"Sleigh Ride" is a popular light orchestra standard composed by Leroy Anderson. The composer had the original idea for the piece during a heat wave in July 1946 and finished the work in February 1948, it was instrumental. The orchestral version was first recorded in 1949 by the Boston Pops Orchestra. "Sleigh Ride" was a hit record on RCA Victor Red Seal 49-0515 / 10-1484, has become one of the orchestra's signature songs. The 45 rpm version was issued on red vinyl; the Pops has recorded the song with John Williams, their conductor from 1979 to 1995, Keith Lockhart, their current conductor. Leroy Anderson's own 1950 recording of "Sleigh Ride" on Decca 9-16000 and 16000 reached Cashbox magazine's bestsellers chart when re-released in 1952. "Sleigh Ride"'s main melody was used as the main theme of Victor Young's score for the 1949 western Streets of Laredo. Mitchell Parish worked with Young around this time, writing the lyrics for Young's version of Hoagy Carmichael's instrumental "Stardust". In 1950 The Andrews Sisters recorded the first vocal version of "Sleigh Ride", using lyrics written by Parish.
Although "Sleigh Ride" is associated with Christmas and appears on Christmas compilation albums, its lyrics mention no holiday. The song is noted for the sounds of a horse clip-clopping, a whip used to get the horse moving. In most performances, a percussionist provides these sounds on temple blocks and a slapstick, respectively. Toward the end of the piece, a trumpet imitates the sound of a horse whinnying. According to the American Society of Composers and Publishers review of Christmas music, "Sleigh Ride" ranks as one of the top 10 most-performed songs written by ASCAP members. ASCAP named "Sleigh Ride" the most popular piece of Christmas music in the U. S. in 2009–2012, based on performance data from over 2,500 radio stations. Anderson's recording remains the most popular instrumental version, while Johnny Mathis's has become the most popular vocal version. In his book Leroy Anderson: A Bio-Bibliography, Steve Metcalf says "'Sleigh Ride'... has been performed and recorded by a wider array of musical artists than any other piece in the history of Western music."
"Sleigh Ride" is in rondo form. The second section utilizes an unusual, unprepared modulation to III II; the difficulty of singing this has caused several recordings to alter the harmonies or omit this section altogether, as in the Phil Spector / Ronettes version. "Sleigh Ride" was covered by American girl group the Ronettes. The Phil Spector-produced recording has become the most popular version outside the traditional pop standard genre, charting yearly in Billboard's Top Ten U. S. Holiday 100 and was #26 in 2018 in the Hot 100, it features the well-known "Ring-a-ling-a-ling, ding-dong-ding" background vocals, the clip-clop and whinny of a horse at its beginning and end. 1949 – Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops. The original hit recording, this version has never been available on CD. Other Boston Pops recordings have been made under conductors Fiedler, John Williams, Keith Lockhart. 1950 – Leroy Anderson. The Decca Gold Label Series singles referenced above were not issued as individual records, but were part of the four-disc set Leroy Anderson Conducts His Own Compositions.
This version is played during the holiday season, has appeared in various compilations. Anderson re-recorded "Sleigh Ride" in stereo for the 1959 Decca LP Leroy Anderson Conducts Leroy Anderson. 1950 – The Andrews Sisters 1950 – Ella Fitzgerald – Ella Wishes You a Swinging Christmas from 2005 film Elf 1958 – Johnny Mathis – Merry Christmas 1983 – Amy Grant A Christmas Album 1993 – TLC recorded a version of the song for A LaFace Family Christmas, a holiday album featuring them and other artists signed to their record label of the same name. Their version features a rap performed by their late member Lisa'Left Eye' Lopes. 1996 – Spice Girls recorded and released a version of the song, featured as the B-side for their single 2 Become 1, the Christmas number one in the UK that year. 2002 – S Club Juniors, the junior spin off of S Club 7, released their version as part of a double-a-side with their version of Paul Anka's Puppy Love. Reaching #6 in December that year, it is still the only version of the song to have charted in the UK. 2008 – Béla Fleck and the Flecktones – Jingle All the Way.
"Die Schlittenfahrt" is the popular name of one of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's Three German Dances. It is sometimes mistakenly attributed to Wolfgang's father, Leopold Mozart, whose own Divertimento in F major is popularly known as "Musical Sleigh Ride"; the "Winter Night" segment of Frederick Delius's Three Small Tonepoems is commonly known as "Sleigh Ride". The "Troika" movement of Lieutenant Kijé by Sergei Prokofiev is a musical sleigh ride, referring to a three-horse team drawing a carriage. Christmas carol expert William Studwell wrote that Prokofiev's work was "even better" than "Sleigh Ride", having a more "exhilarating" style and imagery."Caribbean Sleigh Ride" is a work for symphony orchestra by Robert Wendel in the style of a fast Latin merengue. Leroy Anderson Foundation, Sle
Christmas is an annual festival, commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it; the traditional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus, delineated in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in accordance with messianic prophecies. When Joseph and Mary arrived in the city, the inn had no room and so they were offered a stable where the Christ Child was soon born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who further disseminated the information.
Although the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, the church in the early fourth century fixed the date as December 25. This corresponds to the date of the solstice on the Roman calendar. Most Christians celebrate on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, adopted universally in the civil calendars used in countries throughout the world. However, some Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to a January date in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, the belief that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity, rather than the exact birth date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas; the celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, viewing a Nativity play, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, pulling Christmas crackers and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, wreaths and holly.
In addition, several related and interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses; the economic impact of Christmas has grown over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. "Christmas" is a shortened form of "Christ's mass". The word is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131. Crīst is from Greek Khrīstos, a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ, "Messiah", meaning "anointed"; the form Christenmas was historically used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal. Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas found in print, based on the initial letter chi in Greek Khrīstos, "Christ", though numerous style guides discourage its use.
In addition to "Christmas", the holiday has been known by various other names throughout its history. The Anglo-Saxons referred to the feast as "midwinter", or, more as Nātiuiteð. "Nativity", meaning "birth", is from Latin nātīvitās. In Old English, Gēola referred to the period corresponding to December and January, equated with Christian Christmas. "Noel" entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself from the Latin nātālis meaning "birth". The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In Luke and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, Jesus is born there and laid in a manger. Angels proclaimed him a savior for all people, shepherds came to adore him. Matthew adds that the magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and returns to Nazareth.
The nativity stories recounted in Matthew and Luke prompted early Christian writers to suggest various dates for the anniversary. Although no date is indicated in the gospels, early Christians connected Jesus to the Sun through the use of such phrases as "Sun of righteousness." The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25. The first recorded Christmas celebration was in Rome on December 25, 336. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy was played out, the prominence of the holiday declined; the feast regained prominence after 800. Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehavior, the Puritans banned Christmas during the Reformation, it remained disreputable. In the early 19th century, Christmas was reconceived by Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, other authors as a holiday emphasizing family, kind-heartedness, gift-giving, Santa Claus. Christmas does not appear on th
Christmas by medium
Christmas themes have long been an inspiration to artists and writers. Moviemakers have picked up on this wealth of material, with both adaptations of literary classics and new stories. Many Christmas stories have been adapted to movies and TV specials, have been broadcast and repeated many times on TV. Since the popularization of home video in the 1980s, their many editions are sold and re-sold every year during the holiday shopping season. Notable examples are the many versions of the ballet The Nutcracker, the film It's a Wonderful Life, the themed versions of Dickens' A Christmas Carol, in which the elderly miser Ebenezer Scrooge is visited by ghosts and learns the errors of his ways. By contrast, the hero of the former, George Bailey, is a businessman who sacrificed his dreams to help his community. On Christmas Eve, a guardian angel finds him in despair and prevents him from committing suicide, by supernaturally showing him how much he meant to the world around him. A few films based on fictionalized versions of true stories have become Christmas specials themselves.
The story behind the Christmas carol "Silent Night" and the story of "Yes, there is a Santa Claus" are two examples. Sometimes, family films boasting special effects and/or uplifting messages, but having no real relation to Christmas, are telecast during the season as part of the holiday programming; the Wizard of Oz, for instance, was always telecast during the Christmas season between 1959 and 1962. Other films seen around the Christmas period are Annie, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Mary Poppins, Oliver!, The Sound of Music, Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, The Lord of the Rings trilogy, as well as several animated Disney, DreamWorks, Pixar movies. Others have some scenes during the Christmas season, such as the Harry Potter films, which are included in the viewing rotation; the action film Die Hard is seen by some as a Christmas film, as it takes place on the holiday, is viewed during the season, although whether or not Die Hard should be considered a Christmas film has been debated due to its story not being about the holiday itself.
In the United Kingdom, during the 2000s ITV showed a James Bond and/or a Harry Potter film during the Christmas Holidays whilst the BBC showed the Chronicles of Narnia and/or High School Musical films. And for many years Channel 5 have shown American/Canadian made-for-TV Christmas films during the weeks before Christmas. In North America, the holiday movie season includes release of studios' most prestigious pictures, in an effort both to capture holiday crowds and to position themselves for Oscar consideration. Next to summer, this is the second-most lucrative season for the industry. In fact, a few films each year open on the actual Christmas Day holiday. Christmas movies open no than Thanksgiving, as their themes are not so popular once the season is over; the home video release of these films is delayed until the beginning of the next year's Christmas season. American Christmas-themed films are broadcast on the Hallmark Channel and its companion channel Hallmark Movies & Mysteries, which during the holiday season feature new films along with reruns of favorites from prior years.
Actresses Candace Cameron Bure, Lacey Chabert, Danica McKellar, along with actor Niall Matter, are featured in lead or major roles. The films themselves feature a similar theme of a person who has "lost the Christmas spirit" and through "Christmas magic" regains it. Another theme plays on the "big city-small town" dynamic, whereby a lead character has either left a small hometown for the big city, or a big city person has to go to a small town, in either case deciding that the small town is where they should remain; the settings are in the northern United States, or in a mountain area, where snow are used as a backdrop for the film. Before 1962, when Mr. Magoo's Christmas Carol premiered, true Christmas specials made for TV were either adaptations of stories such as A Christmas Carol, or the Nativity Story, or episodes of variety shows highlighting Christmas music, they were hosted by such celebrities as Perry Como, Jane Wyatt, or Florence Henderson. This all changed once variety shows began dying out in the late 1980s and Rankin-Bass began producing more and more Christmas specials.
One notable television special seen at Christmas was Amahl and the Night Visitors, the first opera written for television. Composed by Gian-Carlo Menotti with a libretto in English by the composer, the opera told of a disabled beggar boy living with his widowed mother in the Holy Land, they are visited by the Three Wise Men who are on their way to see the Christ Child, when Amahl offers his crutch as a gift, he is miraculously cured. Commissioned by NBC, the opera was telecast annually in the U. S. from 1951 to 1966. In 1978, it returned to television, but this new production did not have the spectacular success that previous ones did. TV programmes which have had special Christmas episodes in the United Kingdom include Top of the Pops and Wise, The Two Ronnies, Stars in their Eyes, Only Fools and Horses, more re
The harmonica known as a French harp or mouth organ, is a free reed wind instrument used worldwide in many musical genres, notably in blues, American folk music, classical music, country, rock. There are many types of harmonica, including diatonic, tremolo, octave and bass versions. A harmonica is played by using the mouth to direct air into or out of one or more holes along a mouthpiece. Behind each hole is a chamber containing at least one reed. A harmonica reed is a flat elongated spring made of brass, stainless steel, or bronze, secured at one end over a slot that serves as an airway; when the free end is made to vibrate by the player's air, it alternately blocks and unblocks the airway to produce sound. Reeds are pre-tuned to individual pitches. Tuning may involve changing a reed’s length, the weight near its free end, or the stiffness near its fixed end. Longer and springier reeds produce deeper, lower sounds. If, as on most modern harmonicas, a reed is affixed above or below its slot rather than in the plane of the slot, it responds more to air flowing in the direction that would push it into the slot, i.e. as a closing reed.
This difference in response to air direction makes it possible to include both a blow reed and a draw reed in the same air chamber and to play them separately without relying on flaps of plastic or leather to block the nonplaying reed. An important technique in performance is bending: causing a drop in pitch by making embouchure adjustments, it is possible to bend isolated reeds, as on chromatic and other harmonica models with wind-savers, but to both lower, raise the pitch produced by pairs of reeds in the same chamber, as on a diatonic or other unvalved harmonica. Such two-reed pitch changes involve sound production by the silent reed, the opening reed; the basic parts of the harmonica are reed plates and cover plates. The comb is the main body of the instrument, when assembled with the reedplates, forms air chambers for the reeds; the term comb may originate from the similarity between this part of a hair comb. Harmonica combs were traditionally made from wood but now are made from plastic or metal.
Some modern and experimental comb designs are complex in the way. There is dispute among players about; those saying no argue that, unlike the soundboard of a piano or the top piece of a violin or guitar, a harmonica's comb is neither large enough nor able to vibrate enough to augment or change the sound. Among those saying yes are those who are convinced by their ears. Few dispute, that comb surface smoothness and air-tightness when mated with the reedplates can affect tone and playability; the main advantage of a particular comb material over another one is its durability. In particular, a wooden comb can absorb moisture from the player's breath and contact with the tongue; this can cause the comb to expand making the instrument uncomfortable to play, to contract compromising air tightness. Various types of wood and treatments have been devised to reduce the degree of this problem. An more serious problem with wood combs in chromatic harmonicas, is that, as the combs expand and shrink over time, cracks can form in the combs, because the comb is held immobile by nails, resulting in disabling leakage.
Much effort is devoted by serious players to sealing leaks. Some players used to soak wooden-combed harmonicas in water to cause a slight expansion, which they intended to make the seal between the comb, reed plates and covers more airtight. Modern wooden-combed harmonicas are less prone to swelling and contracting. Players still dip harmonicas in water for the way it affects ease of bending notes; the reed plate is a grouping of several reeds in a single housing. The reeds are made of brass, but steel and plastic are used. Individual reeds are riveted to the reed plate, but they may be welded or screwed in place. Reeds fixed on the inner side of the reed plate respond to blowing, while those fixed on the outer side respond to suction. Most harmonicas are constructed with the reed plates bolted to the comb or each other. A few brands still use the traditional method of nailing the reed plates to the comb; some experimental and rare harmonicas have had the reed plates held in place by tension, such as the WWII era all-American models.
If the plates are bolted to the comb, the reed plates can be replaced individually. This is useful because the reeds go out of tune through normal use, certain notes of the scale can fail more than others. A notable exception to the traditional reed plate design is the all-plastic harmonicas designed by Finn Magnus in the 1950s, in which the reed and reed plate were molded out of a single piece of plastic; the Magnus design had the reeds, reed plates and comb made of plastic and either molded or permanently glued together. Cover plates cover the reed plates and are made of metal, though wood and plastic have been used; the choice of these is personal. There are two types of cover plates: traditional open designs of stamped metal or plastic, which are there to be held
Alvin and the Chipmunks (1983 TV series)
Alvin and the Chipmunks is an American animated television series featuring The Chipmunks, produced by Bagdasarian Productions in association with Ruby-Spears Enterprises from 1983 to 1987, Murakami-Wolf-Swenson in 1988 and DIC Animation City from 1988 to 1990. It aired from 1983 to 1990 on NBC and is the follow-up to the original 1961–62 series, The Alvin Show; the show introduced The Chipettes, three female Chipmunks with their own human caretaker, Miss Beatrice Miller. In 1988, the show switched production companies to DIC Animation City, with the first 11 episodes of Season 6 produced by Murakami-Wolf-Swenson, was renamed The Chipmunks. In 1987, during the show's fifth season, the Chipmunks' first animated feature film, The Chipmunk Adventure, was released to theaters by The Samuel Goldwyn Company; the film was directed by Janice Karman and featured the Chipmunks and Chipettes in a contest traveling around the world. In its eighth and final season, the show again switched titles to The Chipmunks Go to the Movies, but it was same as The Chipmunks.
Each episode was a spoof of a Hollywood film like Back to the King Kong. Several television specials featuring the characters were released. In 1990, the special Rockin' Through the Decades was produced; that year, the Chipmunks teamed up with other well-known cartoon characters for the drug abuse-prevention special Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue. From 1998 to 2002 Cartoon Network aired the 65-episode syndication package of the series, it aired in Canada on Teletoon Retro from 2008 to until the channel shut down. It aired on Boomerang on April 2011 to July 2011; the episodes that were not included on the syndication package have not aired in the United States since the series' cancellation in 1990. The Chipmunks: The main characters of the series Alvin: The oldest brother and leader of the Chipmunks, Alvin is the talented troublemaker of the group, but is kind and good-hearted deep down. Simon: The middle brother, Simon is the intelligent realist and the most responsible of the group. Theodore: The youngest brother, Theodore is the cute innocent butterball of the group.
The Chipettes: The Chipmunks' female counterparts and on-and-off girlfriends Brittany: Brittany, the leader and the oldest sister of the Chipettes, is Alvin's counterpart. She is as vain and self-centered as Alvin, but like him, she does care about others. Jeanette: Jeanette is the middle sister of the Chipettes, she is Simon's counterpart. However, unlike Simon, able to stand up to Alvin, she does not stand up to Brittany as easily, she is very smart, what she does have in common with Simon. However, she is shy and clumsy. Eleanor: Eleanor is the youngest sister of the Chipettes, she is Theodore's counterpart, she shares his love for cooking. But she is more athletic, more intelligent, more to stand up to Brittany than Theodore is to Alvin. David "Dave" Seville: The Chipmunks' adoptive father, the Chipettes's guardian and manager, Dave's patience is tested nearly every day by Alvin to the point where he yells his trademark yell "ALVIN!!!". Despite all this, he loves all of his boys equally. Miss Beatrice Miller: The kindly, absent-minded adoptive mother of the Chipettes.
Cookie Chomper III: The Chipmunks' first pet, Cookie Chomper III was a stray kitten who found his way into the Seville residence one night while Dave was working late. For a time, the Chipmunks kept him a secret from Dave. Dave allowed them to keep Cookie Chomper III, he became their pet, but one evening, Cookie Chomper left through an open window in the Chipmunks' bedroom was hit by a car and killed. The Chipmunks all grieved, but Alvin was hurt most of all and blamed himself. Dave reassured the boys that it wasn't their fault and helped them remember the happy times they had with Cookie Chomper III. Lilly: The Chipmunks' puppy who they adopted from the shelter following the death of their original pet, Cookie Chomper III. Vinny: The Chipmunks' birth mother; the Chipmunks find their long-lost mother after days of searching. Alvin gets upset, their mother explains that the year she abandoned them there was a horrible winter and all of the animals in the forest were forced to leave their homes. She realized that they wouldn't survive the journey if she brought them with her, so she decided to leave them with a nice man, always kind to the forest animals.
She told them that when spring came and she could return to get them, she saw how happy they were with Dave, thought they would be better off with him. Alvin forgives his mother, they return to Dave. In a episode she and Dave clash on how to bring the boys up, they make up. Ross Bagdasarian, Jr. – Alvin, Dave Seville, Grandpa Seville, most additional male voices Janice Karman – Theodore, Brittany and Eleanor, most additional female voices Dody Goodman – Beatrice Miller Thomas H. Watkins – Uncle "Adventure" Willy, Lilly the dog Rainy Hayes – Chipette Song vocal artist Sherwood Ball – Chipmunk Song vocal artist Vanessa Bagdasarian Michael Bagdasarian Derek Barton Natalie Brown Derek Barton Booker Bradshaw Johnny Brown Natalie Brown Rodger Bumpass Arthur Burghardt Ruth Buzzi Nancy Cartwright Philip Clarke Henry Corden Peter Cullen Jim Cummings Julie Dees Alan Dinehart Walker Edmiston Jack Enyart Al Fann Ron Feinberg June Foray Johnny Haymer Stanley Jones Katie Leigh Barry Livingston Keye Luke Tress MacN
The Chipettes are a fictional group of three female anthropomorphic chipmunk singers—Brittany and Eleanor—first appearing on the cartoon series Alvin and the Chipmunks in 1983. In this and related materials, the Chipettes served as female featured characters in their own right, starring in numerous episodes; the title of the show was changed from Alvin and the Chipmunks to The Chipmunks in 1988 to reflect this. In the cartoon series and the accompanying feature films, all of the Chipettes were voiced by their creator, Janice Karman, the wife of Ross Bagdasarian, Jr.. Karman wrote and voiced the Chipettes' dialogue on their studio albums, while studio singers such as Susan Boyd, Shelby Daniel, Katherine Coon provided their singing voices. In Alvin and the Chipmunks, Eleanor is voiced by Vanessa Chambers, the daughter of Ross Bagdasarian, Jr. and Janice Karman and wife of Brian Chambers. The first designs for the Chipettes were drafted by Corny Cole for their 1983 debut; these were revamped by Sandra Berez for The Chipmunk Adventure and the seasons of the show.
Brittany Miller is the oldest sister and leader of the Chipettes and is the female counterpart of Alvin. Brittany was the born in Australia, Brittany pushes Jeanette around a lot and takes advantage of her kindness, but deep down they love each other much and are loyal to each other. Eleanor always stands up to Brittany when she tries to push Jeanette around, is the only person that tries to stand up to Brittany; the two of them do share a nice sisterly relationship. Jeanette is smartest of the Chipettes, as well as the tallest. Jeanette was born in Australia. Like Simon, she wears glasses, she has brown hair in a short ponytail in the recent films. Her eyes are green in her TV appearances and The Chipmunk Adventure but were changed to violet in the live-action/CGI films, she cares about Simon and gets along with him well. Eleanor is the youngest sister of the Chipettes. Eleanor was born in Australia, she has a lot in common with Theodore in terms of body shape and color of attire, but she is braver, more fit and has a better memory.
She is blonde with pigtails and has brown eyes in the'80s show, which changed to green in the more recent appearances. Miss Miller, an elderly eccentric friend of Dave and the Chipmunks, became the adoptive mother of the Chipettes in the television series, she is shown to be ditzy and talkative, but supportive and loving to the Chipettes. Miss Miller is featured in the Chipmunk Adventure movie as a babysitter for the Chipmunks but is tricked by Alvin, she is known for her fanciful manner of dress and belting out tunes from the 1930s. The origins of the Chipettes can be traced to the 1982 Alvin and the Chipmunks album The Chipmunks Go Hollywood. On this album, Alvin sings a duet with a female character billed as Charlene the Chipette. Charlene is featured on the song "You're the One That I Want" from the soundtrack of the motion picture Grease. Charlene was depicted on the album cover as having a long, golden blonde ponytail, seems to have been the basis for the character of Brittany, she may have made a visual appearance in 1990, in Rockin' with the Chipmunks, where she danced and lip-synced in the music video for "Crocodile Rock" by Elton John.
Brittany had a similar appearance Like the Chipmunks, the Chipettes were created for the musical medium, crossed over into cartoons. According to their creator, Janice Karman and Ross Bagdasarian, Jr. "had been doing the albums at that point... We couldn't do the girl songs. I wanted to do female chipmunks that have counter personalities to the Chipmunks so we could do some girl tunes." Bagdasarian added in reference to the Chipettes characters, "It enables you to deal with issues that girls are going through that boys wouldn't be dealing with... We had a baby girl at the time. We wanted to let her know she can be president, or a soccer champion, or whatever... With the Chipettes we can handle those sorts of things." It is worth noting, that the Chipettes of the cartoon series appeared on the small screen before appearing on any albums. Their first appearance on the Chipmunks album was on 1984's Songs From Our TV Shows, released on March 4, 1984, nearly seven months after the Chipettes debuted on the first episode of the Alvin and the Chipmunks television series on September 17, 1983.
Although the Chipettes featured prominently on many Alvin and the Chipmunks albums, they received equal billing with the Chipmunks only on 1988's The Chipmunks and The Chipettes: Born to Rock. The Chipettes, redesigned as far more realistic chipmunks, appear in the 2009 film Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Squeakquel. In the movie, Christina Applegate, Anna Faris, Amy Poehler voice the Chipettes. “There has been a lot of talk about it,” noted Janice Karman, one of the film’s producers. “A lot of people have been asking about the little girls." Applegate and Poehler reprised their respective roles in Alvin and the Chipmunks: Chipwrecked, released on December 16, 2011. The Chipettes appeared in Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Road Chip. With the exception of 1987's The Chipmunk Adventure soundtrack and 1988's The Chipmunks and The Chipettes: Born to Rock, the discography of The Chipettes consists of featured appearances on Alvin and the Chipmunks recordings. 1982: The Chipmunks Go Hollywood 1984: Songs from Our TV Shows 1987: The Chipmunk Adventure 1988: The Chipmunks and The Chipettes: Born to Rock 1988
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro