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A Different World

A Different World is an American sitcom television series that aired for six seasons on NBC from September 24, 1987 to July 9, 1993. The series centered on Denise Huxtable and the life of students at Hillman College, a fictional black college in Virginia, it was inspired by student life at black colleges and universities. After Bonet's departure in the first season, the remainder of the series focused more on Southern belle Whitley Gilbert and math whiz Dwayne Wayne. While it was a spin-off from The Cosby Show, A Different World addressed issues that were avoided by The Cosby Show writers. One episode that aired in 1990 was one of the first American network television episodes to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic; the original premise was to have a white student there and have Lena Horne as an acting teacher, but in production, the premise changed from being a story about a white girl in a black college to a black girl in a black college with a white friend. It was decided that Denise, of college age, would be spun off and have a white roommate in order to show the dynamic of a white girl in predominantly black surroundings.

Meg Ryan was cast for this role, but she decided to pursue a film career, so Marisa Tomei was cast. The first season of Hillman's student body consisted of both black and white students, but this was changed at the beginning of the second season and a predominantly black student body maintained until the series ended. After the first season, it came to Cosby's and the producers' attention that the series was not portraying a black college and life on campus, so Debbie Allen, an alumna of Howard University, was hired as the chief creative force to revamp the show. During the summer of 1988, Lisa Bonet announced that she and husband Lenny Kravitz were having a baby. Allen was in favor of having a young pregnant student in the show, but Cosby said that Lisa Bonet may be pregnant but not Denise Huxtable, it was felt that viewers would not accept Denise as an unwed mother, having grown to know her as a "good girl" after four seasons of The Cosby Show. Thus it was decided that Denise would drop out of Hillman, return home to her family, travel to Africa throughout the fifth season of The Cosby Show, ensuring that viewers would not see a pregnant Denise.

Allen was in favor of keeping Tomei, as she herself recalls a white student at Howard and wanted to relate that in the show and had possible premises for her character, such as meeting Dwayne's parents and seeing the other side of racism. However, Tomei left the show, she and Marie-Alise Recasner were replaced by Cree Summer and Charnele Brown, respectively. Darryl M. Bell and Sinbad were promoted to the principal cast, Glynn Turman and Lou Myers were added as supporting cast members; these changes led to the placement of Whitley and Dwayne at the center of a wider ensemble, dealing with more relevant issues of the day. Cory Tyler as Terrence Taylor Patrick Malone as Terrell Walker Bumper Robinson as Dorian Heywood Michael Ralph as Spencer Boyer, various characters Gary Dourdan as Shazza Zulu Marie-Alise Recasner as Millie Andrew Lowery as Matthew Kim Wayans as Allison Alisa Gyse Dickens as Kinu Owens Jenifer Lewis as Dean Dorothy Dandridge Davenport Diahann Carroll as Marion Gilbert Patti LaBelle as Adele Wayne Roger Guenveur Smith as Prof. Howard Randolph Rosalind Cash as Dean Hughes Ron O'Neal as Mercer Gilbert Phylicia Rashad as Clair Huxtable Jonell Green as Dashawn Curtis Bill Cosby as Cliff Huxtable Keshia Knight Pulliam as Rudy Huxtable Robert Guillaume as Dean Winston and Professor Murphy Harold Sylvester as Woodson Wayne Malcolm-Jamal Warner as Theo Huxtable Vanessa Bell Calloway as Lily Connors & Jaleesa's sister Tisha Campbell-Martin as Josie Webb Nestor Carbonell as Malik Velasquez Art Evans as Mr. Johnson IMx as Whitley's students Richard Roundtree as Clinton Reese Halle Berry as Jaclyn The Boys as Mice 2 Men Dean Cain as Eddie Wayne Federman as A&M Wolf Ernie Sabella as Campus Security En Vogue as Faith, Hope and Henrietta Whoopi Goldberg as Dr. Jordan David Alan Grier as Professor Byron Walcott James Avery as bowler Alfonso Ribeiro as Zach Duncan Heavy D as himself Lena Horne as herself Jesse Jackson as himself Trina McGee as Gennifer Khandi Alexander as Theressa Stone Gladys Knight as herself Kris Kross as Dwayne's juvenile mentees Tupac Shakur as Piccolo Obba Babatundé as Frank Blair U

Norman Osborn

Norman Osborn is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Steve Ditko, first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #14 as the original and most well-known incarnation of Green Goblin; as the amoral industrialist head of Oscorp, Norman was exposed to an experimental formula which enhanced his physical abilities and intellect, but drove him to insanity. Having endured as Spider-Man's archenemy, Osborn has been part of the superhero's defining stories as well as being the father of Harry Osborn and Gabriel Stacy, the grandfather of Normie Osborn, the killer of Gwen Stacy, Ben Reilly and Flash Thompson. Although his primary obsession is Spider-Man, Osborn comes into conflict with other superheroes in the Marvel Universe; as the Goblin, he adopted a Halloween-themed appearance: dressing in a goblin costume, riding on a bat-shaped "Goblin Glider", using an arsenal of high-tech weapons, such as grenade-like "Pumpkin Bombs", to terrorize New York City.

Although Osborn sometimes works with other supervillains such as Doctor Octopus and Mysterio and groups like the Sinister Six and the Dark Avengers, these relationships collapse due to his desire for unbridled chaos and destruction. In recent years, Osborn gained new status as a public hero as the original iteration of Iron Patriot; the character has been in various top villain lists as one of Spider-Man's greatest enemies and one of the greatest comic book villains of all time. The character's popularity has seen him appear on a variety of merchandise, inspire real-world structures, be referenced in a number of media, he has been adapted to serve as Spider-Man's adversary in live-action and video game incarnations. The character has been portrayed in film by Willem Dafoe in Sam Raimi's Spider-Man film trilogy and Chris Cooper in the 2014 film The Amazing Spider-Man 2. Among others, Neil Ross, Alan Rachins, Steve Blum, Steven Weber and Josh Keaton provided the character's voice in the animated Spider-Man series of 1981, 1994, 2008, 2012 and 2017.

Marvel Comics editor and head writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko are credited with creating the character, they each collaborated with one another on how the character would be portrayed. According to Ditko: "Stan's synopsis for the Green Goblin had a movie crew, on location, finding an Egyptian-like sarcophagus. Inside was an ancient, mythological demon, the Green Goblin, he came to life. On my own, I changed Stan's mythological demon into a human villain."The Green Goblin debuted in The Amazing Spider-Man #14. At this time his identity was unknown, but he proved popular and reappeared in issues, which made a point of his secret identity. According to both Stan Lee and John Romita, Sr. who replaced Ditko as the title's artist, Lee always wanted the Green Goblin to be someone Peter Parker knew, while Ditko wanted his civilian identity to be someone who hadn't yet been introduced. Lee elaborated: "Steve wanted him to turn out to be just some character that we had never seen before. Because, he said, in real life often a villain turns out to be somebody that you never knew.

And I felt. I felt, in a sense, it would be like cheating the reader.... If it's somebody you didn't know and had never seen what was the point of following all the clues? I think that frustrates the reader." However, Lee prefaced this statement by admitting that, due to his self-professed poor memory, he may have been confusing the Green Goblin with a different character, in an earlier essay he had said that he could not remember whether Norman Osborn being the Green Goblin was his idea or Ditko's. Ditko has maintained that it was his idea claiming that he had decided on it before the first Green Goblin story was finished. Though Osborn would not be introduced by name until The Amazing Spider-Man #37, Ditko has said that a character he drew in the background of two panels in issue #23 was intended to be Osborn, seeded in advance of the reveal; this background character, a member of a businessmen's club and a friend of J. Jonah Jameson, would reappear in The Amazing Spider-Man #25, 26, 27, when Norman was formally introduced in issue #37, he too was stated to be a member of the club and friend of Jameson's.

Ditko left the series with issue #38, just one issue after Norman Osborn was introduced as the father of Harry Osborn. The first issue without Ditko saw. John Romita, Sr. who replaced Ditko as the title's artist, recalled: Stan wouldn't have been able to stand it if Ditko did the story and didn't reveal that the Green Goblin was Norman Osborn. I didn't know. I didn't know. I just accepted the fact. I had been following the last couple of issues and didn't think there was much mystery about it. Looking back, I doubt the Goblin's identity would have been revealed in Amazing #39 if Ditko had stayed on. In the landmark story "The Night Gwen Stacy Died", the Green Goblin kills Gwen Stacy and perishes in a fight against Spider-Man. However, the story's writer, Gerry Conway, had Harry Osborn adopt the Green Goblin identity in the aftermath of "The Night Gwen Stacy Died" remarking that "I never had any intention of getting rid of the Green Goblin as a concept". Harry Osborn's becoming the Green Goblin was well-received, with fans remarking that Harry was more menacing than his father had been.

Writer Roger Stern introduced the Hobgoblin to replace the Green Goblin as Spider-Man's archenemy. During t


Tirnavia is a mixed choir from Slovakia founded in 1988, on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of Trnava being granted free royal town privileges. The choir was founded by Gabriel Kalapoš. Following conductors were Andrej Rapant and Zuzana Holičková. Current conductor is Michal Stahl. Tirnavia's name is derived from the historical name of Trnava and Tirnavia confirms the rich tradition of choral singing in this town; the choir members are students of universities. The choir repertoire includes compositions from the renaissance until present times, it includes adaptations of Slovak folk songs, Christmas carols and Spirituals. Tirnavia organizes 20 concerts a year at home as well as abroad. Tirnavia has recorded three CDs - the first one together with the choir Cantica Nova from Trnava, the second one focusing on the 20th century Slovak choral music. In 2007 the new Christmas CD "Christmas with Tirnavia" was released; the choir Tirnavia cooperates with "Trnavský komorný orchester". They have performed the Messiah of Gloria of Vivaldi together.

The choir performed the Solemn Mass by Louis Vierne together with well known organist David di Fiore in October 2004. Tirnavia takes part in competitions of choral singing in Slovakia and abroad; the most important choir events from the last few years: 3rd place at the international competition Grand Prix Slovakia in Trenčianske Teplice 2001, Slovakia, 3rd place at the worldwide competition International Eisteddfod Llangollen 2002, Wales, 4th place at the international competition in Montreux Choral Festival 2003, Switzerland, 1st place in the golden level in the category of folklore and 2nd place in the golden level in the category of mixed choirs at the International Festival of Academic Choirs 2004 in Pardubice, Czech Republic, 2nd place in the category "choral musicof 5 centuries" and 3rd place in the category of folklore and jazz at the 6. International Choral Competition 2006 in Miltenberg, GermanyIn 2005 Tirnavia took part in an international workshop in Gliwice where they performed two Psalms of Mendelssohn, realised two trips in Austria, where they sang in the summer festival in Lillienfeld and the Christmas concert in Vienna town hall.

The Mixed choir TIRNAVIA, Slovakia

Television in South Korea

In South Korea, there are a number of national television networks, the three largest of which are KBS, MBC, SBS. Most of the major television studios are located on Sangam-dong. South Korea became the third adopter in Asia when television broadcasting began on 12 May 1956 with the opening of HLKZ-TV, a commercially operated television station. HLKZ-TV was established by the RCA Distribution Company in Seoul with 186-192 MHz, 100-watt output, 525 scanning lines. Important genres of television shows include serial dramas, historical dramas, variety shows, game shows, news programs, documentaries. All three networks have produced lavish historical dramas in recent years; some South Korean television programs are available on satellite and multicultural channels in foreign countries. Korean television dramas have been popular in other East Asian, South Asian and Southeast Asian countries, became popularized internationally at a stage, with whole sets of videotapes or DVDs of series available with completed subtitles in different languages, online subtitle websites are created by numerous fan clubs to cater to a global audience.

Shopping channels have become quite popular in recent years as well, the models sometimes put on entertaining acts during product pitches. There are many cable operators in South Korea, such as Tbroad, C&M, CMB, CJ HelloVision. There are 14 million cable TV subscribers nationwide; the cable operator provides TPS to its subscribers. Since the beginning of the 1950s, television was introduced to Korea by RCA to sell second-hand black & white TV sets as a marketing scheme; some TV sets were strategically set up at Pagoda Park, others at the Seoul Station and Gwanghwamun during this time. However it was not until 1956 when South Korea began its own television broadcasting station, the HLKZ-TV, part of the KORCAD; the first Korean television drama, 천국의 문 in 1956, planning director Choi Chang-Bong spent two and a half months continuously fixing the script, preparing sets and the first instance of special effects, all for a drama that lasted no longer than fifteen minutes. The early 1960s saw a phenomenal growth in television broadcasting.

On 1 October 1961 the first full-scale television station, HLKA-TV, was established and began operation under the Ministry of Culture and Public Information. Following KBS was Tongyang Broadcasting Corporation's TBC-TV, launched in 1964, ran until merged in 1980, it was the first private television network in South Korea. The second commercial television system, MBC-TV, made its debut in 1969; the advent of MBC-TV brought significant development to the television industry in Korea and after 1969 the television industry was characterized by furious competition among the three networks. The 1970s were highlighted by government intervention into the media system in Korea. In 1972, President Park Chung Hee government imposed censorship upon media through the Martial Law Decree; the government revised the Broadcasting Law under the pretext of improving the quality of television programming. After the revision of the law, the government expanded its control of media content by requiring all television and radio stations to review programming before and after transmission.

Although the government argued that its action was taken as a result of growing public criticism of broadcasting media practices, many accused the government of wanting to establish a monopoly over television broadcasting. The 1980s were the golden years for Korea's television industry. Growth was phenomenal in every dimension: the number of programming hours per week rose from 56 in 1979 to nearly 88.5 in 1989. Despite producing color televisions for export, color television was not introduced in the country until late 1980. Color broadcasting, occasioned a renewal of strong competition among the networks. However, Korean TV industry was suffered huge blows in this decade. During Chun Doo-hwan's regime, several newspapers and publications were forcibly closed, or were merged into a single organization. One of, TBC-TV, awarded to KBS. TBC-TV was replaced by KBS 2TV. After the country's 1987 democratic reforms, several regulations were imposed to insulate broadcasters from political influence. For example, the National Assembly established the Foundation for Broadcast Culture to insulate MBC from political influence and KBS.

At the beginning of the 1990s, with the introduction of cable television, the government initiated an experimental multi-channel and multi-purpose cable television service. In addition, Korea launched its first broadcasting/communication satellite, Mugungwha, to 36,000 km above the equator in 1995; the development of an integrated broadband network is expected to take the form of B-ISDN after the turn of the century. This decade is a period of great technological change in the Korean broadcasting industry, which will make broadcasting media more important than in the past. In this decade the Korean broadcasting industry will maximize the service with new technological developments such as DBS, interactive cable systems, all of which will allow Korea to participate in the information society. On July 22, 2009, after heated political debates, amendment of the Media law passed the South Korean national assembly to deregulate the media market of South Korea. On December 31, 2010, four general Cable Television networks were licensed.

In South Korea, there are four nationwide television networks, three general


Tofalars, or the "Tofa people", are a Turkic people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. Their origins, Tofa language, culture are close to those of the eastern Tuvans-Todzhins. Before the 1917 October Revolution, the Tofalars used living in the taiga; the Tofalars were resettled by the Soviet government by 1932. Young Tofalars learned Russian at new Soviet-built schools, while cultural traditions such as hunting and shamanism were discouraged or prohibited. According to the 2010 census, there were 762 Tofalars in Russia; the Tofalars originated from the result of Turkic, Mongol and Samoyedic peoples intermingling. The original home of the Tofalars was on the slopes of the Sayan Mountains but they moved to their present location during the 17th century, they reside in Nizhneudinsky District within Irkutsk Oblast. The Tofalars used to be nomadic, their economy included raising reindeer and hunting. Shamanism was vastly important to spirituality. Most Tofalars are now settled; the Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire The Tof People, the Smallest Ethnic Group in the World

Cloud rap

Cloud rap is a microgenre of hip hop music. It is characterized by its "hazy", lo-fi production; the experimental hip-hop trio Clouddead are considered the forerunners and namesake of the cloud rap scene, due to their freeform, non sequitur approach to lyrics, lo-fi production values, heavy psychedelic and ambient influences. The production of cloud rap music has been described as "hazy" including "ethereal vocal samples" and the "aesthetics of bedroom electronic producers". In a 2010 article, Walker Chambliss presumed that the term was invented by music writer Noz while interviewing rapper Lil B, but the interview in question did not include the phrase. Cloud rap artists have been noted to employ "chant-like" vocal samples, as to create a "surreal" effect. According to Nico Amarca of Highsnobiety, the genre was defined by the use of "nonsensical catchphrases and Twitter baits", as to parody and embrace internet culture, from which it was created. Amarca believed Yung Lean to have changed cloud rap through his "melancholic, dreamy rapping".

According to FACT, the genre describes "pretty much any lo-fi, hazy rap that makes its way to the net". Although the term "Cloud rap" has only existed since 2010, lo-fi production in Hip-hop can be traced as far back as underground Memphis Hip-hop from the 90's. Producer Clams Casino has been credited as pioneering the cloud rap sound as early as 2010, but the general sound predates to 2006, with Viper's second album, Ready... and Willing - and his fifth from 2008, You'll Cowards Don't Even Smoke Crack. Phonk, popularized by SpaceGhostPurrp takes a lot from underground Memphis Hip-hop from the 90's, first known to have lo-fi production in Hip-hop; the genre garnered mainstream attention when rapper A$AP Rocky debuted in 2011. Cloud rap has gotten popular on the "blogosphere". ASAP Rocky's Live. Love. A$AP and Long. Live. A$AP have been described as cloud rap. Walker Chambliss known as Walkmasterflex, released 3 Years Ahead: The Cloud Rap Tape, which FACT described as defining for the genre