Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday American comic strip written and illustrated by Charles M. Schulz that ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000, continuing in reruns afterward. Peanuts is among the most popular and influential in the history of comic strips, with 17,897 strips published in all, making it "arguably the longest story told by one human being". At its peak in the mid- to late 1960s, Peanuts ran in over 2,600 newspapers, with a readership of around 355 million in 75 countries, was translated into 21 languages, it helped to cement the four-panel gag strip as the standard in the United States, together with its merchandise earned Schulz more than $1 billion. The strip focuses on a social circle of young children, where adults exist but are seen or heard; the main character, Charlie Brown, is meek and lacks self-confidence. He is unable to fly a kite, win a baseball game, or kick a football held by his irascible friend Lucy, who always pulls it away at the last instant.
Peanuts is one of the literate strips with philosophical and sociological overtones that flourished in the 1950s. The strip's humor is psychologically complex, the characters' interactions formed a tangle of relationships that drove the strip. Peanuts achieved considerable success with its television specials, several of which, including A Charlie Brown Christmas and It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown, won or were nominated for Emmy Awards; the Peanuts holiday specials remain popular and are broadcast on ABC in the U. S. during the appropriate seasons, since 2001. The Peanuts franchise had success in theatre, with the stage musical You're a Good Man, Charlie Brown an oft-performed production. In 2013, TV Guide ranked. A computer-animated feature film based on the strip, The Peanuts Movie, was released in 2015. Peanuts had its origin in Li'l Folks, a weekly panel comic that appeared in Schulz's hometown paper, the St. Paul Pioneer Press, from 1947 to 1950, he first used the name Charlie Brown for a character there, although he applied the name in four gags to three different boys and one buried in sand.
The series had a dog that looked much like the early 1950s version of Snoopy. In 1948, Schulz sold a cartoon to The Saturday Evening Post, which published 17 of his single-panel cartoons; the first of these was of a boy sitting with his feet on an ottoman. In 1948, Schulz tried to have Li'l Folks syndicated through the Newspaper Enterprise Association, a firm run by the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain. Schulz would have been an independent contractor for the syndicate, unheard of in the 1940s, but the deal fell through. Li'l Folks was dropped in early 1950; that year, Schulz approached the United Feature Syndicate—also operated by Scripps-Howard—with his best work from Li'l Folks. When his work was picked up by United Feature Syndicate, they decided to run the new comic strip he had been working on; this strip was similar in spirit to the panel comic, but had a set cast of characters rather than different nameless little folk for each page. The name Li'l Folks was close to the names of two other comics of the time: Al Capp's Li'l Abner and a strip titled Little Folks, so to avoid confusion, the syndicate settled on the name Peanuts, after the peanut gallery featured in the Howdy Doody TV show.
The title Peanuts was chosen by the syndication editor. In a 1987 interview, Schulz said: "It's ridiculous, has no meaning, is confusing, has no dignity—and I think my humor has dignity." The periodic collections of the strips in paperback book form had either "Charlie Brown" or "Snoopy" in the title, not "Peanuts", because of Schulz's distaste. From November 20, 1966, to January 4, 1987, the opening Sunday panels read Peanuts, featuring Good Ol' Charlie Brown. Peanuts premiered on October 2, 1950, in nine newspapers: The Washington Post, The Chicago Tribune, The Minneapolis Tribune, The Allentown Morning Call, The Bethlehem Globe-Times, The Denver Post, The Seattle Times, The New York World-Telegram & Sun, The Boston Globe, it began as a daily strip. The first strip was four panels long and showed Charlie Brown walking by two other young children and Patty. Shermy lauds Charlie Brown as he walks by, but tells Patty how he hates him in the final panel. Snoopy was an early character in the strip, first appearing in the third strip, which ran on October 4.
Its first Sunday strip appeared January 6, 1952, in the half-page format, the only complete format for the entire life of the Sunday strip. Most of the other characters that became the main characters of Peanuts did not appear until later: Violet, Lucy, Pig-Pen, Frieda, "Peppermint" Patty, Franklin and Rerun. Schulz decided to produce all aspects of the strip himself from the script to the finished art and lettering. Schulz did, hire help to produce the comic book adaptations of Peanuts. Thus, the strip was able to be presented with a unified tone, Schulz was able to employ a minimalistic style. Backgrounds were not used, when they were, Schulz's frazzled lines imbued them with a fraught, psychological appearance; this style has been described by art critic John Carlin as forcing "its readers to focus on subtle nuances rather than broad actions or sharp transitions." Schulz held this belief all his life, reaffirming in 1994 the importance of crafting the strip himself: "This is not a crazy business about slinging ink.
This is a deadly
Willie Howard Mays, Jr. nicknamed "The Say Hey Kid", is an American former Major League Baseball center fielder who spent all of his 22-season career playing for the New York/San Francisco Giants, before finishing with the New York Mets. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1979. Mays won two National League Most Valuable Player awards, he ended his career with 660 home runs—third at the time of his retirement and fifth all-time—and won a record-tying 12 Gold Glove awards beginning in 1957, when the award was introduced. Mays shares the record of most All-Star Games played with Hank Aaron and Stan Musial. In appreciation of his All-Star record, Ted Williams said "They invented the All-Star Game for Willie Mays."Mays' career statistics and his longevity in the pre-performance-enhancing drugs era have drawn speculation that he may be the finest five-tool player and many surveys and expert analyses, which have examined Mays' relative performance, have led to a growing opinion that Mays was the greatest all-around offensive baseball player of all time.
In 1999, Mays placed second on The Sporting News's "List of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players", making him the highest-ranking living player. That year, he was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. Mays is one of five National League players to have had eight consecutive 100-RBI seasons, along with Mel Ott, Sammy Sosa, Chipper Jones, Albert Pujols. Mays hit over 50 home runs in 1955 and 1965, representing the longest time span between 50-plus home run seasons for any player in Major League Baseball history, his final Major League Baseball appearance came on October 16 during Game 3 of the 1973 World Series. Mays was born in 1931 in Westfield, Alabama, a former black settlement near Fairfield, his father, Cat Mays, was a talented baseball player with the Negro team for the local iron plant. His mother, Annie Satterwhite, was a gifted track star in high school, his parents never married. As a baby, Mays was cared for by his mother's younger sisters Ernestine. Sarah became the primary female role model in Mays' life.
At age 3 Mays' parents separated. Though his mother remarried, his father took in a set of older orphan girls to help with raising young Willie. Mays always saw these two as his aunts, his father exposed him to baseball at an early age, by the age of five he was playing catch with his father. At age 10, Mays was allowed to sit on the bench of his father's League games. Mays played multiple sports at Fairfield Industrial High School, averaging a then-record 17 points a game in basketball and more than 40 yards a punt in football, while playing quarterback. Mays graduated from Fairfield in 1950. Mays' professional baseball career began in 1947. A short time Mays left the Choo-Choos and returned to his home state to join the Birmingham Black Barons of the Negro American League. Mays helped them win the pennant and advance to the 1948 Negro League World Series, where they lost the series 4-1 to the Homestead Grays. Mays hit a respectable.262 for the season, but it was his excellent fielding and baserunning that made him a standout.
By playing professionally with the Black Barons, Mays jeopardized his opportunities to play high school sports in Alabama. This created some problems for him with high school administrators at Fairfield, who wanted him to help the teams and ticket sales. Over the next several years, a number of major league baseball franchises sent scouts to watch him play; the first was the Boston Braves. The scout who discovered him, Bud Maughn, had been following him for over a year and referred him to the Braves, who packaged a deal that called for $7,500 down and $7,500 in 30 days, they planned to give Mays $6,000. The obstacle in the deal was that Tom Hayes, owner of the Birmingham Black Barons, wanted to keep Mays for the balance of the season. Had the team been able to act more the Braves franchise might have had both Mays and Hank Aaron in their outfield from 1954 to 1973; the Brooklyn Dodgers scouted him and wanted Ray Blades to negotiate a deal, but were too late. The New York Giants had signed Mays for $4,000 and assigned him to their Class-B affiliate in Trenton, New Jersey.
After Mays batted.353 in Trenton, he began the 1951 season with the class AAA Minneapolis Millers of the American Association. During his short time span in Minneapolis, Mays played with two other future Hall of Famers: Hoyt Wilhelm and Ray Dandridge. Batting.477 in 35 games and playing excellent defense, Mays was called up to the Giants on May 24, 1951. Mays was at a movie theater in Iowa when he found out he was being called up. A message flashed up on the screen that said: "WILLIE MAYS CALL YOUR HOTEL." He appeared in his first major league game the next day in Philadelphia. Mays moved to Harlem, New York, where his mentor was a New York State Boxing Commission official and former Harlem Rens basketball legend "Strangler" Frank Forbes. Mays began his major league career with no hits in his first 12 at bats. On his 13th at-bat, however, he hit a towering home run over the left field roof of the Polo Grounds off of future Hall of Famer Warren Spahn. Spahn joked, "I'll never forgive myself. We might have gotten rid of Willie forever if I'd only struck him out."
Mays's batting average improved throughout the rest of the season. Although his.274 average, 68 RBI and 20 homers were among the lowest of his career, he still won the 1951 Rookie of the Year Award. During the Giants' comeback in August and September 1951 to tie the Dodgers in the pennant race, Mays'
"Pig-Pen" is a character in the comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz. Whilst amiable, he is a young boy who is, except on rare occasions dirty and attracts a permanent cloud of dust. "Pig-Pen" is a nickname. In the character's first appearance on July 13, 1954, in a strip directly parodying the first chapter of Lord of the Flies, he declares, "I haven't got a name... people just call me things... real insulting things." If he does have a real name, it is never mentioned. In a 2000 Gallup Poll "Pig-Pen" was found to be the fifth most popular Peanuts character."Pig-Pen" is known for his perpetually filthy overalls and the cloud of dirt and dust that follows him wherever he goes. When he takes a deep breath, the dust rises around him, he sometimes refers to the cloud that surrounds him with pride as "the dust of ancient civilizations". He cannot seem to rid himself of the dust for more than the briefest of periods — indeed, in spite of his best efforts, it appears that he cannot stay clean, he is referred to in an early strip as the only person who can get dirty while walking in a snowstorm.
On rare occasions he has appeared clean, hence unrecognizable. Once this was. On another occasion, he managed to keep one side of his body clean and presented this clean side to Patty, causing her to believe that he was clean. Once, after bathing and dressing in clean clothes, "Pig-Pen" stepped outside his house, instantaneously became dirty and disheveled, whereupon he declared to Charlie Brown, "You know what I am? I'm a dust magnet!" On another occasion, "Pig-Pen" decided it was important to have clean hands, but after failing to wash them, realized that he had "reached a point of no return." One notable exception is an earlier strip where he gets caught in a brief but heavy rainfall, while trying to seek shelter, the storm ends, revealing him to be clean. He responds with disdain, stating that "in one minute the rain has washed away what took me all day to accomplish". Though "Pig-Pen" is proud of his uncleanliness, Charlie Brown is the only other Peanuts character to unconditionally accept "Pig-Pen" for who he is defending "Pig-Pen's" uncleanliness in one strip: Don't think of it as dust.
Just think of it as the dirt and dust of far-off lands blowing over here and settling on "Pig-Pen!" It staggers the imagination! He may be carrying the soil, trod upon by Solomon or Nebuchadnezzar or Genghis Khan! Charles Schulz admitted that he came to regret "Pig-Pen's" popularity, given the character's one-joke nature. Like most of Schulz's characters, "Pig-Pen" has appeared in many of the animated Peanuts television specials beginning in the 1960s, as well as all five movies. One time his clean self was shown in a miniseries titled This Is America, Charlie Brown, where he is an astronaut aboard a futuristic space station, demonstrating how personal hygiene would apply in zero gravity. True to form, the clean "Pig-Pen" is dirtied again when dirt is attracted to him magnetically. In the 1990s, he appeared in a series of television commercials for Regina vacuum cleaners where all the dirt is sucked off his body and filthy trousers by one of the company's products, arguably one of the few times where "Pig-Pen" remains clean.
In 2015, "Pig-Pen" appeared in a commercial for All laundry detergent for a tie-in with The Peanuts Movie. In the commercial, dressed as a magician, puts a cloth over "Pig-Pen" and makes him clean, causing Snoopy to get dirty; this is one of the few times where he remains clean. Geoffrey Ornstein first voiced "Pig-Pen" in the 1965 movie A Charlie Brown Christmas. Although he later played the role in A Boy Named Charlie Brown, other various actors have voiced him since, he last appeared in the Peanuts comic strip on September 8, 1999. That strip was uncharacteristic of him in that it showed him embarrassed to the point of shame in his dirtiness, with none of the pride or sense of destiny that he expressed in earlier strips. "Pig-Pen" is good at playing the drums, as shown in the special Play It Again, Charlie Brown. He is shown playing the double bass, notably in "A Charlie Brown Christmas", as well as in Happy New Year, Charlie Brown!. He plays third base on the Peanuts baseball team
A mnemonic device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval in the human memory. Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval. Mnemonics aid original information in becoming associated with something more accessible or meaningful—which, in turn, provides better retention of the information. Encountered mnemonics are used for lists and in auditory form, such as short poems, acronyms, or memorable phrases, but mnemonics can be used for other types of information and in visual or kinesthetic forms, their use is based on the observation that the human mind more remembers spatial, surprising, sexual, humorous, or otherwise "relatable" information, rather than more abstract or impersonal forms of information. The word "mnemonic" is derived from the Ancient Greek word μνημονικός, meaning "of memory, or relating to memory" and is related to Mnemosyne, the name of the goddess of memory in Greek mythology.
Both of these words are derived from μνήμη, "remembrance, memory". Mnemonics in antiquity were most considered in the context of what is today known as the art of memory. Ancient Greeks and Romans distinguished between two types of memory: the "natural" memory and the "artificial" memory; the former is inborn, is the one that everyone uses instinctively. The latter in contrast has to be trained and developed through the learning and practice of a variety of mnemonic techniques. Mnemonic systems are strategies consciously used to improve memory, they help use information stored in long-term memory to make memorisation an easier task. The general name of mnemonics, or memoria technica, was the name applied to devices for aiding the memory, to enable the mind to reproduce a unfamiliar idea, a series of dissociated ideas, by connecting it, or them, in some artificial whole, the parts of which are mutually suggestive. Mnemonic devices were much cultivated by Greek sophists and philosophers and are referred to by Plato and Aristotle.
In times the poet Simonides was credited for development of these techniques for no reason other than that the power of his memory was famous. Cicero, who attaches considerable importance to the art, but more to the principle of order as the best help to memory, speaks of Carneades of Athens and Metrodorus of Scepsis as distinguished examples of people who used well-ordered images to aid the memory; the Romans valued. The Greek and the Roman system of mnemonics was founded on the use of mental places and signs or pictures, known as "topical" mnemonics; the most usual method was to choose a large house, of which the apartments, windows, furniture, etc. were each associated with certain names, events or ideas, by means of symbolic pictures. To recall these, an individual had only to search over the apartments of the house until discovering the places where images had been placed by the imagination. In accordance with said system, if it were desired to fix a historic date in memory, it was localised in an imaginary town divided into a certain number of districts, each of with ten houses, each house with ten rooms, each room with a hundred quadrates or memory-places on the floor on the four walls on the roof.
Therefore, if it were desired to fix in the memory the date of the invention of printing, an imaginary book, or some other symbol of printing, would be placed in the thirty-sixth quadrate or memory-place of the fourth room of the first house of the historic district of the town. Except that the rules of mnemonics are referred to by Martianus Capella, nothing further is known regarding the practice until the 13th century. Among the voluminous writings of Roger Bacon is a tractate De arte memorativa. Ramon Llull devoted special attention to mnemonics in connection with his ars generalis; the first important modification of the method of the Romans was that invented by the German poet Konrad Celtes, who, in his Epitoma in utramque Ciceronis rhetoricam cum arte memorativa nova, used letters of the alphabet for associations, rather than places. About the end of the 15th century, Petrus de Ravenna provoked such astonishment in Italy by his mnemonic feats that he was believed by many to be a necromancer.
His Phoenix artis memoriae went through as many as nine editions, the seventh being published at Cologne in 1608. About the end of the 16th century, Lambert Schenkel, who taught mnemonics in France and Germany surprised people with his memory, he was denounced as a sorcerer by the University of Louvain, but in 1593 he published his tractate De memoria at Douai with the sanction of that celebrated theological faculty. The most complete account of his system is given in two works by his pupil Martin Sommer, published in Venice in 1619. In 1618 John Willis published Mnemonica. Giordano Bruno included a memoria technica in his treatise De umbris idearum, as part of his study of the ars generalis of Llull. Other writers of this period are the Florentine Publicius. Porta, Ars reminiscendi. In 1648 Stanislaus Mink von Wennsshein revealed what he called the "most fertile secret" in mnemonics — using consonants for figures, thus expressing numbers by words, i
Snoopy, Come Home
Snoopy, Come Home is a 1972 American animated film directed by Bill Melendez and written by Charles M. Schulz based on the Peanuts comic strip; the film marks the on-screen debut of Woodstock, who had first appeared in the strip in 1967. The film was released in August 1972 by National General Pictures, produced by Lee Mendelson Films and Cinema Center Films. Snoopy and the rest of the Peanuts gang go to the beach for the day. Once there, Snoopy promises to go back to the beach the next day to meet up with Peppermint Patty. After Charlie Brown has gone home to play Monopoly with the others, he notices Snoopy is late and remarks he is tired of Snoopy being late; the next day, Snoopy is thrown off the beach due to a new "No Dogs Allowed on this beach" rule. Snoopy gets thrown out of a library due to his disruptive behavior and another "No Dogs Allowed in library" rule, he gets into a fight with Linus over his blanket, beats Lucy in a boxing match. Snoopy receives a letter from a girl named Lila, in the hospital for three weeks for unspecified reasons and needs Snoopy to keep her company.
Upon receiving the letter, Snoopy sets off with Woodstock to go see her, leaving Charlie Brown in the dark as to who Lila is. Linus decides to do some investigating, discovers that Lila is Snoopy's original owner. En route to see Lila and Woodstock are forced to face the challenges of a world full of signs declaring "No Dogs Allowed." Each instance - on a bus, a train, elsewhere - is musically accented by the deep tones of Thurl Ravenscroft. The pair are adopted as pets by an animal-obsessed girl, she ties Snoopy up like a leash. Clara locks Woodstock in a cage while he's trying to save Snoopy. Clara's mother lets her keep Snoopy. Clara is so excited to have Snoopy as her "sheepdog", she dresses him up. Clara starts a tea party, but Rex escapes Clara's clutches and tries to call for help, but Clara catches him, takes his dress off, ties Rex up gain. Clara tells Rex, "Mom says, if I'm gonna keep you, I gotta take you to the vet for a check up. You need about a dozen shots." Clara walks Rex to the vet and when they get there, Rex causes a fight, he escapes.
He returns to Clara's house and frees Woodstock. Clara chases Rex and Woodstock and Rex manages to trap her in a bowl full of water, before escaping with Woodstock. Snoopy and Woodstock camp out, play football and music while preparing dinner. Snoopy reaches the hospital, but again no dogs are allowed inside. To add further insult, the hospital does not allow birds to enter either. Snoopy is foiled in his first attempt to sneak into Lila's room, but his second attempt is successful, he keeps Lila company for the rest of his stay. Lila tells Snoopy, she asks Snoopy to go home with her, but he has doubts about this idea. Snoopy decides to go back home to Charlie Brown. However, when he sees Lila watching him tearfully from her hospital window, Snoopy finds that it's too hard to leave with her feelings hurt so badly, he runs back to her. But first, he needs to return to say goodbye. Snoopy writes a letter directing that certain items of his will be given away: Linus is given his croquet and chess sets, while Schroeder receives Snoopy's record collection.
The kids throw each one bringing a gift. The kids closest to Snoopy get up to say a few words in his honor, but when it is Charlie Brown's turn to speak, he is overwhelmed to the point of silence. After giving Snoopy his present, he cries out in pain with Snoopy doing likewise; the rest of the gang Lucy follows suit when Schroeder plays "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" on his piano after Snoopy opens his mountain of presents. After Snoopy leaves, Charlie Brown is unable to eat; when Snoopy arrives at Lila's apartment building the next day, he sees a sign next to the front door that says "No dogs allowed in this building". Snoopy is overjoyed. Lila arrives and Snoopy is reluctantly introduced to her pet cat. Snoopy shows Lila the sign, Lila has no choice but to allow Snoopy to leave. Snoopy leaves Lila joyfully returns to Charlie Brown and the others. Back home, the children are overjoyed carrying him on high to his dog house. Once there, using his typewriter, Snoopy demands that the kids return the items he had given them before he left, turning their feelings to annoyance.
Charlie Brown reads his document and tells the gang, "Mine says, that since he gave me nothing, I owe him nothing." Lucy snaps, "That does it, Charlie Brown! He's your dog and you're welcome to him!" The gang leaves Charlie Brown and Snoopy together Charlie Brown walks crossly away. The film ends with end credits being typed out by Woodstock. Chad Webber as Charlie Brown Bill Melendez as Snoopy and Woodstock Robin Kohn as Lucy van Pelt Stephen Shea as Linus van Pelt David Carey as Schroeder Hilary Momberger as Sally Brown Johanna Baer as Lila Linda Ercoli as Clara Lynda Mendelson as Frieda Chris De Faria as Peppermint PattyPatty, Pig-Pen, Franklin, Roy, 5 appear but had no lines. Cinema Center Films Presents A Lee Mendelson-Bill Melendez Production © 1972 Lee Mendelson Film Productions, Inc. and Sopw
Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. Computer animation can be detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures; the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, flip book and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed. Animation is more pervasive. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is prevalent in information technology interfaces; the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics. Animators are artists; the word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem", noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium"; the history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.
Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, which would provide the basis for the zoetrope, the flip book, the praxinoscope and cinematography. Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film.
Piano music and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops by tracing live-action film footage; some early filmmakers, including J. Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomón and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves. J. Stuart Blackton experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some cutout animation in Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper; the film consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées, Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo showcased detailed drawings, his Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of character development in drawn animation. During the 1910s, the production of animated short films referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters; the most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. El Apóstol was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, the world's first animated feature film. A fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, it is now considered a lost film. In 1919, the silent animated short Feline Follies was released, marking the debut of Felix the Cat, being the first animated character in the silent film era to win a high level of popularity.
The earliest extant feature-length animated film is The Adve
Scripps National Spelling Bee
The Scripps National Spelling Bee is an annual spelling bee held in the United States. The bee is run on a not-for-profit basis by The E. W. Scripps Company and is held at a hotel or convention center in Washington, D. C. during the week following Memorial Day weekend. Since 2011, it has been held at the Gaylord National Resort & Convention Center hotel in National Harbor in Oxon Hill, just outside Washington D. C, it was held at the Grand Hyatt Washington in Washington D. C. from 1996 to 2010. Although most of its participants are from the U. S. students from countries such as The Bahamas, the People's Republic of China, Ghana, Jamaica and New Zealand have competed in recent years. The competition has been open to, remains open to, the winners of sponsored regional spelling bees in the U. S.. Participants from countries other than the U. S. must be regional spelling-bee winners as well. Contest participants cannot be older than fourteen as of August 31 of the year before the competition. Previous winners are ineligible to compete.
Since 1994, the cable-television channel ESPN has televised the rounds of the bee. The National Spelling Bee was formed in 1925 as a consolidation of numerous local spelling bees, organized by The Courier-Journal in Louisville. Frank Neuhauser won the first National Spelling Bee held that year, by spelling "gladiolus"; the spelling bee has been held every year except for 1943–1945 due to World War II. The E. W. Scripps Company acquired the rights to the program in 1941; the bee is held in late May and/or early June of each year. It is open to students who have not yet completed the eighth grade, reached their 15th birthday, nor won a previous National Spelling Bee, its goal is educational: not only to encourage children to perfect the art of spelling, but to help enlarge their vocabularies and widen their knowledge of the English language. An insect bee is featured prominently on the logo of the Scripps National Spelling Bee, despite "bee" being unrelated to the name of the insect. "Bee" refers to "a gathering".
This sense of "bee" is related to the word "been". The Bee is the nation's largest and longest-running educational promotion, administered on a not-for-profit basis by The E. W. Scripps Company and 291 sponsors in the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Jamaica, The Bahamas, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa. Sponsorship is available on a limited basis to daily and weekly newspapers serving English-speaking populations around the world; each sponsor organizes a spelling bee program in its community with the cooperation of area school officials: public, parochial, charter and home schools. Schools enroll with the national office to ensure their students are eligible to participate and to receive the materials needed to conduct classroom and school bees. During enrollment, school bee coordinators receive their local sponsor's program-specific information—local dates and participation guidelines; the official study booklet is available free online. The champion of each sponsor's final spelling bee advances to the Scripps National Spelling Bee competition in Washington, D.
C. To qualify for the Scripps National Spelling Bee, a speller must win a regional competition. Regional spelling bees cover many counties, with some covering an entire state, U. S. territory, or foreign country. Regional competitions' rules are not required to correspond to those of the national competition. Most school and regional bees use the official study booklet. Through competition year 1994, the study booklet was known as Words of the Champions; the booklet is published by Merriam-Webster in association with the National Spelling Bee. It contains 1,155 words, divided by language of origin, along with exercises and activities in each section. Most bees whose winners advance to regional-level competition use the School Pronouncer's Guide, which contains a collection of Spell It! Words as well as "surprise words" not listed in Spell It! but featured in Scripps' official dictionary, the unabridged Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Scripps provides a Sponsor Bee Guide to administrators of regional bees.
The Sponsor Bee Guide consists of two volumes, each of which contains both words from Spell It! and "surprise words". Bees need not use the words from Spell It! to be considered official. To participate in the national competition, a speller must be sponsored. Scripps has 281 sponsors from the U. S. Canada, The Bahamas, New Zealand and Europe covering a certain area and conducting their own regional spelling bees to send spellers to the national level; the Preliminaries consists of a test delivered by