A Better Tomorrow III: Love & Death in Saigon
A Better Tomorrow III: Love & Death in Saigon is a 1989 Hong Kong action drama film co-produced and directed by Tsui Hark. It is a loosely based prequel to John Woo's A Better Tomorrow and A Better Tomorrow II; the film was directed by the producer behind the first two films in the series. John Woo wrote a screenplay for a third installment, but he never got to direct it due to having had artistic differences with Tsui during the filming of the second film. Instead, the original screenplay became Bullet in the Head; the two films have both being set in the Vietnam War. The film stars Chow Yun-fat, who reprises his role of Mark Gor from the first film, Tony Leung Ka-fai and Anita Mui. Set during the Vietnam War, it sets up the story of how Mark became the character he was in the original film; the second part of the title Love & Death in Saigon is the title song for this movie, sung by Anita Mui, the leading lady in this third installment. In 1974, during the final days of the Vietnam War, Mark Lee arrives in Saigon, intending to bring his uncle and cousin Michael Cheung Chi-mun back to Hong Kong with him.
After arriving at the airport, Mark is confined by corrupt security guards who strip and attempt to rob him, but he is saved by Chow Ying-kit, who seems to have some measure of influence. Mark and Michael encounter Kit in a nightclub, where they discover the woman is a criminal and gun runner. Kit takes an interest in the cousins and invites them to accompany her on a deal with a local Vietnamese warlord; the deal goes bad. Kit is impressed with the way Mark and Michael handled themselves and helps them escape Vietnam, taking them under her wing. Over the next few months, Kit trains the cousins in her marksmanship. Mark and Michael develop an attraction to her and Kit is attracted to Mark. Despite his feelings, Mark does not reciprocate Kit's affections to avoid hurting Michael, who thinks Kit is in love with him. Kit manages to secure safe passage for Mark and Michael's father back to Hong Kong; the three start a new business there. The leader of the arms smuggling company, Sam Ho Cheung-ching, returns after a three-year absence when he was presumed dead.
Jealous of Kit's relationship with Mark and Michael, he plots to kill the cousins. Ho sends a bomb to the business. Ho and his men beat Mark and Mun, warning them to stay away from Kit. Kit expresses her regret for Michael's father's death and to share her feelings with Mark, which he reciprocates. Ho returns to Vietnam, taking Kit with him, to complete the deal with the Vietnamese warlord encountered earlier in the film. Mark and Michael follow Ho back to Saigon. Mark steps off the plane attired in his iconic outfit as seen in the first A Better Tomorrow: black duster and matchstick in his mouth. At an abandoned temple, where Kit meets Michael to give him two plane tickets to leave Saigon with Mark they are unexpectedly surrounded by Việt Cộng troops, they engage in a shootout with them. While trying to escape from them in a jeep driven by Pat, due to the bumpy ride, Michael falls off the jeep and gets caught in an explosion. Mark confronts Kit in her hotel concerning Michael's assumed death accusing her of betrayal and keeping secrets from him.
Enraged by her answers to his accusations he slaps her a few times. Before he leaves her room, he tells her. Ho and Kit head to their deal with the Vietnamese warlord; the warlord attempts to double-cross Ho. A shootout ensues. Mark came in the room dual wielding two M-16 rifles, intending to take his revenge on Ho after the shootout between the warlord and Ho died down. During the shootout between Ho and Mark, Kit is wounded by one of Ho's men and Ho is killed by the warlord. Michael, who survived the explosion, arrives with Pat to help Mark make his getaway with the wounded Kit; the four are pursued by the warlord in a tank, but Mark manages to destroy the tank with explosives, killing the warlord. With Kit dying and Michael rush Kit to the embassy, where a mass evacuation is taking place due to the Fall of Saigon. Showing Kit's travel pass to the guards, the three are granted aboard on the last chopper leaving the embassy, which lifts off just as the crowds rush in past the gate and the North Vietnamese flag is raised.
Succumbing to her severe injury, Kit dies in Mark's arms. Cradling Kit's lifeless body, Mark contemplates. Chow Yun-fat as Mark'Gor' Lee Tony Leung Ka-fai as Michael Cheung Chi-mun Anita Mui as Chow Ying-kit Shih Kien as Michael's father Saburō Tokitō as Sam Ho Cheung-ching/Tanaka Maggie Cheung Ho-yee as Ling Cheng Wai-lun as Pat Andrew Kam as Jimmy Foo Wang-tat as Uncle Mười Nam Yin as Bond Wan Seung-lam as General with Bond Wong Chi-wai as Bodyguard Kirk Wong as Bodyguard Tam Wai as Bodyguard To Wai-wo as Soldier Ho Chi-moon as Mr. Ho's board member Leung Sam William Cheng The film grossed HK$18,476,116 at the Hong Kong box office; the Taiwan version runs 145 minutes long, the complete uncut version. The Hong Kong version runs only 114 minutes long despite saying 130 minutes on the cover. On a special 2004 DVD release, there are a few minutes of scenes that were deleted from the Hong Kong version as a separate feature. A Chinese out-of-print DVD dubbed from Taiwan runs 130 minutes long, the extended version, shorter compared to the Taiwanese out-of-print 145-minute VCD.
A Taiwan Long Shong VHS dubbed in Taiwan contains an alternate scene where Anita kisses Tony Leung's hand, shorter
Cinema of the United States
The cinema of the United States metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a large effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood cinema, which developed from 1917 to 1960 and characterizes most films made there to this day. While Frenchmen Auguste and Louis Lumière are credited with the birth of modern cinema, American cinema soon came to be a dominant force in the industry as it emerged, it produces the total largest number of films of any single-language national cinema, with more than 700 English-language films released on average every year. While the national cinemas of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand produce films in the same language, they are not considered part of the Hollywood system. Hollywood has been considered a transnational cinema. Classical Hollywood produced multiple language versions of some titles in Spanish or French. Contemporary Hollywood offshores production to Canada and New Zealand.
Hollywood is considered the oldest film industry where earliest film studios and production companies emerged, it is the birthplace of various genres of cinema—among them comedy, action, the musical, horror, science fiction, the war epic—having set an example for other national film industries. In 1878, Eadweard Muybridge demonstrated the power of photography to capture motion. In 1894, the world's first commercial motion-picture exhibition was given in New York City, using Thomas Edison's kinetoscope; the United States produced the world's first sync-sound musical film, The Jazz Singer, in 1927, was at the forefront of sound-film development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the US film industry has been based in and around the 30 Mile Zone in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. Director D. W. Griffith was central to the development of a film grammar. Orson Welles's Citizen Kane is cited in critics' polls as the greatest film of all time; the major film studios of Hollywood are the primary source of the most commercially successful and most ticket selling movies in the world, such as The Birth of a Nation, Gone with the Wind, The Sound of Music, The Godfather, Star Wars, E.
T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park and Avatar. Moreover, many of Hollywood's highest-grossing movies have generated more box-office revenue and ticket sales outside the United States than films made elsewhere. Today, American film studios collectively generate several hundred movies every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world and a leading pioneer in motion picture engineering and technology; the first recorded instance of photographs capturing and reproducing motion was a series of photographs of a running horse by Eadweard Muybridge, which he took in Palo Alto, California using a set of still cameras placed in a row. Muybridge's accomplishment led inventors everywhere to attempt to make similar devices. In the United States, Thomas Edison was among the first to produce such a device, the kinetoscope; the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee, New Jersey was the motion-picture capital of America.
The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edison's "Black Maria", the first motion-picture studio in West Orange, New Jersey. The cities and towns on the Hudson River and Hudson Palisades offered land at costs less than New York City across the river and benefited as a result of the phenomenal growth of the film industry at the turn of the 20th century; the industry began attracting both capital and an innovative workforce, when the Kalem Company began using Fort Lee in 1907 as a location for filming in the area, other filmmakers followed. In 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. Others followed and either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee. In the 1910s and 1920s, film companies such as the Independent Moving Pictures Company, Peerless Studios, The Solax Company, Éclair Studios, Goldwyn Picture Corporation, American Méliès, World Film Company, Biograph Studios, Fox Film Corporation, Pathé Frères, Metro Pictures Corporation, Victor Film Company, Selznick Pictures Corporation were all making pictures in Fort Lee.
Such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. In New York, the Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens, was built during the silent film era, was used by the Marx Brothers and W. C. Fields; the Edison Studios were located in the Bronx. Chelsea, Manhattan was frequently used. Picture City, Florida was a planned site for a movie picture production center in the 1920s, but due to the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane, the idea collapsed and Picture City returned to its original name of Hobe Sound. Other major centers of film production included Chicago, Texas and Cuba; the film patents wars of the early 20th century led to the spread of film companies across the US Many worked with equipment for which they did not own the rights and thus filming in New York could be dangerous. By 1912, most major film companies had set up production facilities in Southern California near or in Los Angeles because of the region's favorable year-round weather. In early 1910, director D. W. Griffith was sent by the Biograph Company to the west coast with his acting troupe, consisting of actors Blanche Sweet, Lillian Gish, Mary Pickford, Lionel Barrymore and others.
They started filmi
Chow Yun-fat, SBS known as Patrick Chow, is a Hong Kong actor best known in Asia for his collaborations with filmmaker John Woo in the action heroic bloodshed-genre films A Better Tomorrow, The Killer, Hard Boiled, in the West for his roles as Li Mu-bai in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Sao Feng in Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End. He plays in dramatic films and has won three Hong Kong Film Awards for Best Actor and two Golden Horse Awards for Best Actor in Taiwan. In 2014, Chow was the second-highest earning actor in Hong Kong, earning HK$170 million, his reported net worth is HK$5.6 billion. Chow was born in Lamma Island, Hong Kong, to a mother, a cleaning lady and vegetable farmer, a father who worked on a Shell Oil Company tanker. Chow grew up in a farming community in a house with no electricity, he woke up at dawn each morning to help his mother sell herbal jelly and Hakka tea-pudding on the streets. His family moved to Kowloon. At 17, he left school to help support the family by doing odd jobs including bellboy, camera salesman and taxi driver.
His life started to change after college when he responded to a newspaper advertisement, his actor-trainee application was accepted by TVB, the local television station. He made his acting debut. Chow became a familiar face in soap operas that were exported internationally; when Chow appeared in the 1980 TV series The Bund on TVB, it did not take long for him to become a household name in Hong Kong. The series, about the rise and fall of a gangster in 1930s Shanghai, was a hit throughout Asia and made Chow a star. Although Chow continued his TV success, his goal was to become a big-screen actor. However, his occasional ventures into low-budget films were disastrous. Success came when he teamed up with director John Woo in the 1986 gangster action-melodrama A Better Tomorrow, which swept the box offices in Asia and established Chow and Woo as megastars. A Better Tomorrow won him his first Best Actor award at the Hong Kong Film Awards, it was the highest-grossing film in Hong Kong history at the time, set a new standard for Hong Kong gangster films.
Taking the opportunity, Chow quit TV entirely. With his new image from A Better Tomorrow, he made many more'gun fu' or'heroic bloodshed' films, such as A Better Tomorrow 2, Prison on Fire, Prison on Fire II, The Killer, A Better Tomorrow 3, Hard Boiled and City on Fire, an inspiration for Quentin Tarantino's Reservoir Dogs. Chow may be best known for playing honorable tough guys, whether cops or criminals, but he has starred in comedies like Diary of a Big Man and Now You See Love, Now You Don't and romantic blockbusters such as Love in a Fallen City and An Autumn's Tale, for which he was named Best Actor at the Golden Horse Awards, he brought together his disparate personae in the 1989 film God of Gamblers, directed by the prolific Wong Jing, in which he was by turns a suave charmer, a broad comedian, an action hero. The film surprised many, became immensely popular, broke Hong Kong's all-time box office record, spawned a series of gambling films as well as several comic sequels starring Andy Lau and Stephen Chow.
The tough demeanor and youthful appearance of Chow's characters has earned him the nickname "Babyface Killer". The Los Angeles Times proclaimed Chow Yun-Fat "the coolest actor in the world". In the mid'90s, Chow moved to Hollywood in an unsuccessful attempt to duplicate his success in Asia, his first two films, The Replacement Killers and The Corruptor, were box office disappointments. In his next film Anna and the King, Chow teamed up with Jodie Foster, but the film suffered at the box office. Chow accepted the role of Li Mu-Bai in the film Hidden Dragon, it became a winner at both the Oscars. In 2003, Chow starred in Bulletproof Monk. In 2006, he teamed up with Gong Li in the film Curse of the Golden Flower, directed by Zhang Yimou. In 2007, Chow played. However, his part was omitted when the movie was shown in mainland China, where government censors felt that Chow's character "vilified and humiliated" Chinese people. In the poorly received film Dragonball Evolution, Chow Yun-fat played Master Roshi.
In 2014, Chow returned to Hong Kong cinema in From Vegas to Macau. For the part, he lost 13 kg within 10 months. In October 2014, Chow supported the Umbrella Movement, a civil rights movement for universal suffrage in Hong Kong, his political stance resulted in censorship by the Chinese government. In February 2015, Chow reprised his role as Ken in the sequel From Vegas to Macau II, he was paid 5 million USD for the film. On 26 June 2008, Chow released his first photo collection in Hong Kong, which includes pictures taken on the sets of his films. Proceeds from the book's sales were donated to Sichuan earthquake victims. Published by Louis Vuitton, the books were sold in Vuitton's Hong Paris stores. Chow has been married twice. In 1986, Chow married Singaporean Jasmine Tan; the couple gave birth to a stillborn daughter in 1991. Chow has a goddaughter, Celine Ng, a former child model for Chickeeduck, McDonald's, Toys'R'Us and other companies. Chow has appeared in 24 television series. Stranglehold Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Hong Kong Film
A Better Tomorrow (album)
A Better Tomorrow is the sixth studio album by American hip hop group Wu-Tang Clan. The album was released on December 2014, by Warner Bros.. Records; the album was supported by the singles "Keep Watch", "Ron O'Neal" and "Ruckus in B Minor". A Better Tomorrow received mixed reviews from music critics; the album debuted at number 29 on the Billboard 200 chart, selling 24,386 copies in its first week of release. On June 29, 2011, Raekwon announced that the group were working on a new studio album, still in its early stages, saying: "It's kind of early to announce a new album right now. We've been working on some things, though; as far as Wu-Tang goes, it's something that we got to get together first for." In July 2011, Ghostface Killah said that the album should be released in May 2012. In April 2012, GZA hinted that a new album was unlikely, saying: "We haven't been on the same page in years, it is. Sometimes that match burns out... I don't feel bad about it. It's good. I'm grateful for everything we have done throughout our careers and if there's nothing else to put out there's nothing to put out."
In October 2012, RZA said a new Wu-Tang Clan album might happen after all, on the occasion of the group's 20th anniversary, saying: "Well, what I can say about that Sway is next year, November 2013 – I’m going back from 1993 to 2013, that’s our 20-year anniversary. So I told the brothers we should come together and maybe do something to close the book. So we’ve been building about it. If life permits and the energy is proper maybe next year on the same date or the same time we put out 36 Chambers we’ll put out a final chapter of recorded music."In November 2012, Raekwon doubted a new album would happen, saying: "We've been talking about it and it's a lot of discussion about it, but it's not consolidated yet. We know as a group that 20 years in the business is something serious, so there was a couple of conversations going on about it...you know, everyone's so nonchalant about shit, like they don't know if it's going to happen. For me, it's, it should happen in a way. We've made a lot of money, of course, we've lost a lot of money, it kinda put certain cats in situations where this can help right now – at the end of the day, it can help all of us, but it can help the ones that need to be helped and it can put us back where we need to be financially, back in the game as one of the iconic groups in the game, but it takes a lot of loyalty, it takes a lot of love, it takes a lot of respect.
I want to see it happen, but more I want to see it done the right way." On January 9, 2013, work on the sixth Wu-Tang Clan album was announced via the group's official Facebook page. In March 2013, Method Man announced that the Clan was working on a sixth studio album and it would be released during 2013 in celebration of their 20-year anniversary since 36 Chambers. In March 2013, Cappadonna said the album was in the recording process, taking place in New York, Los Angeles and the Wu mansion in New Jersey, saying: "I spoke to the RZA. We’ve been texting each other. We’re concentrating on more positivity and teachings and trying to put that back into the original recipe for this next Wu-Tang album; the recording has begun. It’s all being done in the secret Wu-Tang bat chamber. RZA has all the tracks lined up. There are recordings taking place in New York, L. A. and at the Wu mansion in New Jersey.” In April 2013, RZA said. On April 11, 2013, it was announced via a press release that their upcoming sixth studio album would be titled, A Better Tomorrow and was set to be released in July, 2013.
In April 2013, the Clan reunited to perform at the 2013 Coachella Valley Arts Festival. On May 17, 2013, a unreleased Wu-Tang song titled "Execution in Autumn" was released for purchase through RZA's record label Soul Temple Records. In June 2013, they performed at the 2013 HOT 97 Summer Jam at MetLife Stadium in New Jersey, twenty years after they performed at the first annual Summer Jam concert. In June 2013, RZA spoke about the song "Family Reunion" and the album's progress, saying: "The song "Family Reunion" was recorded in my old studio, the same studio we recorded Wu-Tang Forever, the Wu-Tang mansion in south Jersey—which I still own. I remodeled it and rebuilt the studio. I invited the brothers to come back to this place. We recorded that song "Family Reunion." To me, it's time for a family reunion, not only as us—just Wu-Tang Clan, but all our fans. We have a better tomorrow. We had some good times, but if tomorrow can be better than today. If things go right...you know, it's hard to get a Wu-Tang album,'cause we all have such big careers and big families that we have to maintain, of our own, to bring that energy back is not so easy.
It's looking real promising. Method Man did a lot of verses already. Is writing some verses. U-God took some music to write his verses. Masta Killa's been on-point with his verses. Inspectah Deck, myself."He stated he was hoping to release the album in November 2013, saying: "If things go right and we finish this album, I think that we'll try to put it out in November, to celebrate the 20th anniversary of. That's my goal." In July 2013, Inspectah Deck stated that unreleased verses from Ol' Dirty Bastard would be featured on the album, saying: "RZA has a bunch of Ol’ Dirty tracks and verses that for years nobody’s heard and, from my last conversation, we’re
Tsui Hark, born Tsui Man-kong, is a Vietnam-born Chinese film director and screenwriter. Tsui has directed several influential Hong Kong films such as Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain, the Once Upon a Time in China film series and The Blade. Tsui has been a prolific writer and producer, he is viewed as a major figure in the Golden Age of Hong Kong cinema and is regarded by critics as "one of the masters of Asian cinematography."In the late 1990s, Tsui had a short-lived career in the United States, directing the Jean-Claude Van Damme-led films Double Team and Knock Off. Both films were critically panned, he has since found new commercial and critical success with blockbusters such as the Detective Dee film series, Flying Swords of Dragon Gate and The Taking of Tiger Mountain. Tsui was raised in Saigon, Vietnam, to a large Chinese family with sixteen siblings. Tsui showed an early interest in show business and films, he drew comic books, an interest that would influence his cinematic style. By the age of 13, he and his family immigrated to Hong Kong.
Tsui started his secondary education in Hong Kong in 1966. He proceeded to study film in Texas, first at Southern Methodist University and at the University of Texas at Austin, graduating in 1975, he claims to have told his parents he wanted to follow in his father's footsteps as a pharmacist, that it was here he changed his given name to Hark. After graduation, Tsui moved to New York City, where he worked on From Spikes to Spindles, a noted documentary film by Christine Choy on the history of the city's Chinatown, he worked as an editor for a Chinese newspaper, developed a community theatre group and worked in a Chinese cable TV station. He returned to Hong Kong in 1977. Upon turning to feature filmmaking, Tsui was typed as a member of the "New Wave" of young, iconoclastic directors, his debut film, The Butterfly Murders, was an eccentric and technically challenging blend of wuxia, murder mystery and science fiction / fantasy elements. His second film, We're Going to Eat You, was an eccentric blend of cannibal horror, black comedy and martial arts.
Tsui's third film, Dangerous Encounter of the First Kind, put him beyond the pale. The thriller about delinquent youths on a bombing spree was nihilistic and pregnant with angry political subtext. Censored by the British colonial government, it was released in 1981 in a drastically altered version titled Dangerous Encounter – 1st Kind. Unsurprisingly, it was not a financial success. However, it helped to make Tsui a darling of film critics who had coined the New Wave label and were hopeful for a more aesthetically daring cinema, more engaged with the realities of contemporary Hong Kong. In 1981, Tsui joined Cinema City & Films Co. a new production company founded by comedians Raymond Wong, Karl Maka and Dean Shek, instrumental in codifying the slick Hong Kong blockbuster films of the 1980s. Tsui played his part in the process with pictures like the 1981 crime farce All the Wrong Clues, his first hit, Aces Go Places 3, part of the studio's long-running spy spoof series. In 1983, Tsui directed the wuxia fantasy film Zu Warriors from the Magic Mountain for the studio Golden Harvest.
Tsui imported Hollywood technicians to help create special effects whose number and complexity were unprecedented in Chinese-language cinema and remains preoccupied with pushing back the boundaries of the industry's effects technology. In 1984, Tsui formed the production company Film Workshop along with his now ex-wife and occasional co-producer, Nansun Shi, making it a home base for a tirelessly prolific roster of directing and producing projects. Here, he developed a reputation as a hands-on and intrusive producer of other directors' work, fuelled by public breaks with major filmmakers like John Woo and King Hu, his most longstanding and fruitful collaboration has been with Ching Siu-tung. As action choreographer and/or director on many Film Workshop productions, Ching made a major contribution to the well-known Tsui style. Film Workshop releases became consistent box office hits in Hong Kong and around Asia, drawing audiences with their visual adventurousness, their broad commercial appeal, hectic camerawork and pace.
Tsui has the knack of trend-setting in film genres which earned him the name'Steven Spielberg of Asia'. He produced John Woo's A Better Tomorrow, which launched a craze for the hardboiled mob film or "triad" movies, Ching Siu-tung's A Chinese Ghost Story, which did the same for period ghost fantasies. Zu Warriors and The Swordsman brought back the long-out-of-favor wuxia film. In fact, Tsui's "movie brat" nostalgia is one of the main ingredients in his work, he resurrects and revises classic films and genres: the murder mystery in The Butterfly Murders. Peking Opera Blues plays with and pays tribute to the traditions of the Peking opera that his mother took him to see as a small boy and which had such a strong influence on Hong Kong action cinema; the Lovers adapts a retold, cross-dressing period romance, best k
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim