United States Atomic Energy Commission
President Harry S. Truman signed the McMahon/Atomic Energy Act on August 1,1946, transferring the control of atomic energy from military to civilian hands, effective from January 1,1947. This shift gave the first members of the AEC complete control of the plants, equipment, during its initial establishment and subsequent operationalization, the AEC played a key role in the institutional development of Ecosystem ecology. Specifically, it provided financial resources, allowing for ecological research to take place. Perhaps even more importantly, it enabled ecologists with a range of groundbreaking techniques for the completion of their research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the AEC approved funding for numerous projects in the Arctic and near-Arctic. These projects were designed to examine the effects of energy upon the environment and were a part of the Commission’s attempt at creating peaceful applications of atomic energy. By 1974, the AECs regulatory programs had come under strong attack that Congress decided to abolish the agency.
On August 4,1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, at the same time, the McMahon Act which created the AEC gave it unprecedented powers of regulation over the entire field of nuclear science and technology. President Truman appointed David Lilienthal as the first Chairman of the AEC, Congress gave the new civilian Commission extraordinary power and considerable independence to carry out its mission. To provide the Commission exceptional freedom in hiring scientists and professionals, the National Laboratory system was established from the facilities created under the Manhattan Project. Argonne National Laboratory was one of the first laboratories authorized under this legislation as a facility dedicated to fulfilling the new Commissions mission. The Commissions first order of business was to inspect the scattered empire of plants, the AEC was furthermore in charge of developing the United States nuclear arsenal, taking over these responsibilities from the wartime Manhattan Project.
It implemented the program to develop the hydrogen bomb. It began a program of nuclear testing both in the Pacific Proving Grounds and at the continental Nevada Test Site. While it supported much basic research, the vast majority of its budget was devoted to atomic weapons development. Within the AEC, high-level scientific and technical advice was provided by the General Advisory Committee, in its early years, the GAC provided a number of controversial decisions, notably its decision against building the hydrogen bomb in 1949. As a result, Senator Brien McMahon influenced the decision not to reappoint J. Robert Oppenheimer to the GAC in 1952 after his six-year statutory term expired. David Lilienthal, AEC Chair, agreed with Oppenheimer and opposed a program to build the hydrogen bomb ahead of any other nation
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies is an American movie-oriented basic cable and satellite television network owned by the Turner Broadcasting System subsidiary of Time Warner. TCM is headquartered at the Techwood Campus in Atlanta, Georgias Midtown business district, the channels programming consisted mainly of featured classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. However, TCM now has licensing deals with other Hollywood film studios as well as its Time Warner sister company, Warner Bros. and occasionally shows more recent films. The channel is available in United States, United Kingdom, Latin America, Spain, Nordic countries, Middle East and Asia-Pacific. In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, concerns over Turner Entertainments corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before. As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGMs library of films released up to May 9,1986, Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies, Turner Broadcasting System and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and reincorporated as MGM/UA Communications Co.
The film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the form of programming for TCM upon the networks launch. After the library was acquired, MGM/UA signed a deal with Turner to continue distributing the pre-May 1986 MGM and to begin distributing the pre-1950 Warner Bros. film libraries for video release. Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14,1994, at 6,00 p. m. Eastern Time, the date and time were chosen for their historical significance as the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City. The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, at the time of its launch, TCM was available to approximately one million cable television subscribers. AMC had broadened its content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002. In the early 90s AMC abandoned its format, leaving TCM as the only movie-oriented cable channel to devote its programming entirely to classic films without commercial interruption. In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner, which besides placing Turner Classic Movies, in March 1999, MGM paid Warner Bros.
and gave up the home video rights to the MGM/UA films owned by Turner to Warner Home Video. In 2008, TCM won a Peabody Award for excellence in broadcasting, in April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event – now held annually – at the Graumans Chinese Theater and the Graumans Egyptian Theater in Hollywood. In 2007, some of the films featured on TCM were made available for streaming on TCMs website. The networks programming season runs from February until the following March of each year when a retrospective of Oscar-winning and Oscar-nominated movies is shown, called 31 Days of Oscar. Turner Classic Movies presents many of its features in their original aspect ratio whenever possible – widescreen films broadcast on TCM are letterboxed on the standard definition feed. TCM regularly presents widescreen presentations of films not available in the format on any video release
The Masquerader (1914 film)
The Masquerader is a 1914 film written and directed by Charles Chaplin during his time at The Keystone Company. This film stars Chaplin and Roscoe Arbuckle and has a time of 13 minutes. It is the film directed and the second written by Chaplin. This is a film where we get the chance to see Charlie the actor, Charlie the Tramp. The Masquerader is a short film, that is about making films at Keystone. Charlie plays an actor who bungles several scenes and is kicked out, the next day a strange beautiful woman appears to audition for the film, its Charlie in drag. After doing an impersonation of a female, Charlie has drawn the attention of the director and is hired to act in his films. The director gives the woman the mens dressing room to change in. When the director returns, looking for the woman, he finds Charlie, the director chases Charlie through the studio until Charlie decides to jump into what he thinks is a prop well. The film ends with the director and other actors laughing at Charlie as he is trapped in the bottom of the well, the plot involving a man dressing up as a woman is quite popular in old silent movies
King of New York
King of New York is a 1990 crime thriller film, starring Christopher Walken, Laurence Fishburne, David Caruso, Wesley Snipes, Victor Argo, and Giancarlo Esposito. It was directed by independent filmmaker Abel Ferrara and written by Nicholas St. John, Frank White, a drug lord, is riding into New York in a limousine after being released from Sing Sing. Emilio El Zapa, a Colombian drug dealer, is shot to death, zapas partner, King Tito, is in a hotel room with Jimmy Jump and Test Tube, who are negotiating the purchase of cocaine. Jimmy and Test Tube shoot Tito and his bodyguards and steal the cocaine, later, in a suite at the Plaza Hotel, Frank is greeted by Jimmy, Test Tube, and other members of his gang, who welcome him home. Frank leaves to meet two of his lawyers, Joey Dalesio and Jennifer, for dinner, Frank expresses his desire to be mayor and asks Dalesio to set up a meeting with Mafia boss Arty Clay. He and Jennifer leave to take a ride on the subway, confronted by muggers, Frank first brandishes his gun gives them a wad of money, telling them to ask for him at the Plaza if they want work.
Dalesio goes to Little Italy, to set up a meeting with Clay but the mafia don urinates on Dalesios shoes and tells him it is a message for his boss. On hearing this, Frank and other members of the go to Clays social club. When Clay insults him, Frank shoots the mafioso, as he leaves, Frank tells Clays men that they can all find employment at the Plaza. The next night, Frank is confronted by Detectives Bishop and they drive him to an empty lot where they show him the body of El Zapa in the trunk. When Frank refuses to confess and Flanigan beat him, Frank sends Dalesio to Chinatown to make contact with Triad leader Larry Wong, has $15 million worth of cocaine. Larry demands $3 million up front and another $500,000 after the drugs are sold, Frank counters that the two should team up, split the profits evenly. Larry turns him down and demands that Frank decide immediately whether he wants to buy the drugs, Jimmy Jump and several of Franks lieutenants are arrested by Gilley and Flanigan, who reveal that one of Titos bodyguards is alive and willing to testify.
When Frank learns of his mens arrest, he orders his lawyers to arrange their release and they head to Chinatown, where they kill Larry and his gang, and take the cocaine. Gilley and other officers pose as drug dealers and bribe Dalesio into leading them to the nightclub where Frank and they burst in shooting, slaying several members of Franks gang. Fleeing over the Queensboro Bridge and Jump trade shots with the police, killing all but Gilley, after evading their pursuers, the two men split up. Jump shoots Flanigan in the chest, puncturing his vest, Gilley kills Jump with a shot to the head. A few days at Flanigans funeral, Frank kills Gilley, after his men kill Dalesio, Frank goes to Bishops apartment, telling him that he has placed a $250,000 bounty on every detective involved in the case
Sir Charles Spencer Charlie Chaplin, KBE was an English comic actor and composer who rose to fame during the era of silent film. Chaplin became an icon through his screen persona the Tramp and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, Chaplins childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship. As his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine, when he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an age, touring music halls and working as a stage actor. At 19 he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, Chaplin was scouted for the film industry, and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon developed the Tramp persona and formed a fan base. Chaplin directed his own films from a stage, and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay, Mutual.
By 1918, he was one of the best known figures in the world, in 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists, which gave him complete control over his films. His first feature-length was The Kid, followed by A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush and he refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights and Modern Times without dialogue. Chaplin became increasingly political, and his film, The Great Dictator. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and he was accused of communist sympathies, while his involvement in a paternity suit and marriages to much younger women caused scandal. An FBI investigation was opened, and Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and he abandoned the Tramp in his films, which include Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight, A King in New York, and A Countess from Hong Kong. Chaplin wrote, produced, starred in and he was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture.
His films are characterised by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramps struggles against adversity, many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. In 1972, as part of an appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times. Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889 to Hannah Chaplin, there is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street, Walworth, in South London
Mabel's Married Life
Mabels Married Life is an American comedy silent film made by Keystone Studios starring and co-written by Charles Chaplin and Mabel Normand, and directed by Chaplin. As was so often the case during his first year in film, Chaplin, in tramp attire, sits in the park with his wife, Mabel. While he is gone to a bar, a man holding a tennis racquet moves in on his wife. Chaplin returns to find them laughing together, but despite kicking him and hitting him with his cane the man is undeterred in his wooing of his wife. The man drags Mabel down to the edge of the lake in the park, Charlie finds the mans wife and they return together, where the wife first confronts her husband, but ends up confronting Mabel. She goes to strike her but hits Charlie instead, Mabel heads home but stops at a sporting goods store where she orders a man-shaped punch-bag. It is delivered whilst she is in her pyjamas and she wraps herself in a leopard-skin rug to answer the door. She starts practicing boxing moves on the dummy/punchbag and it is weighted so it swings back and knocks her over.
Meanwhile, Charlie returns to the bar, a man there ridicules Charlies clothes, particularly his baggy trousers. Then the first man reappears further ridiculing Charlie who is by now drunk, Charlie returns home, inexplicably holding a bunch of fresh onions, and trying to work out what the smell is. They fly through a door and onto Mabel who is in bed. Charlie in his drunken state sees the dummy as the rival, Mabel watches from the bedroom, frustrated by his actions. It swings back rolls forward again striking Charlie, Charlie tries to placate it but ends up striking it again. Each time he hits it, it hits him back harder, Mabel joins in the fight reveals to Charlie that it is just a dummy. Meanwhile, neighbour get concerned at the noise
Sid James was a South African-born British actor and comedian. Appearing in British films from 1947, he was cast in numerous small, his starring roles in television sitcoms continued for the rest of his life. He starred alongside Diana Coupland in the 1970s sitcom Bless This House which aired from 1971 until James died in 1976. Remembered for a lascivious persona, the Snopes website describing him as the old man of dirty laughter. Bruce Forsyth described him as a natural at being natural, on 26 April 1976, while touring in The Mating Season, James suffered a heart attack while on stage at the Sunderland Empire Theatre, he died in hospital an hour later. Some, including comedian Les Dawson, claim to have seen the ghost of James at the theatre, and who subsequently refused to appear at the theatre ever again. James was born Solomon Joel Cohen, on 8 May 1913, to Jewish parents, in South Africa, changing his name to Sidney Joel Cohen and his family lived on Hancock Street in Hillbrow, Johannesburg.
Upon moving to Britain in life, he claimed various previous occupations, including diamond cutter, dance tutor and boxer, in reality and it was at a hairdressing salon in Kroonstad, Orange Free State, that he met his first wife. He married Berthe Sadie Delmont, known as Toots, on 12 August 1936 and they had a daughter, through this group he gained work with the South African Broadcasting Corporation. During the Second World War he served as a lieutenant in an entertainment unit of the South African Army and he moved to Britain immediately after the war, financed by his service gratuity. Initially he worked in repertory before being spotted for the nascent British post-war film industry, James made his first credited film appearances in Night Beat and Black Memory, both crime dramas. He played the alcoholic heros barman in Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburgers The Small Back Room and his first major comedy role was in The Lavender Hill Mob, with Alfie Bass he made up the bullion robbery gang headed by Alec Guinness and Stanley Holloway.
In the same year he appeared in Lady Godiva Rides Again. In 1953 he appeared as Harry Hawkins in The Titfield Thunderbolt, in 1956 he appeared in Trapeze, a circus film which was one of the most successful films of its year, and played Master Henry in Outlaw Money an episode of The Adventures of Robin Hood. The next year, James starred with Miriam Karlin in East End, West End by Wolf Mankowitz, for a moment though, it had looked as if his commitment elsewhere might end his work with Tony Hancock, one of the most popular television comedians of the time. In 1954, he had working with Tony Hancock in his BBC Radio series Hancocks Half Hour. Having seen him in The Lavender Hill Mob, it was the idea of Hancocks writers, Ray Galton and Alan Simpson, to cast James. He played a character with his own name, who was a petty criminal who would manage to con Hancock
A Busy Day
A Busy Day is a 1914 short film starring Charlie Chaplin and Mack Swain. In A Busy Day, a wife becomes jealous of her husbands interest in another woman during a military parade, on her way to attack the couple, the wife interrupts the set of a film, knocking over a film director and a police officer. Finally, the husband pushes the wife off of a pier, the film contains a judicious amount of kicking and slapping
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Caught in the Rain
Caught in the Rain is a 1914 American comedy silent film starring Charlie Chaplin. This film was the first of many movies in which Chaplin both directed and played the lead, the short film was produced by Mack Sennett for Keystone Studios with a running time of 16 minutes. The action starts in a park, where a man is trying to romance a matronly woman, the man leaves to go to a concession stall, St Rucopias, and Charlie comes along in his infamous tramp costume. He makes the woman laugh by almost soaking himself at the drinking fountain and he sits next to her on the bench. The original man returns and is angry and he grabs Charlie by the face. He argues with the woman, waving his arms around and hitting Charlie with each movement and his last swing knocks Charlie clean over the bench. They leave and return to a hotel and he leaves the park and staggers, now apparently drunk, over a wide road, almost getting hit by a car. He arrives at the hotel and after propositioning a girl outside, enters.
He checks the register to see which room the couple are in, rushing up the stairs he slips, and slides comically back to the foot on his stomach. He makes several more dangerously balanced comical attempts, hitting the gout-bound man and he approaches the hotel room, where the original couple are arguing. His key doesnt fit but the door is open and he enters, Charlie tries another room with his key and gets in. He starts to undress and goes to bed, meanwhile the man across the hall leaves his wife to go out. We are told she is a sleepwalker and she crosses the hall to sit on Charlies bed. However the rain starts and the returns to the hotel to find his room empty. Charlie, now awake meets him at his door and claims not to know where his wife is, while the man goes down to reception, Charlie takes her back to her room but gets trapped when the man returns. He ends up on the balcony in the rain, but a policeman spots him and challenges him, drawing a gun. A comic battle ensues in the hallway, the husband ends up in Charlies room and collapses drunk on the bed.
The wife comes into the hall and she and Charlie fall down drunk on the floor
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss members of the cabinet. In most systems, the minister is the presiding member. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the minister is the presiding and actual head of government. In such systems, the head of state or the head of states official representative usually holds a ceremonial position. The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature. In some monarchies the monarch may exercise powers that are constitutionally vested in the crown. The first actual usage of the prime minister or Premier Ministre was used by Cardinal Richelieu when in 1625 he was named to head the royal council as prime minister of France. Louis XIV and his descendants generally attempted to avoid giving this title to their chief ministers, the term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom when members of parliament disparagingly used the title in reference to Sir Robert Walpole.
Over time, the title became honorific and remains so in the 21st century, the monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell under Henry VIII, William Cecil, Lord Burghley under Elizabeth I, Clarendon under Charles II and these ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as the minister, the chief minister, the first minister and finally the prime minister. The power of ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the skills of holding high office. Although there was a cabinet, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, when the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse, Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful, late in Annes reign, for example, the Tory ministers Harley and St John shared power.
The monarch could no longer any law or impose any tax without its permission. It is at point that a modern style of prime minister begins to emerge. A tipping point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714, George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover, and had neither knowledge of, nor interest in, the details of English government