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AVR microcontrollers

AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed since 1996 by Atmel, acquired by Microchip Technology in 2016. These are modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single-chip microcontrollers. AVR was one of the first microcontroller families to use on-chip flash memory for program storage, as opposed to one-time programmable ROM, EPROM, or EEPROM used by other microcontrollers at the time. AVR microcontrollers find many applications as embedded systems, they are common in hobbyist and educational embedded applications, popularized by their inclusion in many of the Arduino line of open hardware development boards. The AVR architecture was conceived by two students at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, Alf-Egil Bogen and Vegard Wollan; the original AVR MCU was developed at a local ASIC house in Trondheim, called Nordic VLSI at the time, now Nordic Semiconductor, where Bogen and Wollan were working as students. It was known as a μRISC and was available as silicon IP/building block from Nordic VLSI.

When the technology was sold to Atmel from Nordic VLSI, the internal architecture was further developed by Bogen and Wollan at Atmel Norway, a subsidiary of Atmel. The designers worked with compiler writers at IAR Systems to ensure that the AVR instruction set provided efficient compilation of high-level languages. Atmel does not stand for anything in particular; the creators of the AVR give no definitive answer as to. However, it is accepted that AVR stands for Alf and Vegard's RISC processor. Note that the use of "AVR" in this article refers to the 8-bit RISC line of Atmel AVR Microcontrollers. Among the first of the AVR line was the AT90S8515, which in a 40-pin DIP package has the same pinout as an 8051 microcontroller, including the external multiplexed address and data bus; the polarity of the RESET line was other than that the pinout was identical. The AVR 8-bit microcontroller architecture was introduced in 1997. By 2003, Atmel had shipped 500 million AVR flash microcontrollers; the Arduino platform, developed for simple electronics projects, was released in 2005 and featured ATmega8 AVR microcontrollers.

The AVR is a modified Harvard architecture machine, where program and data are stored in separate physical memory systems that appear in different address spaces, but having the ability to read data items from program memory using special instructions. AVRs are classified into following: tinyAVR – the ATtiny series 0.5–32 KB program memory 6–32-pin package Limited peripheral set megaAVR – the ATmega series 4–256 KB program memory 28–100-pin package Extended instruction set Extensive peripheral set XMEGA – the ATxmega series 16–384 KB program memory 44–64–100-pin package 32-pin package: XMEGA-E Extended performance features, such as DMA, "Event System", cryptography support Extensive peripheral set with ADCs Application-specific AVR megaAVRs with special features not found on the other members of the AVR family, such as LCD controller, USB controller, advanced PWM, CAN, etc. FPSLIC FPGA 5k to 40k gates SRAM for the AVR program code, unlike all other AVRs AVR core can run at up to 50 MHz 32-bit AVRs In 2006, Atmel released microcontrollers based on the 32-bit AVR32 architecture.

This was a different architecture unrelated to the 8-bit AVR, intended to compete with the ARM-based processors. It had a 32-bit data path, SIMD and DSP instructions, along with other audio- and video-processing features; the instruction set was similar to other RISC cores, but it was not compatible with the original AVR. Since support for AVR32 has been dropped from Linux as of kernel 4.12. Flash, EEPROM, SRAM are all integrated onto a single chip, removing the need for external memory in most applications; some devices have a parallel external bus option to allow adding additional data memory or memory-mapped devices. All devices have serial interfaces, which can be used to connect larger serial EEPROMs or flash chips. Program instructions are stored in non-volatile flash memory. Although the MCUs are 8-bit, each instruction takes two 16-bit words; the size of the program memory is indicated in the naming of the device itself. There is no provision for off-chip program memory. However, this limitation does not apply to the AT94 FPSLIC AVR/FPGA chips.

The data address space consists of the register file, I/O registers, SRAM. Some small models map the program ROM into the data address space, but larger models do not; the AVRs are classified as 8-bit RISC devices. In the tinyAVR and megaAVR variants of the AVR architecture, the working registers are mapped in as the first 32 memory addresses, followed by 64 I/O registers. In devices with many peripherals, these registers are followed by 160 “extended I/O” registers, only accessible as memory-mapped I/O. Actual SRAM starts after these register sections, at address 006016 or, in devices with "extended I/O", at 010016. Though there are separate addressing schemes and optimized opcodes for accessing the register file and the first 64 I/O registers, all can be addressed and manipulated as if they were in SRAM; the smallest of the tinyAVR variants use a reduced architecture with only 16 reg

Being and Nothing

Being and Nothing is the fourth studio album by British extreme metal band Extreme Noise Terror. It was released in 2001 by Candlelight Records, it is the last to feature Adam Catchpole as a vocalist after Phil Vanes left the band. The sound in this album leans more towards to death metal rather than their traditional crust punk roots. All Songs Written By Dean Jones & Zac O'Neil, except where noted. Extreme Noise TerrorAdam Catchpole - Vocals Dean Jones - Vocals Ali Firouzbakht - Guitar Manny Cooke - Bass Zac O'Neil - DrumsSession musiciansGian Pyres - GuitarProductionMark Harwood - Producer, Engineering Dean Jones - Producer, Mixing Zac O'Neil - Producer, Mixing Being and Nothing at AllMusic. Retrieved 16:28, 16 August 2016

Cintra House, Maitland

Cintra House is a heritage-listed residence and one-time private hospital at 34 Regent Street, City of Maitland, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by John Wiltshire Pender with a garden by Sydney landscape architect R. Culbert, it was built from 1879 by Robert James with an 1887 extension by H. Noad, it is known as Cintra. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 31 August 2012; the early history of Cintra is connected to the Levy and Cohen families, part of an important Jewish merchant family locally and internationally. Cintra was designed and constructed as a private residence for Benn W. Levy in 1878 by Maitland architect J. W. Pender. Benn Levy became the head of the Cohen business in London in 1886, moving there in 1887; this saw ownership of Cintra transferred to his cousin Neville Cohen. In 1887 Pender designed extensions to Cintra for his family; the house had 23 rooms, the extensions added a second wing on the northern side, making it 31 rooms including the attic and cellar.

The new second wing consisted of a billiard room, servants' hall, housekeeper's room, an additional four bedrooms and bathroom facilities. Early in the 20th century and family dispersion rendered Cintra impracticable to the Cohen family and was sold to the Long family in 1917. Cintra was left in the charge of five sisters and was run as a private hospital from World War One until the late 1930s when it again became a private residence; the sisters, "though genteel, when left to their own devices, pursued life-long careers in art, nursing and advertising." Cintra as a private hospital was operated under the auspices of Nurse Eileen Long until its closure in the late 1930s or early 1940s due to lack of resources. The hospital is known to still be operating in 1938. Strong rumours surfaced during the period that the hospital closed that the property would be taken over by the Department of Defence. However, this did not take place. Instead, residential flats were established in the northern wing.

The present owner took possession in 1965 and the flats were left vacant until as they became unoccupied and were restored as part of the private residence. The present owners have undertaken maintenance and restoration works to the interior and exterior, including painting, garden works and fencing. Although there is an extensive movable heritage collection, inclusive of personal possessions from the last century onwards which contribute to Cintra's appearance, these are not original to the property; the garden, complete with its original planting schemes and garden features contributes to the house and as evidence of the period to which it belongs. In 1988, the building was refurbished, with the demolition and replacement of unoriginal bathrooms and kitchen. In 1990-92 Cintra received two loans allowing the owners to conserve its original intact verandah over a two-year period of works. Tallowwood was used as a substitute for the original beech wood, which had become unsafe due to water damage.

The growing Jewish community in Maitland in the late nineteenth century contributed to the urban and economic development of Maitland. More the families of the David Cohen Company played a central role in the development of commercial ventures in the region and expanded the trade of the colony; the David Cohen company's store and warehouse was notable, as its "size and opulence visually marked the prosperity of its proprietors and of the town, when connected to other buildings constructed for the company and its family of owners in Maitland and Sydney, the success of David Cohen & Company is widespread, awe inspiring and formidable". Benn Levy and Neville Cohen were the descendants of the founders of David Co. Ltd.. Benn Levy was the nephew of David Lewis Levy who founded the renowned Lewis' department store in Liverpool in the United Kingdom while Neville Cohen was the cousin of George Judah Cohen, the chairman of the Commercial Banking Company of Sydney in the early 20th century and, praised as the "doyen" of Australian banking.

Brothers David and Samuel Cohen arrived in Australia between 1831 and 1840. In 1835 Lewis and Samuel bought land in High Street, Maitland which became the site of their warehouse. In 1836 Samuel opened a shop known as Lambeth House; this was the beginning of the Cohen family company in Australia. In 1837 Lewis and Samuel established a business partnership. However, this only lasted until 1839. Samuel continued to trade in Maitland while Lewis set up business in Sydney. In 1840 their first cousin, Lewis Wolfe Levy migrated to Australia, he lived in Maitland before opening a successful store in Tamworth. Lewis returned to Maitland in 1854; the brother's business interests were consolidated between 1843 and 1845. Samuel Levy filed for insolvency in 1843 and his brother David took over the debts. In 1845 Lewis Levy joined the firm. David Cohen's name was given to the firm due to the quality of his reputation and the company became the largest firm in the Maitland district; the company constructed a warehouse on their land in High Street in 1865, designed by John Horbury Hunt.

From 1880 onwards they commissioned and leased a number of other warehouses including constructing the six-storey warehouse at their Newcastle East site in 1890. David Cohen and Co. sold whatever goods were popular and could be imported in reasonable condition at the time. These included tools, sewing machines and electro-plated ware imported from America. From around 1900 they concentrated on English branded grocery teas in their advertising. Lewis Levy led a vigorous expansion of David Co.. The company