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A Farewell to Arms

A Farewell to Arms is a novel by Ernest Hemingway set during the Italian campaign of World War I. First published in 1929, it is a first-person account of an American, Frederic Henry, serving as a lieutenant in the ambulance corps of the Italian Army; the title is taken from a poem by the 16th-century English dramatist George Peele. The novel, set against the backdrop of World War I, describes a love affair between the expatriate Henry and an English nurse, Catherine Barkley, its publication ensured Hemingway's place as a modern American writer of considerable stature. The book became his first best-seller, has been called "the premier American war novel from that debacle World War I."The novel has been adapted a number of times for the stage in 1930. The 1996 film In Love and War, directed by Richard Attenborough and starring Chris O'Donnell and Sandra Bullock, depicts Hemingway's life in Italy as an ambulance driver in the events prior to his writing of A Farewell to Arms; the novel is divided into five sections or'books'.

In the first, Frederic Henry, an American paramedic serving in the Italian Army, is introduced to Catherine Barkley, an English nurse, by his good friend and roommate, Rinaldi, a surgeon. Frederic attempts to seduce her. Frederic is wounded in the knee by a mortar on the Italian front and sent to a hospital in Milan, where Catherine is sent. Upon seeing Catherine in the hospital for the first time, Frederic is lovestruck; the second book portrays the growth of their relationship over the summer. After his knee heals, Frederic is diagnosed with jaundice, but is soon kicked out of the hospital and sent back to the front after it is discovered he concealed alcohol. By the time he is sent back, Catherine is three months pregnant. In the third book, Frederic returns to his unit and discovers morale has dropped. Not long afterwards, the Austro-Hungarians break through the Italian lines in the Battle of Caporetto, the Italians retreat. There is considerable delay and chaos on the road during the retreat and Frederic, wishing to avoid a possible aerial attack while stuck en route, decides to take an alternate path.

He and his men get lost and their cars are stuck in the mud, after which a frustrated Frederic kills a sergeant for insubordination. After catching up to the main retreat, he is taken to a place by the military police, where officers are being interrogated and executed for the "treachery" that led to the Italian defeat. Frederic escapes by jumping into a river, he heads to Milan to find Catherine. In the fourth book and Frederic reunite and spend some time in Stresa before Frederic learns he is soon to be arrested; the couple flee to neutral Switzerland in a rowboat given to him by a barkeep. After interrogation by Swiss authorities, they are allowed to stay. In the final book and Catherine live a quiet life in the mountains until she goes into labor. After a long and painful birth, their son is stillborn. Catherine begins leaving Frederic to return to their hotel in the rain; the novel was based on Hemingway's own experiences serving in the Italian campaigns during the First World War. The inspiration for Catherine Barkley was Agnes von Kurowsky, a nurse who cared for Hemingway in a hospital in Milan after he had been wounded.

He had planned to marry her but she spurned his love when he returned to America. Kitty Cannell, a Paris-based fashion correspondent, became Helen Ferguson; the unnamed priest was based on Don Giuseppe Bianchi, the priest of the 69th and 70th regiments of the Brigata Ancona. Although the sources for Rinaldi are unknown, the character had appeared in In Our Time. Much of the plot was written in correspondence with Frederic J. Agate. Agate, Hemingway's friend, had a collection of letters to his wife from his time in Italy, which were used as inspiration. Michael Reynolds, writes that Hemingway was not involved in the battles described; because his previous novel, The Sun Also Rises, had been written as a roman à clef, readers assumed A Farewell to Arms to be autobiographical. A Farewell to Arms was begun during his time at Willis M. Spear's guest ranch in Wyoming's Bighorns; some pieces of the novel were written in Piggott, Arkansas, at the home of his wife Pauline Pfeiffer, in Mission Hills, Kansas while she was awaiting delivery of their baby.

Pauline underwent a caesarean section as Hemingway was writing the scene about Catherine Barkley's childbirth. Hemingway struggled with the ending. By his count, he wrote 39 of them "before I was satisfied." However, a 2012 edition of the book included no less than 47 alternate endings. The novel was first serialized in Scribner's Magazine in the May 1929 to October 1929 issues; the book was published in September 1929 with a first edition print-run of 31,000 copies. The success of A Farewell to Arms made Hemingway financially independent; the Hemingway Library Edition was released in July 2012, with a dust jacket facsimile of the first edition. The newly published edition presents an appendix with the many alternate endings Hemingway wrote for the novel in addition to pieces from early draft manuscripts; the JFK Library Hemingway collection has two handwritten pages with possible titles for the book. Most of the titles come from The Oxford Book of English Verse. One of the possible titles Hemingway considered was In Another Country and Besides.

This comes from The Jew of Malta by Christopher Marlowe. The poem Portrait of a Lady by T. S. Eliot starts off by quoting this Marlowe work: "Thou hast committed/ Fornicat

Beth Rogan

Jenifer Puckle, known professionally as Beth Rogan, was a British film actress and Rank Films starlet of the 1950s and 60s. She was married and divorced three times, said by friends to be charming but "dangerous to know", grew her own cannabis. Reputedly, she was the model for Diana Scott, the central character in John Schlesinger's film Darling. Puckle was born in Kent, she was always known as Jeni to friends and family. Her father was Kenneth Puckle, a major in the Royal Marines and a veteran of the Gallipoli campaign and her mother was Enid Puckle, she had a sister, who married brigadier Charles Carroll, MC. Jeni was educated near Farnham and taught Latin to boys at a local preparatory school before starting a course at Wimbledon School of Art, she worked as an model before entering films. Puckle's film career began after she was spotted by the Italian television correspondent Carlo Riccono and a friend from Rank Studios while queuing at the All-England Tennis Club at Wimbledon, they invited her to join them for tennis and two weeks Rogan had entered Rank's talent school, the Company of Youth.

According to The Telegraph, Puckle specialised in "screaming or swooning" and although not a leading lady, she appeared in at least 14 films between 1957 and 1968. She became friends with Dirk Bogarde, her first starring roles were Innocent Meeting and Compelled where she had joint top billing with Ronald Howard. She had a significant part playing Elena Fairchild in the Jules Verne adventure Mysterious Island opposite Herbert Lom as Captain Nemo, where she was assailed by bees and a giant hen animated by Ray Harryhausen while dressed in a loosely stitched buckskin costume. Rogan was reputedly the model for Diana Scott, the wild central character played by Julie Christie in John Schlesinger's film Darling. New York magazine described Diana Scott as "amoral, rootless immature, irresistible". At Rank, Rogan had met publicist Jeanne Hunter and together they had written a 300-page account of her life. Before it could be published, Rogan had given the manuscript to Joseph Janni, one of the men the young Jeni had met while queuing at Wimbledon, who went on to produce Darling.

Hunter said. She bought Hunter a puppy as compensation. Jeni Puckle was first married at a young age to Ted Draper, one of her teachers at Wimbledon School of Art; the marriage allowed her to leave the family home but was dissolved after Puckle began an affair with Riccono. Draper agreed to fake an assignation at a hotel in Brighton, she was seen about town with the entrepreneur James Hanson. In 1962, she married publisher Tony Samuel at Chelsea Register Office; the couple divided their time between London and her husband's family home of Arndilly House in Scotland but Samuel was inclined to be irascible and they divorced in 1965. Samuel married Mercy Haystead in 1966. Rogan's final marriage was in 1971, to the barrister Timothy Cassel with whom she had a daughter, a son, Alexander; that marriage ended in 1976. Rogan's last film appearance was in Salt and Pepper in 1968. After her last divorce she lived in West Hampshire, she died on 25 November 2015 in Hampshire. After her death, home-grown cannabis was found drying in the airing cupboard at her home.

Doctor at Large The Admirable Crichton Innocent Meeting The Captain's Table Compelled Operation Cupid Mysterious Island Salt and Pepper Beth Rogan on IMDb Beth Rogan at GlamourGirlsOfTheSilverScreen.com

Cley Marshes

Cley Marshes is a 176-hectare nature reserve on the North Sea coast of England just outside the village of Cley next the Sea, Norfolk. A reserve since 1926, it is the oldest of the reserves belonging to the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, itself the oldest county Wildlife Trust in the United Kingdom. Cley Marshes protects an area of reed beds, freshwater marsh and wet meadows and is part of the North Norfolk Coast Site of Special Scientific Interest, Special Area of Conservation, Special Protection Area, Ramsar Site due to the large numbers of birds it attracts; the reserve is important for some scarce breeding species, such as pied avocets on the islands, western marsh harriers, Eurasian bitterns and bearded reedlings in the reeds, is a major migration stopoff and wintering site. There are several nationally or locally scarce invertebrates and plants specialised for this coastal habitat, it has five bird hides and an environmentally friendly visitor centre and further expansion is planned through the acquisition of neighbouring land and improvements to visitor facilities.

The site has a long history of human occupation, from prehistoric farming to its use as a prisoner of war camp in the Second World War. The reserve attracts large numbers of visitors, contributing to the economy of Cley village. Despite centuries of embankment to reclaim land and protect the village, the marshes have been flooded many times, the southward march of the coastal shingle bank and encroachment by the sea make it inevitable that the reserve will be lost. New wetlands are being created further inland to compensate for the loss of coastal habitats. Norfolk has a long history of human occupation. Both Modern and Neanderthal people were present in the area before the last glaciation between 100,000 and 10,000 years ago, humans returned as the ice retreated northwards; the archaeological record is poor until about 20,000 years ago because of the prevailing conditions, but because the coastline was much further north than at present. As the ice retreated during the Mesolithic, the sea level rose.

This brought the Norfolk coastline much closer to its present line, so that many ancient sites are now under the sea. The oldest signs of habitation on the marshes are prehistoric Clactonian flint blades from 400,000 years ago, but few other prehistoric remains have been recorded here. Fragments of a Roman vase and jug have been found on the beach. A 1797 map showed what was described as the ruins of "Cley Chapel", although it is more that they belonged to a barn. A 1588 map showed "Black Joy Forte", which may have been intended as a defence against the Spanish Armada. There are a number of post-medieval earthworks sea defences, pits which may have been associated with salt-making; until the mid-1600s, much of the area now known as Cley Marshes was part of a vast tidal marsh and was covered by seawater twice a day. The shoreline itself was hundreds of metres north of its present location; the raised area in the north-west corner, called the "Eye", has been farmed since the earliest human habitation.

It is now much reduced by coastal erosion. Access to the Eye was by an ancient causeway, passable at low tide. John Heydon started the process of embanking the marshes to reclaim the land in 1522, his banks were extended and improved by Dutchman Jan van Hasedunch from 1630. Simon Britiff, Lord of the local Manor of Cley, completed the scheme by building the bank on the east side of the Cley channel. Only the east and west banks have survived. Cley and nearby Blakeney had been prosperous and important ports in the Middle Ages, but land reclamation schemes those by Henry Calthorpe in 1640 just to the west of Cley, led to the silting up of the shipping channel and relocation of the wharf. Further enclosure in the mid-1820s aggravated the problem, allowed the shingle ridge at the beach to block the former tidal channel to the Salthouse marshes to the east of Cley. In an attempt to halt the decline, Thomas Telford was consulted in 1822, but his recommendations for reducing the silting were not implemented, by 1840 all of Cley's trade had been lost to Blakeney and other Norfolk ports.

The population stagnated, the value of all property decreased sharply. In the mid-nineteenth century, the Lord of the Manor constructed the present road to the beach in exchange for closing the ancient right of way across the marshes. In the decades preceding World War I, this stretch of coast became famous for its wildfowling. One of the best known of the latter was E. C. Arnold, who collected for more than fifty years, gave his name to the marsh at the north-east corner of the present reserve. Cley Marshes reserve was created in 1926 when Norfolk birdwatcher Dr Sydney Long bought the land which now makes up the reserve for the sum of £5,100, to be held "in perpetuity as a bird breeding sanctuary". Long established the Norfolk Wildlife Trust; the reserve was extended in 1962 through the lease of the adjacent 11-hectare Arnold's Marsh from the National Trust. New pools and hides were created on the reserve from 1964, the sale of permits for access to the hides became a useful source of income for the NWT.

Further pools and hides were established during the 1970s, a visitor centre was built in 1981 on the site of the current

Chincoteague Island Library

The Chincoteague Island Library is a historic U. S. building located at 4077 Main Street, Virginia. Built in the 1890s, this one-story building is the oldest commercial wood frame structure in Chincoteague, it was a drug store, but was used as a barber shop beginning in 1908. On July 4, 1995, the building opened as a public library. In 2010, a new wing was added to the library to accommodate its collection and offer more space for patrons to use. 600 square feet, the library has tripled in size with the addition of the new wing. The library is part of the Eastern Shore Public Library system, it is supported by private donations and grants from the communities of Accomack County, Virginia. The library offers various programs for children and adults throughout the year, including book clubs, children's reading programs, computer classes; the library's collection contains current and popular books, magazines and audio-visual materials, including DVDs, audiobooks and CDs. The library offers a 24-hour wireless internet connection, with computers for patrons to use for email, word processing, use of the web.

The Chincoteague Island Library collaborates with the Museum of Chincoteague Island on the Chincoteague Island Life History Project. This project began in 2004 as an oral history initiative, where residents of Chincoteague Island and neighboring communities were interviewed on the local culture and history. Official Chincoteague Island Library website

Asa Gray House

The Asa Gray House, recorded in an HABS survey as the Garden House, is a historic house at 88 Garden Street, Massachusetts. A National Historic Landmark, it is notable architecturally as the earliest known work of the designer and architect Ithiel Town, as the residence of several Harvard College luminaries, its most notable occupant was Asa Gray, a leading botanist who published the first complete work on American flora, was a vigorous defender of the Darwinian theory of evolution. The Gray House was designed in 1810 by architect Ithiel Town, it was built for the zoologist William Dandridge Peck, stood at the corner of Garden and Linnaean Streets in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the grounds of the Harvard College Botanical Garden. Subsequent occupants included botanist Thomas Nuttall and Harvard presidents James Walker and Jared Sparks. Asa Gray purchased the house in 1842 and moved in during the summer of 1844, after receiving an appointment to a professorship at Harvard that he would hold for 45 years.

A rising star in the world of botany, Gray in 1848 published The General of the Plants of the United States, not only groundbreaking for the content, but in its presentation. His discovery of relationships between plants of North America and East Asia was influential in the growth of the field of plant geography, his public defense of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species gained him widespread attention in the public sphere. The Gray House was purchased in 1910 by Allen Cox, who moved it to its present address the same year, it is a private residence, was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965. The house has a rectangular main block, measuring 40 by 36 feet, with a side ell, about 24 feet square; when first built, it was attached to a plant conservatory, designed by Town. The house is five bays wide, with a hip roof surrounded by a low balustrade; the main facade is flushboarded, with pilasters at the corners. The cornice on the main block is dentillated; the main entrance is centered on the front facade, with sidelight windows on either side and a fanlight window above.

The entry is sheltered by a portico supported by clustered square columns. There is a secondary entrance in the ell, sheltered by a closed-in porch dating to c. 1920. At the rear of the house is an addition dating to the move but extended which incorporates a formerly-external shed into the house; the interior of the house follows a typical Federal-period center hall plan, with the central hall divided into front and rear sections by a doorway with a fanlight. There are two rooms on either side of the central hall; the woodwork in the public spaces is not elaborate, with simple cornice moldings and fireplace surrounds, flared moldings around the windows. The downstairs room of the ell served as Asa Gray's study, includes a number of wood-frame display cases lining one wall. List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Information infrastructure

An information infrastructure is defined by Ole Hanseth as "a shared, open and heterogeneous installed base" and by Pironti as all of the people, procedures, tools and technology which supports the creation, transport and destruction of information. The notion of information infrastructures, introduced in the 1990s and refined during the following decade, has proven quite fruitful to the information systems field, it changed the perspective from organizations to networks and from systems to infrastructure, allowing for a global and emergent perspective on information systems. Information infrastructure is a technical structure of an organizational form, an analytical perspective or a semantic network; the concept of information infrastructure was introduced in the early 1990s, first as a political initiative as a more specific concept in IS research. For the IS research community an important inspiration was Hughes′ accounts of large technical systems, analyzed as socio-technical power structures.

Information infrastructure, as a theory, has been used to frame a number of extensive case studies, in particular to develop an alternative approach to IS design: "Infrastructures should rather be built by establishing working local solutions supporting local practices which subsequently are linked together rather than by defining universal standards and subsequently implementing them". It has been developed into a full design theory, focusing on the growth of an installed base. Information infrastructures include health systems and corporate systems, it is consistent to include innovations such as Facebook, LinkedIn and MySpace as excellent examples. Bowker has described several key terms and concepts that are enormously helpful for analyzing information infrastructure: imbrication, figure/ground, a short discussion of infrastructural inversion. "Imbrication" is an analytic concept. "Bootstrapping" is the idea that infrastructure must exist in order to exist. "Technological and non-technological elements that are linked".

"Information infrastructures can, as formative contexts, shape not only the work routines, but the ways people look at practices, consider them'natural' and give them their overarching character of necessity. Infrastructure becomes an essential factor shaping the taken-for-grantedness of organizational practices". "The technological and human components, networks and processes that contribute to the functioning of the health information system". "The set of organizational practices, technical infrastructure and social norms that collectively provide for the smooth operation of scientific work at a distance. "A shared, heterogeneous installed base of IT capabilities developed on open and standardized interfaces". According to the Online Etymology Dictionary the etymology of the words that make up the phrase "information infrastructure" are as follows: Information late 14c. "act of informing," from O. Fr. informacion, enformacion "information, instruction," from L. informationem "outline, idea," noun of action from pp. stem of informare.

Meaning "knowledge communicated" is from mid-15c. Information technology attested from 1958. Information revolution from 1969. Infrastructure 1887, from Fr. infrastructure. The installations that form the basis for any system. In a military sense. According to Star and Ruhleder, there are 8 dimensions of information infrastructures. Embeddedness Transparency Reach or scope Learned as part of membership Links with conventions of practice Embodiment of standards Built on an installed base Becomes visible upon breakdown Presidential Chair and Professor of Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, Christine L. Borgman argues information infrastructures, like all infrastructures, are "subject to public policy". In the United States, public policy defines information infrastructures as the "physical and cyber-based systems essential to the minimum operations of the economy and government" and connected by information technologies. Borgman says governments, businesses and individuals can work together to create a global information infrastructure which links "the world's telecommunication and computer networks together" and would enable the transmission of "every conceivable information and communication application."Currently, the Internet is the default global information infrastructure."

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Telecommunications and Information Working Group Program of Asian for Information and Communications Infrastructure. Association of South East Asian Nations, e-ASEAN Framework Agreement of 2000. National Information Infrastructure Act of 1993 National Information Infrastructure The National Research Council established CA*net in 1989 and the network connecting "all provincial nodes" was operational in 1990; the Canadian Network for the Advancement of Research and Education was established in 1992 and CA*net was upgraded to a T1 connection in 1993 and T3 in 1995. By 2000, "the commercial basis for Canada's information infrastructure" was established, the government ended its role in the project. In 1994, the European Union proposed the European Information Infrastructure.: European Information Infrastructure has