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A Brief History of Time

A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology by British physicist Stephen Hawking. It was first published in 1988. Hawking wrote the book for readers who have no prior knowledge of the universe and people who are just interested in learning something new. In A Brief History of Time, Hawking writes in non-technical terms about the structure, origin and eventual fate of the Universe, the object of study of astronomy and modern physics, he talks about basic concepts like space and time, basic building blocks that make up the Universe and the fundamental forces that govern it. He writes about cosmological phenomena such as black holes, he discusses two major theories, general relativity and quantum mechanics, that modern scientists use to describe the Universe. He talks about the search for a unifying theory that describes everything in the Universe in a coherent manner; the book sold more than 25 million copies. Early in 1983, Hawking first approached Simon Mitton, the editor in charge of astronomy books at Cambridge University Press, with his ideas for a popular book on cosmology.

Mitton was doubtful about all the equations in the draft manuscript, which he felt would put off the buyers in airport bookshops that Hawking wished to reach. With some difficulty, he persuaded Hawking to drop all but one equation; the author himself notes in the book's acknowledgements that he was warned that for every equation in the book, the readership would be halved, hence it includes only a single equation: E = m c 2. The book does employ a number of complex models and other illustrations to detail some of the concepts it explores. In A Brief History of Time, Stephen Hawking attempts to explain a range of subjects in cosmology, including the Big Bang, black holes and light cones, to the non-specialist reader, his main goal is to give an overview of the subject, but he attempts to explain some complex mathematics. In the 1996 edition of the book and subsequent editions, Hawking discusses the possibility of time travel and wormholes and explores the possibility of having a Universe without a quantum singularity at the beginning of time.

In the first chapter, Hawking discussed the history of astronomical studies, including the ideas of Aristotle and Ptolemy. Aristotle, unlike many other people of his time, thought, he came to this conclusion by observing lunar eclipses, which he thought were caused by the Earth's round shadow, by observing an increase in altitude of the North Star from the perspective of observers situated further to the north. Aristotle thought that the Sun and stars went around the Earth in perfect circles, because of "mystical reasons". Second-century Greek astronomer Ptolemy pondered the positions of the Sun and stars in the Universe and made a planetary model that described Aristotle's thinking in more detail. Today, it is known that the opposite is true: the Earth goes around the Sun; the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic ideas about the position of the stars and Sun were disproved in 1609. The first person to present a detailed argument that the Earth revolves around the Sun was the Polish priest Nicholas Copernicus, in 1514.

Nearly after a century Galileo Galilei, an Italian scientist, and, a German scientist, studied how the ] of some planets moved in the sky, used their observations to validate Copernicus's thinking. To fit the observations, Kepler proposed an ellipse/elliptical orbit model instead of a circular one. In his 1687 book on gravity, Principia Mathematica, Isaac Newton used complex mathematics to further support Copernicus's idea. Newton's model meant that stars, like the Sun, were not fixed but, faraway moving objects. Newton believed that the Universe was made up of an infinite number of stars which were more or less static. Many of his contemporaries, including German philosopher Heinrich Olbers, disagreed; the origin of the Universe represented another great topic of debate over the centuries. Early philosophers like Aristotle thought that the Universe has existed forever, while theologians such as St. Augustine believed it was created at a specific time. St. Augustine believed that time was a concept, born with the creation of the Universe.

More than 1000 years German philosopher Immanuel Kant thought that time goes back forever. In 1929, astronomer discovered. There was a time, between ten and twenty billion years ago, when they were all together in one singular dense place; this discovery brought the concept of the beginning of the Universe within the province of science. Today, scientists use two partial theories, Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, to describe the workings of the Universe. Scientists are still looking for a complete unified theory that would describe everything in the Universe. Hawking believes that the discovery of a complete unified theory may not aid the survival of our species, may not affect our life-style, but that humanity's deepest desire for knowledge is justification enough for our continuing quest, that our goal is nothing less than a complete description of the Universe we live in." Stephen Hawking talks about how the Aristotle theory of absolute space came to an end following the Newtonian theory that'rest' and'motion' can be the same state if an observer sees the event while at rest or if he moves at the same speed as the event.

Therefore,'rest'

Janine Gordon

Janine Gordon, better known by her professional name Jah Jah or MC Jah Jah, is an American rapper and multimedia artist. Jah Jah is an independent artist, working without a major label, her first record deal was with E-magine music entitled "The Art of Hip Hop", produced with Chubb Rock in 2002. Since 2005 she has been working exclusively with Quickmix who produced "The Attack","Lawless" and "Intelligence Report". In 2002 she was on an episode of Texas Justice as a plaintiff against producers who did not produce industry standard quality music, she won. In 2003 she went to São Paulo Brazil for over a year and worked with a group of rapper and reggae artists including Jimmy Luv and Grand Master Duda, producing two albums. Jah Jah performed extensively at various clubs in Brazil and a television appearances on The Syange Show. Jah Jah appeared on the first episode of ego trip's The Rapper Show, but according to her they did not select her because she was overqualified and outshone the other contestants.

Jah Jah got her start in rap by freestyling with other artists and underground hip hop scene during the'90s. It was here that she met many other artists such as Redman, Chubb Rock, The Beatnuts. "I was encouraged meeting The Beatnuts. Redman called me out in his song back in 97'" stated the rapper in an interview, she has a wide fan base on Myspace and has experienced some success with her music overseas in Brazil. Jah Jah was able to remain within the top 10 artists for over a year on the Myspace music chart. In 2005, Jah Jah filed a copyright infringement lawsuit against 50 Cent and Dr. Dre for stealing her music and using it illegally for 50's Massacre album; the Art of Hip Hop Take a Lick Take a Bite The Attack Musica Do Brasil Intelligence Report Lawless Jah Jah has art, notably photography, that has appeared in magazines such as Arena and galleries in New York City, San Francisco and Europe. Her visual art work is credited under Janine Gordon, she has a Master's Degree in Fine Art from New York University.

Here are the exhibitions that Janine's art has been featured in: 2008 MV Art Projects, Zurich 2007/08 Elga Wimmer Gallery, New York 2006 Les Rencontres d'Arles festival, France: laureate of the Discovery Award 2006 Galerie Kamel Mennour, Paris 2005 Galerie Volker Diehl, Germany 2005 Galerie Kamel Mennour, Paris 2004 Oliver Kamm Gallery, New York 2002 Deitch Projects, New York Galerie Volker Diehl, Berlin XL Xavier LaBoulbenne, New York 2001 Refusalon Gallery, San Francisco 1998/99 ANP, Antwerpen 1996 John Gibson Gallery, New York 1995 White Columns, New York ìIn Vitroî, Art Contemporain, Geneva,curated by Lionel Bovier 2008 Art for Life, benefit with Rush Arts at Russell Simmons CNEAI, curated by John Armleder and Mai-Thu Perret No Milk Today, Autoversion Ltd. New York City The Other Side, The 58 Gallery, NJ, curated by Billy Miller Artist as Publisher, The Center for Book Arts___ In A Boxî, Jersey City, Curated by B. Miller Circulo Azul, Mexico curated by Elga Wimmer El Aire, curated by Elga Wimmer Diva Art Fair, Elga Wimmer Black Noise, project with John Armleder, MAMCO,Switzerland Invisible Museum, Devon Dikeu via Denver Art Museum Do the Right Bling, Stedelijk Museum, Holland Youth of Today, Germany Moscow Art Fair, Galerie Volker Diehl MACO, Mexico Art fair, Elga Wimmer Extension 17.

The Swiss Institute, NYC, Paris Photo 2005, Galerie Volker Diehl Summer group show, Mitchell ñIness and Nash 2004 Will Boys Will Be Boys, curated by Shamim Momim The Armory, NY, Galerie Volker Diehl Palais de Tokyo, Curated by Jerome Sans Rimbaud, I-20 Gallery, curated by Max Henry Teenage Kicks, Royal Hiberian Academy. Dublin, Ireland Affordable art fair, Oliver Kamm/5BE,NADA Art Fair Miami, Mitchell-Innes and Nash Gallery- Art Basel Miami Beach, booth. Blur and artists who Rock", curated by Bill Arning " Non! Pas comme ca!", CAN, curated by Marc-Olivier Wahler Official website Janine Gordon "Stunting" Gallery Jah Jah's Official Myspace Galerie Volker Diehl: Janine Gordon Works Janine Gordon's Works in the Dikeou Collection

Richard Fell

Richard Taylor Fell CVO was the British High Commissioner to New Zealand and the colonial Governor of the Pitcairn, Henderson and Oeno Islands from 2001 to 2006. He was educated at Bootham School, in York, followed by the University of Bristol and the University of London, he joined the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1971, after completing an MA in Area Studies at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, serving in the South Asian Department. His first international post was a two-year stint in Canada, as 3rd Secretary. Since he has served in Saigon, Hanoi, Kuala Lumpur, Ottawa 1989–1993 as Counsellor, Economic/Commercial, he was Deputy Head of Mission in Bangkok 1993–1996, Consul-General in Toronto in 2000. He was in the Southern European Department of the FCO 1975–1976, the Central and Southern African Department 1977–1978, as Assistant, South East Asian Department 1986–1988. In 1988–1989 he was on loan to industry, 1996–1997 at the FCO on the Whitehall Scrutiny Review of Commercial Services.

In 1997–2000 he was Head of Personnel Services Department. He spent 2000–2001 at the Royal College of Defence Studies. British High Commission in New Zealand

Nakakido Station

Nakakido Station is a railway station on the Keikyu Main Line in Kanagawa-ku, Kanagawa Prefecture, operated by the private railway operator Keikyu. Nakakido Station is served by the Keikyu Main Line, is located 21.7 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Sengakuji Station in Tokyo. The station is approximately 50 m from Higashi-Kanagawa Station on the Keihin-Tohoku Line and Yokohama Line. Nakakido Station has two opposed side platforms serving two tracks; the tracks are with the station building underneath. The station opened on December 24, 1905 named Nakakido Station; the station was rebuilt as an elevated station in August 1910, but was destroyed in an air raid on May 29, 1945, again by a fire in July 1957. The platforms were lengthened in 1971, a pedestrian walkway was added in 2004. Nakakido Station is scheduled to be renamed Keikyū Higashikanagawa in March 2020. In fiscal 2011, the station was used by an average of 17,728 passengers daily. Higashi-Kanagawa Station National Route 15 List of railway stations in Japan Official website

Julius Keyl

Julius Keyl was a German track and field athlete and gymnast who competed in the 1900 Summer Olympics and in the 1906 Summer Olympics. Keyl competed for the MTV Munich Club, it was them who sent him to the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, he only competed in the 100 metres, where he finished last out of the four starters in his heat so didn't advance to the next round. Back home in Germany, Keyl became the 1902 and 1904 National Champion in the 100 metres, in 1902 with the help from his brother Walter, they broke the World Record twice in the 4 x 100 metres relay, in 1904 he broke the German 110 metres hurdles record when he ran it in 16 seconds. Keyl competed in the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece but not in athletics, this time he competed in the gymnastics, he was part of the All-Round Team that finished in fifth place; as well as studying law and becoming a practicing lawyer, from 1901-1919 he was head of his local football team MTV 1879 München, this was just after 11 players split from his team to form Bayern Munich, he was president of the Munich Football Association between 1904–10, before becoming president of the Technical Commission of the South German Football Association till 1922, when he moved to the same position at the German Football Association until 1928.

In 1928, Keyl was part of the coaching team for the German football team competing at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. Keyl died in 1959 just three weeks before his 82nd birthday in his home city of Munich

National Library of Mali

The National Library of Mali is located in Bamako, Mali. In 1938, the Institut Français d’Afrique Noire was established to study the language and culture of the peoples under French colonial rule in Africa. Following Mali's 1960 independence, in 1962 the IFAN Centre in Bamako was renamed by the Mali government the Institut des Sciences Humaines or the Mali Institute for the Study of the Humanities; the collections of Mali's National Library, National Archives and National Museum would all be inherited from IFAN. On 29 February 1968, the library was transferred from Koulouba to Avenue Kasse Keita in Ouolofobougou, a section of Bamako. A 17 March 1984 law created the National Library, it is headed by the Director, appointed by the National Director of Arts and Culture. The former selects five sections chiefs who are each responsible for one of the library's divisions: Cataloging and Bibliography Division; as of 1989, the library staff numbered 16 women and 12 men. Books and periodicals are available free to the public for in-house viewing, though borrowing privileges may be obtained by becoming a registered cardholder.

According to the United Nations, as of 2015 33 percent of adult Malians can read. The library hosts some of the exhibits for African Photography Encounters, a biannual Bamako photography festival. Direction Nationale des Archives du Mali This article began as a translation of the corresponding article in the French Wikipedia, accessed 26 December 2005. Marcel Lajeunesse, ed.. "Mali". Les Bibliothèques nationales de la francophonie. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec. OCLC 401164333. "Mali", World Report 2010, The Hague: International Federation of Library Associations, OCLC 225182140, Freedom of access to information. Direction nationale des Bibliothèques et de la Documentation VIAF. Bibliothèque nationale du Mali