy 2000, Tandy 1000 and Tandy 1200 computer models. There were hooks in the Model 4P's ROM to boot from an ARCNET network; when Ethernet moved from co-axial cable to twisted pair and an "interconnected stars" cabling topology based on active hubs, it became much more attractive. Easier cabling, combined with the greater raw speed of Ethernet helped to increase Ethernet demand, as more companies entered the market the price of Ethernet started to fall—and ARCNET volumes tapered off.

In response to greater bandwidth needs, the challenge of Ethernet, a new standard called ARCnet Plus was developed by Datapoint, introduced in 1992. ARCnet Plus ran at 20 Mbit/s, was backward compatible with original ARCnet equipment. However, by the time ARCnet Plus products were ready for the market, Ethernet had captured the majority of the network market, there was little incentive for users to move back to ARCnet; as a result few ARCnet Plus products were produced. Those that were built by Datapoint, were expensive, hard to find. ARCNET was standardized as ANSI ARCNET 878.1. It appears this was when the name changed from ARCnet to ARCNET. Other companies entered the market, notably Standard Microsystems who produced systems based on a single VLSI chip developed as custom LSI for Datapoint, but made available by Standard Microsystems to other customers. Datapoint found itself in financial trouble and moved into video conferencing and custom programming in the embedded market. Though ARCNET is now used for new general networks, the diminishing installed base still requires support - and it retains a niche in industrial control.

Original ARCNET used RG-62/U coaxial cable of 93 Ω impedance and either passive or active hubs in a star-wired bus topology. At the time of its greatest popularity, this was a significant advantage of ARCNET over Ethernet. A star-wired bus was much easier to build and expand than the clumsy linear bus Ethernet of the time; the "interconnected stars" cabling topology made it easy to add and remove nodes without taking down the whole network, much easier to diagnose and isolate failures within a complex LAN. Another significant advantage ARCNET had over Ethernet was cable distance. ARCNET coax cable runs could extend 610 m between active hubs or between an active hub and an end node, while the RG-58'thin' Ethernet most used at that time was limited to a maximum run of 185 m from end to end. ARCNET had the disadvantage of requiring either an active or passive hub between nodes if there were more than two nodes in the network, while thin Ethernet allowed nodes to be spaced anywhere along the linear coax cable.

However, ARCNET passive hubs were inexpensive, being composed of a simple

Judoka-Secret Agent

Judoka-Secret Agent is a 1966 French-Italian Eurospy film written and directed by Pierre Zimmer. It is based on the short story, it had a sequel in 1967, Casse-tête chinois pour le judoka, with a different cast except for Marilù Tolo returning in a different role. Jean-Claude Bercq as Marc Saint-Clair, aka The Judoka Marilù Tolo as Vanessa Perrette Pradier as Dominique Berg Patricia Viterbo as Catherine Demange Michael Lonsdale as Thomas Perkins Henri Garcin as Jacques Mercier Mick Besson as Oscar Meyer Fernand Berset as Commissioner Chaumont Yves Brainville as Paul Vincent Judoka-Secret Agent on IMDb


Binstead is a village on the Isle of Wight. It is located in the northeast of the Island, 1 1⁄2 miles west of Ryde on the main road A3054 between Ryde and Newport. In the 2011 Census Binstead had been incorporated within Ryde whilst still retaining its electoral ward and Fishbourne; the village has a Post Office/general store as its sole remaining store, until the end of February 2009 when it was removed, it had a phone box outside. There was a second shop located opposite the Post Office until sometime in the 2000s, it is now a residential dwelling. Binstead has two recreational fields, access to a public common and beach. Brickfields, a small horse riding centre, was located off Newnham Road to the South of Binstead, it closed for good in 2013. The local pub is "The Fleming Arms", located on Binstead Road. Southern Vectis bus route 9 serves the main road every 10 minutes in the daytime between Ryde and Newport. Route 4 links the town with local route 37 covers other areas linking to Ryde. Binstead is recorded in 1086 in the Domesday Book as Benestede.

It became known for the quality of its limestone which led to a local quarrying industry, the result of, still visible in the village’s landscape and place names. The nearby Quarr Abbey takes its name from ‘quarry’ and the suffix ‘pitts’ is found in house and road names; the quarries were known as pits. Though there are reports that it has been quarried as far back as the Roman occupation, the earliest recorded quarrying was by the first Norman Bishop of Winchester, granted half a hide of land by William the Conqueror, he used the stone to construct Winchester Cathedral starting in 1079. Subsequently, the stone was used in the building of Chichester Cathedral, Romsey Abbey and part of the Tower of London. During the Napoleonic War Daniel List, a local shipwright carried out shipbuilding at Binstead for the Royal Navy, comprising three 36-gun frigates - HMS Magicienne in 1812, HMS Tagus and HMS Tiber in 1813. By 1905 the parish had 1,206 acres of land. Binstead has two churches the Methodist Church, built in 1889, the Church of the Holy Cross, constructed around 1150.

The monastery Quarr Abbey is located nearby. Media related to Binstead at Wikimedia Commons

National Patriotic Front (Moldova)

The National Patriotic Front was a clandestine political party in the Moldovan SSR. Between 1969 and 1971, the National Patriotic Front of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was established by several young intellectuals in Chişinău, totalling over 100 members, vowing to fight for the establishment of a Moldavian Democratic Republic, its secession from the Soviet Union and union with Romania. Among the party's members were Alexandru Usatiuc-Bulgăr, Valeriu Graur, Alexandru Şoltoianu, Gheorghe Ghimpu, Nicolae Lupan, Tudor Basarabeanu, Nicolae Testemiţeanu, Valeriu Gagiu, Mihai Cimpoi, Mircea Druc, Anatol Corobceanu, Vasile Topală. In December 1971, following an informative note from Ion Stănescu, the President of the Council of State Security of the Romanian Socialist Republic, to Yuri Andropov, the chief of KGB, Alexandru Usatiuc-Bulgăr as well as Valeriu Graur, Alexandru Şoltoianu, Gheorghe Ghimpu were arrested and sentenced in 1972 to four to seven years in prison, followed by forced settlement.

Alexandru Şoltoianu was released only in 1988. Alexandru Usatiuc-Bulgăr was condemned to five years of forced residence. List of political parties in Moldova


Oloosson was a town and polis of Perrhaebia in ancient Thessaly near Elone and Gonnus, mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad by Homer, who gives to it the epithet of “white,” from its white argillaceous soil. In Procopius the name occurs in the corrupt form of Lossonus. Several Greek inscriptions have been found concerning the city of Oloosson. In a votive inscription from the first half of the fourth century BCE, dedicated to Apollo Pythius are the names of some people together with various demonyms from Perrhaebia. In another inscription dated in the 1st century BCE, election procedures of magistrates are mentioned. Ancient Oloosson was located at a site called Panayia in the modern town of Elassona; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Oloosson". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray


PCLinuxOS shortened to PCLOS, is an x86-64 Linux distribution, with KDE Plasma Desktop, MATE and XFCE as its default user interfaces. It is a free software operating system for personal computers aimed at ease of use, it is considered a rolling release. The precursor to PCLinuxOS was a set of RPM packages created to improve successive versions of Mandrake Linux; these packages were created by a packager better known as Texstar. From 2000 to 2003, Texstar maintained his repository of RPM packages in parallel with the PCLinuxOnline site. In an interview, Reynolds said he started PCLinuxOS "to provide an outlet for crazy desire to package source code without having to deal with egos and politics."In October 2003, Texstar created a fork of Mandrake Linux 9.2. Working with The Live CD Project, Texstar has since developed that fork independently into a full-fledged distribution; the initial releases were successively numbered as "previews": p5, p7, p8 up to p81a p9, p91, p92, p93. Although it retains a similar "look and feel" to Mandriva Linux, PCLinuxOS has diverged significantly.

The code was forked from Mandrake 9.2 into an independent project in 2003. After three years of continuous development, the developers took advantage of further development in Mandriva late in 2006 for PCLinuxOS 2007. In the releases before 2007, it was necessary to perform a re-installation. For 2007, PCLinuxOS used a one-time source code snapshot from Mandriva to produce a new independent code base; this implied a shift to a more modern code, which required a complete reinstallation to this version. The new version featured built-in 3D effects. A new logo was designed for the new version, was incorporated into the boot screen. A new login screen was designed, entitled "Dark"; the final/official PCLinuxOS 2007 version was released on May 21, 2007. The last version of the 2009 Live CD, PCLinuxOS 2009.2, was released on June 30, 2009. Improvements included bug fixes, new backgrounds and start-up screen, as well as quicker start-up times, it was the last PCLinuxOS live CD to ship with K Desktop Environment 3, the last of the PCLinuxOS 2007 backward compatible series.

Remasters of PCLinuxOS, featuring the Xfce, LXDE, Gnome desktops were made available. The 2010 version of the Live CD was released on April 19, 2010, it includes a new graphical theme and a new version of the Linux Kernel. It is the first PCLinuxOS Live CD to include the ext4 file system support; this version required a complete reinstall of the operating system. While a version of PCLinuxOS that features the GNOME desktop environment was introduced in 2008, the 2010 version is the first one to not only offer the KDE Plasma and GNOME versions, but versions with Xfce, LXDE, Openbox. Version 2010.1 was released on May 5, 2010. Changes made since last version: Kernel has been updated to version KDE Plasma Desktop has been upgraded to version 4.4.3. Support has been added for Realtek RTL8191SE/RTL8192SE WiFi cards and Microdia webcams. Vim console text editor and udftools has been added. Fixed CD-ROM ejection. Fixed KDE new widget download. Updated nVIDIA and ATi fglrx drivers. Updated all supporting applications and libraries from the software repository which include security updates and bug fixes.

PCLinuxOS 2011.6 version was released on June 27, 2011. PCLinuxOS 2012.02 version was released on February 22, 2012. Another maintenance release was made on August 22, 2012. Major changes compared to 2011 release are: Kernel has been updated to version 3.2 KDE version 4.8.2 nVIDIA and ATi fglrx driver support. PCLinuxOS 2013 64-bit first version was released on April 10, 2013, it featured: Kernel 3.2.18-pclos2.bfs for maximum desktop performance. Full KDE 4.10.1 Desktop. NVIDIA and ATi fglrx driver support. Multimedia playback support for many popular formats. Wireless support for many network devices. Printer support for many networked printer devices. Addlocale: allows you to translate PCLinuxOS into over 60 languages. LibreOffice preinstalled. LibreOffice Manager can install LibreOffice supporting over 100 languages. MyLiveCD allows you to take a snapshot of your installation and burn it to a LiveCD/DVD. PCLinuxOS-liveusb – allows you to install PCLinuxOS on a USB key disk; the new version was released on July 7, 2014.

Features: kernel 3.15.4 for maximum desktop performance. Full KDE 4.12.3 Desktop. Nvidia and ATI fglrx driver support. Multimedia playback support for many popular formats. Wireless support for many network devices. Printer support for many networked printer devices. Addlocale allows you to convert PCLinuxOS into over 60 languages. LibreOffice Manager can install LibreOffice supporting over 100 languages. MyLiveCD allows you to take a snapshot of your installation and burn it to a LiveCD/DVD. PCLinuxOS-liveusb – allows you to install PCLinuxOS on a USB key disk PCLinuxOS places specific emphasis on desktop computing, concentrating its efforts for home or small business environments, hence paying less attention to other more "traditional" uses, like servers, although packages for most server tasks are available. PCLinuxOS is distributed as a Live CD, which can be installed to a local hard disk drive or USB flash drive. Since version 2009.1, provides a USB installer to create a Live USB, where the user's configuration and personal data can be saved if desired.

A live USB of older versions of PCLinuxOS can be created manually or with UNetbootin. The entire CD can be run from memory, assuming the system has sufficient RAM. PCLinuxOS uses