The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network was the first wide-area packet-switching network with distributed control and the first network to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet; the ARPANET was established by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense. Based on the ideas of J. C. R. Licklider, Bob Taylor initiated the ARPANET project in 1966 and appointed Larry Roberts as program manager. Roberts made the key decisions about the network design, he incorporated Donald Davies’ concepts and designs for packet switching, sought input from Paul Baran. ARPA awarded the contract to build the network to Bolt Beranek & Newman who developed the first protocol for the network. Roberts engaged Leonard Kleinrock to develop mathematical methods for analyzing the packet network technology; the first computers were connected in 1969 and the Network Control Program was implemented in 1970. Networking research in the early 1970s by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf led to the formulation of the Transmission Control Program in 1974, which incorporated concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin.

As the network development progressed, a protocol for internetworking was developed by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. Referred to as IP/TCP, version 4 of TCP/IP was installed in the ARPANET for production use in January 1983 after the Department of Defense made it standard for all military computer networking. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981, when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network. In the early 1980s, the NSF funded the establishment of national supercomputing centers at several universities, provided network access and network interconnectivity with the NSFNET project in 1986; the ARPANET project was formally decommissioned in 1990, after partnerships with the telecommunication industry paved the way for future commercialization of a new world-wide network, known as the Internet. Voice and data communications were based on methods of circuit switching, as exemplified in the traditional telephone network, wherein each telephone call is allocated a dedicated, end to end, electronic connection between the two communicating stations.

The connection is established by switching systems that connected multiple intermediate call legs between these systems for the duration of the call. The traditional model of the circuit-switched telecommunication network was challenged in the early 1960s by Paul Baran at the RAND Corporation, researching systems that could sustain operation during partial destruction, such as by nuclear war, he developed the theoretical model of distributed adaptive message block switching. However, the telecommunication establishment rejected the development in favor of existing models. Donald Davies at the United Kingdom's National Physical Laboratory independently arrived at a similar concept in 1965; the earliest ideas for a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users were formulated by computer scientist J. C. R. Licklider of Bolt and Newman, in April 1963, in memoranda discussing the concept of the "Intergalactic Computer Network"; those ideas encompassed many of the features of the contemporary Internet.

In October 1963, Licklider was appointed head of the Behavioral Sciences and Command and Control programs at the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency. He convinced Ivan Sutherland and Bob Taylor that this network concept was important and merited development, although Licklider left ARPA before any contracts were assigned for development. Sutherland and Taylor continued their interest in creating the network, in part, to allow ARPA-sponsored researchers at various corporate and academic locales to utilize computers provided by ARPA, and, in part, to distribute new software and other computer science results. Taylor had three computer terminals in his office, each connected to separate computers, which ARPA was funding: one for the System Development Corporation Q-32 in Santa Monica, one for Project Genie at the University of California and another for Multics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Taylor recalls the circumstance: "For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands.

So, if I was talking online with someone at S. D. C. and I wanted to talk to someone I knew at Berkeley, or M. I. T. about this, I had to get up from the S. D. C. Terminal, log into the other terminal and get in touch with them. I said, "Oh Man!", it's obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go. That idea is the ARPANET". Donald Davies' work caught the attention of ARPANET developers at a conference in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in October 1967, he gave the first public demonstration, having coined the term packet switching, on 5 August 1968 and incorporated it into the NPL network in England. The NPL network followed by the ARPANET were the first two networks in the world to use packet switching, were themselves connected together in 1973. Roberts said the ARPANET and other packet switching networks built in the 1970s were similar "in nearly all respects" to Davies' original 1965 design. In February 1966, Bob Taylor lobbied ARPA's Director Charles M. Herzfeld to fund a network project.

Herzfeld redirected funds in the amount of one million dollars from a ballistic missile defense program to Taylor's budget. Taylor hired Larry Roberts as a program manager in the ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office in January 1967 to work on the ARPANET. In April 1967, Roberts held a design session on tec

Alexander Gilchrist

Alexander Gilchrist, an English author, is known as a biographer of William Etty and of William Blake. Gilchrist's biography of Blake is still a standard reference work about the poet. Gilchrist was born at Newington Green just to the north of London, son of the minister of the Unitarian church there. Although he studied law, Gilchrist adopted literary and art criticism as his main pursuits, he settled at Guildford during 1853, where he wrote Life of William Etty, R. A.. In 1856 he became a next-door neighbour of his friend Thomas Carlyle at Chelsea and his wife Jane Welsh Carlyle, both of them notable writers. Gilchrist had all but finished his Life of William Blake when he contracted scarlet fever from one of his children and died, his wife Anne helped to complete the Life, survived him by 24 years. Dante Gabriel Rossetti and his brother William contributed to the completion of the book; the Life of William Blake by Alexander Gilchrist, edited by Ruthven Todd. London: Dent, 1942. Xi, 420 p.: ill..

Biography. Includes bibliography and index; the Life of William Blake and with an introduction by W. Graham Robinson. ISBN 0-486-40005-0

We Are Smug (album)

We Are Smug is a collaborative studio album recorded by Australian singer-songwriter Darren Hayes and producer and songwriter Robert Conley under the pseudonym We Are Smug. Intended as an anonymous secret side project for Hayes to experiment with new sounds, the album was given away for free for a limited period via digital download as a gift to fans on Hayes' birthday on 8 May 2009 but all free links have since been removed. Hayes has said he intends to commercially release the album with a bonus song at some point in the future; the album is an eclectic and experimental vehicle where Hayes adopted various personas and experimented with vocal delivery and genre in a way he had never done as a mainstream artist. It is unique as a recording because Hayes shares vocal duties with Conley, sometimes swapping out the lead for backing vocals. Hayes takes the lead on about half the album at varying times changing his voice, alternating between a high falsetto, a lower raspy tone, experimenting with hip hop and beach boys styled harmonies.

Conley and Hayes began working together when they co-wrote and co- produced the track "Crush" for Hayes' 2002 debut solo album, Spin. Conley went on to be the main collaborator with Hayes on the 2004 album The Tension and the Spark and was credited as one of many co-writers and collaborators on the 2007 album This Delicate Thing We've Made. Conley's most recent work with Hayes can be found on the 2011 album Secret Codes and Battleships where he is credited as a co-writer and co-producer on several songs. Chronologically, We Are Smug is a project that began in the period after The Tension and the Spark when Hayes severed ties with Columbia Records and first became an independent artist. Much of the songwriting and recording was completed prior to the commencement of work on Hayes' 2007 album This Delicate Thing We've Made; the songs were shelved while Hayes finished and promoted the double album This Delicate Thing We've Made. After and Conley committed to finish work on the secret project, enlisting the help of producer and longtime Hayes collaborator Justin Shave to mix a 10-track album of songs.

Titled We Are Smug, it was given away for free for a limited time on Hayes' birthday on 8 May 2009, but all free links have since been removed. The album was re-released in 2013 with a new song called'Riot', it is available to download from iTunes with that extra track. All songs written and produced by Darren Hayes and Robert Conley except'Shit on the Radio' written by Darren Hayes, Robert Conley and Matthew Kelly