New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
History of AT&T
The history of AT&T dates back to the invention of the telephone itself. The Bell Telephone Company was established in 1879 by Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone. Bell established American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885, which acquired the Bell Telephone Company and became the primary phone company in the United States; this company maintained a monopoly on telephone service in the United States until anti-trust regulators split the company in 1982. AT&T Corporation was purchased by one of its Baby Bells, the former Southwestern Bell, in 2005 and the combined company became known as AT&T Inc; the formation of the Bell Telephone Company superseded an agreement between Alexander Graham Bell and his financiers, principal among them Gardiner Greene Hubbard and Thomas Sanders. Renamed the National Bell Telephone Company in March 1879, it became the American Bell Telephone Company in March 1880. By 1881, it had bought a controlling interest in the Western Electric Company from Western Union.
Only three years earlier, Western Union had turned down Gardiner Hubbard's offer to sell it all rights to the telephone for $100,000. In 1880, the management of American Bell created; the project was the first of its kind to create a nationwide long-distance network with a commercially viable cost-structure. This project was formally incorporated into a separate company named American Telephone and Telegraph Company on March 3, 1885. Starting from New York, the network reached Chicago in 1892. Bell's patent on the telephone expired in 1893, but the company's much larger customer base made its service much more valuable than alternatives and substantial growth continued. On December 30, 1899, the American Telephone and Telegraph Company bought the assets of American Bell. With this transfer of assets, AT&T became the parent of the Bell System. National long distance service reached San Francisco with the First transcontinental telephone call in 1915. Transatlantic services started in 1927 using two-way radio, but the first trans-Atlantic telephone cable did not arrive until Sept. 25, 1956, with TAT-1.
As a result of a combination of regulatory actions by government and actions by AT&T, the firm gained what most regard as monopoly status. In 1907, AT&T president Theodore Vail made it known that he was pursuing a goal of "One Policy, One System, Universal Service." AT&T began purchasing competitors. To avoid antitrust action, in a deal with the government, Vail agreed to the Kingsbury Commitment of 1913. One of the three terms of the agreement forbade AT&T from acquiring any more independent phone companies without the approval of the Interstate Commerce Commission. G. W. Brock says in The Telecommunications Industry: The Dynamics Of Market Structure, " provision allowed Bell and the independents to exchange telephones in order to give each other geographical monopolies. So long as only one company served a given geographical area there was little reason to expect price competition to take place." AT&T focused on purchasing companies within specific geographic areas that increased its effective control of the telephone system market, while selling its less-desirable and acquired companies to independent buyers.
Included in the Kingsbury Commitment was the requirement that AT&T allow competitors to connect through its phone lines, which reduced the incentive of these companies to build competing long-distance lines. In 1913, after vacuum-tube inventor Lee de Forest began to suffer financial difficulties, AT&T bought De Forest's vacuum-tube patents for the bargain price of $50,000. In particular, AT&T acquired ownership of the'Audion', the first triode vacuum tube, which amplified telephone signals; the patent increased AT&T's control over the manufacture and distribution of long-distance telephone services, allowed the Bell System to build the United States's first coast-to coast telephone line. Thanks to the pressures of World War I, AT&T and RCA owned all useful patents on vacuum tubes. RCA staked a position in wireless communication; some patent allies and partners in RCA were angered when the two companies' research on tubes began to overlap, there were many patent disputes. Around 1917, the idea that everyone in the country should have phone service and that the government should promote that began being discussed in government.
AT&T agreed, saying in a 1917 annual report: "A combination of like activities under proper control and regulation, the service to the public would be better, more progressive and economical than competitive systems." In 1918 the federal government nationalized the entire telecommunications industry, with national security as the stated intent. Rates were regulated so that customers in large cities would pay higher rates to subsidize those in more remote areas. Vail was appointed to manage the telephone system with AT&T being paid a percentage of the telephone revenues. AT&T profited well from the nationalization arrangement. States began regulating rates so that those in rural areas would not have to pay high prices, competition was regulated or prohibited in local markets. Potential competitors were forbidden from installing new lines to compete, with state governments wishing to avoid "duplication." The claim was that telephone service was a "natural monopoly," meaning that
BellSouth, LLC is an American telecommunications holding company based in Atlanta, Georgia. BellSouth was one of the seven original Regional Bell Operating Companies after the U. S. Department of Justice forced the American Telephone & Telegraph Company to divest itself of its regional telephone companies on January 1, 1984. In a merger announced on March 5, 2006, executed on December 29, 2006, AT&T Inc. acquired BellSouth for $86 billion. The merger consolidated ownership of Cingular Wireless and Yellowpages.com, both of which were joint ventures between BellSouth and AT&T. With the merger completed, wireless services offered by Cingular Wireless were offered under the AT&T name, BellSouth Telecommunications began doing business as AT&T Southeast; the company became known as BellSouth, LLC on June 26, 2015. BellSouth was the last of the Regional Bell Operating Companies to keep its original corporate name after the 1984 AT&T breakup, as well as the last one to retain the Bell logo as part of its main corporate identity.
BellSouth operated in Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, New Zealand, Panama, Peru and Venezuela. BellSouth operated in New Zealand under the name of BellSouth New Zealand Limited from 1993 until 1998 when it was acquired by Vodafone to become Vodafone New Zealand, it competed against Telecom New Zealand. Its operations in Australia were under the name of BellSouth Australia Pty Limited. All of Bellsouth's operations in Latin America were acquired by Telefonica in late 2004 for nearly $5.85 billion. As part of the breakup of the old AT&T during 1984, BellSouth was formed as the holding company for the telephone operating companies in the southern portion of the old Bell System—Atlanta-based Southern Bell and Birmingham, Alabama-based South Central Bell; the creation of BellSouth, in effect, reunited most telephone service in the Southeastern United States. Southern Bell had been the Bell System operating company for the entire Southeast until 1967, when the western portion of its service territory became South Central Bell.
BellSouth formed a shared services company, BellSouth Services, to provide centralized functions such as engineering and information technology to Southern Bell and South Central Bell. Services provided in the BellSouth operating area include telephone and DSL/Dial-Up Internet services in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee. Satellite television service was provided as a partnership with DirecTV. Cable television was provided in limited markets as BellSouth Entertainment; the company maintained its largest operation centers in Birmingham. Region-wide headquarters operations were primarily in Atlanta and Birmingham. Statewide operations centers were located in Birmingham, Atlanta, New Orleans, Charlotte and Nashville. BellSouth Mobility was based in Atlanta and Birmingham, Alabama. In August 1998, BellSouth launched FastAccess DSL, their broadband service provided through a DSL connection launched in the Atlanta, Charlotte, Miami/Ft. Lauderdale, New Orleans and Raleigh/Durham areas.
It became available in all of BellSouth's service area. Toward its end, BellSouth realigned itself in two important areas and broadband. In 2001, they merged BellSouth Mobility, their wireless enterprise, with SBC's wireless services, took 40% stake in the resulting company, Cingular Wireless; the new company provided a large percentage of BellSouth's revenue. This joint venture continued after SBC rebranded as AT&T Inc.. Continued increase of broadband penetration and applications in the consumer market was a key strategy to the company; these activities were being funded in part by the sale of Latin America operations. BellSouth became the first "Baby Bell". By 2003, BellSouth's payphone operation was discontinued because it had become too unprofitable, most due to the increased availability of cell phones. Cincinnati Bell has taken BellSouth's place for payphones in northern BellSouth territory. BellSouth's main operating units at its end were the Communications Group, Domestic Wireless, Advertising and Publishing.
The communications group operated two wholly owned subsidiaries, BellSouth Telecommunications Inc. and BellSouth Long Distance, Inc.. The main marketing groups for the communications group were consumer, small business, large business, interconnection; the communications group provided wireline communications services, including local exchange, network access, intraLATA long distance services, Internet services, as well as long distance services. The advertising and publishing group was responsible for printing and distributing telephone books, selling advertising, operating online electronic directories; the BellSouth – SBC/AT&T relationship went further than just Cingular Wireless. BellSouth & SBC/AT&T co-owned yellowpages.com. BellSouth licensed its trademark to US Electronics, which produced telephones under the BellSouth brand, it maintains a history sub-page at bellsouth.com/servicemarks which displays its former and recent BellSouth logo usage. As of January 1, 2006, BellSouth customers no longer receive caller ID information from Sprint PCS customers.
Any incoming call originating from a Sprint
Gardiner Greene Hubbard
Gardiner Greene Hubbard was an American lawyer and community leader. He was a first president of the National Geographic Society. One of his daughters, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard became the wife of Alexander Graham Bell. Hubbard was born and educated in Boston, Massachusetts to Samuel Hubbard, a Massachusetts Supreme Court justice, Mary Greene, his younger brother was Charles Eustice Hubbard, who became the first secretary and clerk of the Bell Telephone Company. Hubbard was a grandson of Boston merchant Gardiner Greene, he was a descendant of Lion Gardiner, an early English settler and soldier in the New World who founded the first English settlement in what became the State of New York, whose legacy includes Gardiners Island which remains in the family. He attended Phillips Academy and graduated from Dartmouth in 1841, he studied law at Harvard, was admitted to the bar in 1843. He first joined the Boston law firm of Benjamin Robbins Curtis. There he became active in local institutions. Hubbard helped establish a city water works in Cambridge, was a founder of the Cambridge Gas Co. and organized a Cambridge to Boston trolley system.
Hubbard played a pivotal role in the founding of Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts. It was the first oral school for the deaf in the United States, Hubbard remained a trustee for the rest of his life. Hubbard entered the national stage by become a proponent for the nationalization of the telegraph system under the U. S. Postal Service stating in an article: "The Proposed Changes in the Telegraphic System", "It is not contended that the postal system is free from defects, but that it removes many of the grave evils of the present system, without the introduction of new ones. During the late 1860s, Hubbard lobbied Congress to pass the U. S. Postal Telegraph Bill known as the Hubbard Bill; the bill would have chartered the U. S. Postal Telegraph Company that would be connected to the U. S. Post Office, but the bill did not pass. To benefit from the Hubbard Bill, Hubbard needed patents which dominated essential aspects of telegraph technology such as sending multiple messages on a single telegraph wire.
This was called acoustic telegraphy. To acquire such patents and his partner Thomas Sanders financed Alexander Graham Bell's experiments and development of an acoustic telegraph, which led to his invention of the telephone. Following Curtis's retirement, Hubbard relocated to Washington, D. C. where he continued to practice law for 5 more years. In 1876, he was appointed by President Grant to determine the proper rates for railway mail and he served as a commissioner to the Centennial Exposition. Hubbard organized the Bell Telephone Company on July 9, 1877, with himself as president, Thomas Sanders as treasurer and Bell as'Chief Electrician'. Two days he became the father-in-law of Bell when his daughter, Mabel Hubbard, married Bell on July 11, 1877. Gardiner Hubbard was intimately connected with the Bell Telephone Company, which subsequently evolved into the National Bell Telephone Company and the American Bell Telephone Company, merging with smaller telephone companies during its growth; the American Bell Telephone Company would, at the end of 1899, evolve into AT&T, at times the world's largest telephone company.
Hubbard has been credited as the entrepreneur. Hubbard became a principal investor in the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company; when Edison neglected development of the phonograph, which at its inception was functional, Hubbard helped his son-in-law, Alexander Graham Bell, organize a competing company in 1881 that developed wax-coated cardboard cylinders and disks for used on a graphophone. These improvements were invented by Alexander Bell's cousin Chester Bell, a chemist, Charles Sumner Tainter, an optical instrument maker, at Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory in Washington, D. C. Hubbard and Chester Bell approached Edison about combining their interests, but Edison refused, resulting in the Volta Laboratory Association merging the shares of their Volta Graphophone Company with the company that evolved into Columbia Records in 1886. Hubbard was interested in the public side of science. After his move to Washington, he was one of the founders and the first president of the National Geographic Society, serving in that capacity from 1888-1897.
Today, the Hubbard Medal is given for distinction in exploration and research. In 1897, he helped to rescue the A. A. A. S, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, founded in 1848, from financial peril and extinction by enabling its purchase of the "Science" magazine, which he founded, in 1883, he served as a trustee of Columbian University from 1883 until his death. He was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution, he created a large collection of etchings and engravings, which were given by his widow to the Library of Congress with a fund for additions. In 1894, Hubbard was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society In 1846, Hubbard married Gertrude Mercer McCurdy (182
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly. On December 31, 1983, the system was divided into independent companies by a U. S. Justice Department mandate; the general public in the United States used the colloquial term Ma Bell to refer to any aspect of this conglomerate, as it held a near-complete monopoly over telephone service in most areas of the country, is still used by many to refer to any telephone company. Ma Bell is used to refer to the various female voices in recordings for the Bell System: Mary Moore, Jane Barbe, Pat Fleet, the current voice of AT&T. In 1877, the American Bell Telephone Company, named after Alexander Graham Bell, opened the first telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut. Within a few years local exchange companies were established in every major city in the United States. Use of the Bell System name referred to those early telephone franchises and comprised all telephone companies owned by American Telephone & Telegraph, referred to internally as associated companies, regional holding companies, or Bell operating companies.
In 1899, American Telephone & Telegraph acquired the assets of its parent, the American Bell Telephone Company. American Bell had created AT&T to provide long-distance calls between New York and Chicago and beyond. AT&T became the parent of American Bell Telephone Company, thus the head of the Bell System, because regulatory and tax rules were leaner in New York than in Boston, where American Bell was headquartered; the Bell System and its moniker "Ma Bell" became a term that referred to all AT&T companies of which there were four major divisions: AT&T Long Lines, providing long lines to interconnect local exchanges and long-distance calling services Western Electric Company, Bell's equipment manufacturing arm Bell Labs, conducting research and development for AT&T Bell operating companies, providing local exchange telephone services. In 1913, the federal government challenged the Bell System's growing monopoly over the phone system under AT&T ownership in an anti-trust suit, leading to the Kingsbury Commitment.
Under the commitment, AT&T escaped break-up or nationalization in exchange for divesting itself of Western Union and allowing non-competing independent telephone companies to interconnect with its long-distance network. After 1934, the Federal Communication Commission assumed regulation of AT&T. Proliferation of telephone service allowed the company to become the largest corporation in the world until its dismantling by the United States Department of Justice in 1984, at which time the Bell System ceased to exist. Receiving a U. S. patent for the invention of the telephone on March 7, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell formed the Bell Telephone Company in 1877, which in 1885 became AT&T. When Bell's original patent expired 15 years in 1894, the telephone market opened to competition and 6,000 new telephone companies started while the Bell Telephone company took a significant financial downturn. On April 30, 1907, Theodore Newton Vail returned as President of AT&T. Vail believed in the superiority of one national telephone system and AT&T adopted the slogan One Policy, One System, Universal Service.
This became the company's philosophy for the next 70 years. Under Vail, AT&T began acquiring many of the smaller telephone companies including Western Union telegraph. Anxious to avoid action from government antitrust suits, AT&T entered in 1913 into an out-of-court agreement known as the Kingsbury Commitment with the federal government. Following a government antitrust suit in 1913, AT&T agreed to the Kingsbury Commitment in which AT&T would sell its $30 million in Western Union capital stock, allow competitors to interconnect with its system, not acquire other independent companies without permission from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the Bell trademark pictured here was used from 1921 through 1939 by both the AT&T corporation and the regional operating corporations to co-brand themselves under a single Bell System trademark. For each regional operating company, its name was placed where "name of associated company" appears in this template version of the trademark. Bell system telephones and related equipment were made by Western Electric, a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T Co.
Member telephone companies paid a fixed fraction of their revenues as a license fee to Bell Labs. As a result of this vertical monopoly, the Bell System owned most telephone service in the United States by 1940, from local and long-distance service to the telephones; this allowed Bell to prohibit its customers from connecting equipment not made or sold by Bell to the system without paying fees. For example, if a customer desired a style of telephone not leased by the local Bell company, he or she had to purchase the instrument at cost, furnish it to the telephone company for rewiring, pay a service charge, a monthly lease fee for using it. In 1949, the United States Department of Justice alleged in an antitrust lawsuit that AT&T and the Bell System operating companies were using their near-monopoly in telecommunications to attempt to establish unfair advantage in related technologies; the outcome was a 1956 consent decree limiting AT&T to 85% of the United States' national telephone network and certain government contracts, from continuing to hold interests in Canada and the Caribbean.
The Bell System's Canadian operations included the Bell Canada regional operating company and the Northern Electric manufacturing subsidiary of the Bell System's Western Electric equipment manufacturer. Western Electric divested Northern Electric in 1956, but AT&T did n
A consumer is a person or organization that uses economic services or commodities. A consumer is the one who pays something to consume services produced; as such, consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation. Without consumer demand, producers would lack one of the key motivations to produce: to sell to consumers; the consumer forms part of the chain of distribution. In marketing instead of marketers generating broad demographic profiles and Fisio-graphic profiles of market segments, marketers have started to engage in personalized marketing, permission marketing, mass customization. Due to the rise of the Internet, consumers are shifting more and more towards becoming "prosumers", consumers who are producers, influence the products created participate in the production process, or use interactive products; the law uses a notion of the consumer in relation to consumer protection laws, the definition of consumer is restricted to living persons and excludes commercial users. A typical legal rationale for protecting the consumer is based on the notion of policing market failures and inefficiencies, such as inequalities of bargaining power between a consumer and a business.
As all potential voters are consumers, consumer protection has a clear political significance. Concern over the interests of consumers has spawned consumer activism, where organized activists do research and advocacy to improve the offer of products and services. Consumer education has been incorporated into some school curricula. There are various non-profit publications, such as Which?, Consumer Reports and Choice Magazine, dedicated to assist in consumer education and decision making. In India, the Consumer Protection Act 1986 differentiates the consummation of a commodity or service for personal use or to earn a livelihood. Only consumers are protected per this act and any person, entity or organization purchasing a commodity for commercial reasons are exempted from any benefits of this act. U. S. Government National Consumer Protection Week