Air France, stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance; as of 2013 Air France serves 36 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 168 destinations in 78 countries and carried 46,803,000 passengers in 2015. The airline's global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport as the primary domestic hub. Air France's corporate headquarters in Montparnasse, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933 from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne, Société Générale de Transport Aérien. During the Cold War, from 1950 until 1990, it was one of the three main Allied scheduled airlines operating in Germany at West Berlin's Tempelhof and Tegel airports. In 1990, it acquired the operations of French domestic carrier Air Inter and international rival UTA – Union de Transports Aériens.
It served as France's primary national flag carrier for seven decades prior to its 2003 merger with KLM. Between April 2001 and March 2002, the airline carried 43.3 million passengers and had a total revenue of €12.53bn. In November 2004, Air France ranked as the largest European airline with 25.5% total market share, was the largest airline in the world in terms of operating revenue. On 25 July 2000, a Concorde that Air France owned crashed on a hotel in Gonesse. Air France operates a mixed fleet of Airbus and Boeing widebody jets on long-haul routes, uses Airbus A320 family aircraft on short-haul routes. Air France introduced the A380 on 20 November 2009 with service to New York City's JFK Airport from Paris' Charles de Gaulle Airport; the carrier's regional airline subsidiary, HOP!, operates the majority of its regional domestic and European scheduled services with a fleet of regional jet aircraft. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933, from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne and Société Générale des Transports Aériens.
Of these airlines, SGTA was the first commercial airline company in France, having been founded as Lignes Aériennes Farman in 1919. The constituent members of Air France had built extensive networks across Europe, to French colonies in North Africa and farther afield. During World War II, Air France moved its operations to Casablanca. In 1936, Air France added French-built twin engine Potez 62 aircraft to its fleet featuring a two compartment cabin that could accommodate 14 to 16 passengers. A high wing monoplane, it had a wooden fuselage with composite coating while the wings were fabric covered with a metal leading edge. Equipped with Hispano-Suiza V-engines, they were used on routes in Europe, South America and the Far East. Although cruising at only 175 miles per hour, the Potez 62 was a robust and reliable workhorse for Air France and remained in service until the Second World War with one used by the Free French Air Force. On 26 June 1945 all of France's air transport companies were nationalised.
On 29 December 1945, a decree of the French Government granted Air France the management of the entire French air transport network. Air France appointed its first flight attendants in 1946; the same year the airline opened its first air terminal at Les Invalides in central Paris. It was linked to Paris Le Bourget Airport, Air France's first operations and engineering base, by coach. At that time the network covered 160,000 km, claimed to be the longest in the world. Société Nationale Air France was set up on 1 January 1946. European schedules were operated by a fleet of Douglas DC-3 aircraft. On 1 July 1946, Air France started direct flights between Paris and New York via refuelling stops at Shannon and Gander. Douglas DC-4 piston-engine airliners covered the route in just under 20 hours. In September 1947 Air France's network stretched east from New York, Fort de France and Buenos Aires to Shanghai. By 1948 Air France operated one of the largest fleets in the world. Between 1947 and 1965 the airline operated Lockheed Constellations on passenger and cargo services worldwide.
In 1946 and 1948 the French government authorised the creation of two private airlines: Transports Aériens Internationaux – Transports Aériens Intercontinentaux – and SATI. In 1949 the latter became part of Union Aéromaritime de Transport, a private French international airline. Compagnie Nationale Air France was created by act of parliament on 16 June 1948; the government held 70%. In subsequent years the French state's direct and indirect shareholdings reached 100%. In mid-2002 the state held 54%. On 4 August 1948 Max Hymans was appointed the president. During his 13-year tenure he would implement modernisation practices centred on the introduction of jet aircraft. In 1949 the company became a co-founder of Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques, an airline telecommunications services company. In 1952 Air France moved its operations and engineering base to the new Paris Orly Airport South terminal. By the network covered 250,000 km. Air France entered the jet age in 1953 with the original, short-lived de Havilland Comet series 1, the world's first jetliner.
During the mid-1950s it operated the Vickers Viscount turboprop, with twelve entering services between May 1953 and August 1954 on the European routes. On 26 September1953z the government instructed Air France to share long-distance
HOP! is the brand name of the regional flights operated by subsidiaries of Air France. Its flights are operated by Airlinair, Brit Air and Régional under the HOP! brand. The brand offers daily flights to 50 European destinations, its head office is at Nantes Atlantique Airport. The new airline brand was created to better compete with the low-cost airlines which have taken a significant market share of Air France's regional routes. Régional Compagnie Aérienne Européenne operates with 44 aircraft to 38 destinations. In October 2018, it was reported that HOP! will face restructuring measures, including the merger of all operations under the AF flight codes of parent Air France and a revision of the operated aircraft types. In February 2019, Air France announced that HOP! Services will be rebranded as "Air France HOP". HOP! has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: Air Corsica Air France Alitalia As of April 2019, the HOP! Fleet consists of the following aircraft: Media related to Hop! at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Charles de Gaulle Airport
Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport known as Roissy Airport, is the largest international airport in France and the second largest in Europe. Opened in March 1974, it is named after Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces during the Second World War, founder of the French Fifth Republic and President of France from 1959 to 1969. Charles de Gaulle Airport is located within portions of several communes 25 km to the northeast of Paris. Charles de Gaulle Airport serves as the principal hub for Air France and other legacy carriers, as well as a focus city for low-cost carriers easyJet and Norwegian Air Shuttle; the Airport is operated by Groupe ADP under the brand Paris Aéroport. In 2018, the airport handled 72,229,723 passengers and 480,945 aircraft movements, thus making it the world's tenth-busiest airport, Europe's second-busiest airport in terms of passenger numbers. In terms of cargo traffic, the airport is the twelfth-busiest in the world and the second-busiest in Europe, handling 2,150,950 metric tonnes of cargo in 2012.
Marc Houalla has been the director of the airport since 12 February 2018. Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport covers 32.38 square kilometres of land. The airport area, including terminals and runways, spans over three départements and six communes: Seine-et-Marne département: Le Mesnil-Amelot and Mitry-Mory communes; the choice of constructing an international aviation hub outside of central Paris was made due to a limited prospect of potential relocations or expropriations and the possibility of further expanding the airport in the future. Management of the airport lies on the authority of Groupe ADP, which manages Orly, Le Bourget, several smaller airfields in the suburbs of Paris, other airports directly or indirectly worldwide; the planning and construction phase of what was known as Aéroport de Paris Nord began in 1966. On 8 March 1974 the airport, renamed Charles de Gaulle Airport, opened. Terminal 1 was built in an avant-garde design of a ten-floors-high circular building surrounded by seven satellite buildings, each with six gates allowing sunlight to enter through apertures.
The main architect was Paul Andreu, in charge of the extensions during the following decades. Following the introduction of the brand Paris Aéroport to all its Parisian airports, Groupe ADP announced major changes for the Charles de Gaulle Airport: Terminals of the Satellite 1 will be merged, as well as terminals 2B and 2D. A new luggage automated sorting system and conveyor under Terminal 2E Hall L was installed to speed luggage delivery time for airlines operating Paris-Charles de Gaulle's hub; the CDG Express, the direct express rail link from Paris to Charles de Gaulle Airport, is planned for completion by 2023. The Frutiger typeface was commissioned for use in the airport and implemented on signs throughout the building in 1975. Called Roissy, it was renamed after its designer Adrian Frutiger; until 2005, every PA announcement made at Terminal 1 was preceded by a distinctive chime, nicknamed "Indicatif Roissy" and composed by Bernard Parmegiani in 1971. The chime can be heard in the Roman Polanski film Frantic.
The chime was replaced by the "Indicatif ADP" chime. On 14 April 2016, the Groupe ADP rolled out the Connect 2020 corporate strategy and the commercial brand Paris Aéroport was applied to all Parisian airports, including Le Bourget airport. Charles de Gaulle Airport has three terminals: Terminal 1 is the oldest and situated opposite to Terminal 3. Terminal 2 was built for Air France. Terminals 2A to 2F are situated next to each other. Terminal 2G is a satellite building connected by shuttle bus. Terminal 3 hosts low-cost airlines; the CDGVAL light-rail shuttle connects their parking lots. Refer to Ground Transportation below for inter-terminal transfers and transport to central Paris; the first terminal, designed by Paul Andreu, was built in the image of an octopus. It consists of a circular terminal building which houses key functions such as check-in counters and baggage claim conveyors. Seven satellites with boarding gates are connected to the central building by underground walkways; the central building, with a large skylight in its centre, dedicates each floor to a single function.
The first floor is reserved for technical operations and not accessible to the public. The second floor contains shops and restaurants, the CDGVAL inter-terminal shuttle train platforms and check-in counters from a recent renovation; the majority of check-in counters, are located on the third floor, which has access to taxi stands, bus stops and special pick-up vehicles. Departing passengers with valid boarding passes can reach the fourth floor, which houses duty-free stores and border control posts, for the boarding gates; the fifth floor contains baggage claim conveyors for arriving passengers. All four upper floors have assigned areas for airline offices. Passa
Twin Jet is a French regional airline based in Aix en Provence. Twin Jet was founded in May 2001 and operated its first scheduled flight in March 2002; the company operates 250 flights a week on domestic routes within France as well as to Milan, Italy and Friedrichshafen, Germany and Zurich, Switzerland as its only foreign destinations. Its activity is complemented by business charter flights. In early January 2017, Twin Jet merged with French competitor Hex'Air and integrated its routes and aircraft; as of July 2018, Twin Jet serves the following destinations: FranceLe Puy-en-Velay - Le Puy – Loudes Airport base Lille - Lesquin base Lyon - Lyon–Saint Exupéry Airport base Marseille - Marseille Provence Airport base Mende Metz/Nancy - Metz-Nancy-Lorraine Airport base Nice - Nice Côte d'Azur Airport Paris - Orly Airport Pau - Pau Airport Strasbourg - Strasbourg Airport Toulouse - Toulouse-Blagnac Airport baseGermanyFriedrichshafen - Friedrichshafen Airport Stuttgart - Stuttgart AirportItalyMilan - Malpensa AirportSwitzerlandZurich - Zurich Airport As of June 2017, the Twin Jet fleet consisted of the following aircraft: Media related to Twin Jet at Wikimedia Commons Official website
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
This is a list of airline codes. The table lists IATA's two-character airline designators, ICAO's three-character airline designators and the airline call signs. Historical assignments are included. IATA airline designators, sometimes called IATA reservation codes, are two-character codes assigned by the International Air Transport Association to the world's airlines; the standard is described in IATA's Standard Schedules Information Manual and the codes themselves are described in IATA's Airline Coding Directory. The IATA codes based on the ICAO designators which were issued in 1947 as two-letter airline identification codes. IATA expanded the two-letter-system with codes consisting of a letter and a digit after ICAO had introduced its current 3-letter-system in 1982; until only combinations of letters were used. Airline designator codes follow the format xx, i.e. two alphanumeric characters followed by an optional letter. Although the IATA standard provides for three-character airline designators, IATA has not used the optional third character in any assigned code.
This is because some legacy computer systems the "central reservations systems", have failed to comply with the standard, notwithstanding the fact that it has been in place for 20 years. The codes issued to date comply with IATA Resolution 762; these codes thus comply with the current airline designator standard, but use only a limited subset of its possible range. There are three types of designator: numeric/alpha and controlled duplicate. IATA airline designators are used to identify an airline for commercial purposes in reservations, tickets, air waybills and in telecommunications. A flight designator is the concatenation of the airline designator, xx, the numeric flight number, n, plus an optional one-letter "operational suffix". Therefore, the full format of a flight designator is xxn. After an airline is delisted, IATA can make the code available for reuse after six months and can issue "controlled duplicates". Controlled duplicates are issued to regional airlines whose destinations are not to overlap, so that the same code is shared by two airlines.
The controlled duplicate is denoted here, in IATA literature, with an asterisk. An example of this is the code "7Y", which refers to both Mid Airlines, a charter airline in Sudan, Med Airways, a charter airline in Lebanon. IATA issues an accounting or prefix code; this number is used on tickets as the first three characters of the ticket number. The ICAO airline designator is a code assigned by the International Civil Aviation Organization to aircraft operating agencies, aeronautical authorities, services related to international aviation, each of whom is allocated both a three-letter designator and a telephony designator; these codes are unique by airline, unlike the IATA airline designator codes. The designators are listed in ICAO Document 8585: Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies, Aeronautical Authorities and Services. ICAO codes have been issued since 1947; the ICAO codes were based on a two-letter-system and were identical to the airline codes used by IATA. After an airline joined IATA its existing ICAO-two-letter-code was taken over as IATA code.
Because both organizations used the same code system, the current terms ICAO code and IATA code did not exist until the 1980s. They were called two-letter-airline-designators. At this time it was impossible to find out whether an airline was an IATA member or not just by looking at its code. In the 1970s the abbreviation BA was the ICAO code and the IATA code of British Airways while non-IATA-members like Court Line used their 2-letter-abbreviation as ICAO code only. In 1982 ICAO introduced the current three-letter-system due to the increasing number of airlines. After a transitional period of five years it became the official new ICAO standard system in November 1987 while IATA kept the older 2-letter-system, introduced by ICAO in 1947. Certain combinations of letters, for example SOS, are not allocated to avoid confusion with other systems. Other designators those starting with Y and Z, are reserved for government organizations; the designator YYY is used for operators. An example is: Operator: American Airlines Three-letter designator: AAL Telephony designator: AMERICANA timeline of the airline designators used by American Airlines: Most airlines employ a call sign, spoken during airband radio transmissions.
As by ICAO Annex 10 chapter 184.108.40.206.2.1 a call sign shall be one of the following types: Type A: the characters corresponding to the registration marking of the aircraft. Type B: the telephony designator of the aircraft operating agency, followed by the last four characters of the registration marking of the aircraft. Type C: the telephony designator of the aircraft operating agency, followed by the flight identification; the one most used within commercial aviation is type C. The flight identification is often the same as the flight number, though this is not always the case. In case of call sign confusion a different flight identification can be chosen, but the flight number will remain the same. Call sign confusion happens when two or more flights with similar flight numbers fly close to each other, e.g. KLM 645 and KLM 649 or Speedbird 446 and Speedbird 664; the flight number is published in an airline's public timetable and appears on the arrivals and departure scr
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona