Filipino Americans are Americans of Filipino descent. The term Filipino American is sometimes shortened to Pinoy; the earliest appearance of the term Pinoy, was in a 1926 issue of the Filipino Student Bulletin. Some Filipinos believe that the term Pinoy was coined by Filipinos who came to the United States to distinguish themselves from Filipinos living in the Philippines. Filipinos in North America were first documented in the 16th century, other small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did not begin until the early 20th century, when the Philippines was ceded from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris. Filipino sailors were the first Asians in North America; the first recorded presence of Filipinos in what is now the United States dates back to October 1587 around Morro Bay, with the first permanent settlement in Louisiana in 1763, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration began in the early 20th century when, for a period following the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the Philippines was a territory of the United States.
During the 1920s, a majority of Filipino immigrating to the United States were not skilled. Philippine independence was recognized by the United States on July 4, 1946. After independence in 1946, Filipino American numbers continued to grow. Immigration was reduced during the 1930s, except for those who served in the United States Navy, increased following immigration reform in the 1960s; the majority of Filipinos who immigrated after the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 were skilled professionals and technicians. The 2010 Census counted 3.4 million Filipino Americans. S. population. They are the country's second largest self-reported Asian ancestry group after Chinese Americans according to 2010 American Community Survey, they are the largest population of Overseas Filipinos. Significant populations of Filipino Americans can be found in California, the New York metropolitan area and Illinois; the history of Spanish and American rule and contact with merchants and traders culminated in a unique blend of Eastern and Western cultures in the Philippines.
Filipino American cultural identity has been described as fluid, adopting aspects from various cultures. Fashion, music and arts have all had roles in building Filipino American cultural identities and communities. In areas of sparse Filipino population, they form loosely-knit social organizations aimed at maintaining a "sense of family", a key feature of Filipino culture; these organizations arrange social events of a charitable nature, keep members up-to-date with local events. Organizations are organized into regional associations; the associations are a small part of Filipino American life. Filipino Americans formed close-knit neighborhoods, notably in Hawaii. A few communities have "Little Manilas", civic and business districts tailored for the Filipino American community; some Filipinos retain Philippine surnames, such as Bacdayan or Macapagal, while others derive from Japanese and Chinese and reflect centuries of trade with these merchants preceding European and American rule. Reflecting its 333 years of Spanish rule, many Filipinos adopted Hispanic surnames, celebrate fiestas.
Due to the legacy of colonization, Filipinos are considered Latinos of Asia. Despite being from Asia, Filipinos are sometimes called "Latinos" due to their historical relationship to Spanish colonialism. Similar to Puerto Rico, Filipinos have been subjected to both Spanish and American colonial structures and territory status; this shared history may contribute to why some Filipinos choose to identify as Hispanic or Latino, while others may not and identify more as Asian Americans. Only a small percentage of Filipino Americans identify as Latino. Due to history, the Philippines and the United States are connected culturally. In 2016, there was $16.5 billion dollars worth of trade between the two countries, with the United States being the largest foreign investor in the Philippines, more than 40% of remittances came from the United States. In 2004, the amount of remittances coming from the United States was $5 billion; some Filipino Americans have chosen to retire in the Philippines. Filipino Americans, continue to travel back and forth between the United States and the Philippines, making up more than a tenth of all foreign travelers to the Philippines in 2010.
Filipino and English are constitutionally established as official languages in the Philippines, Filipino is designated as the national language, with English in wide use. Many Filipinos speak American English due to American colonial influence in the country's education system and due to limited Spanish education. Among Asian Americans in 1990, Filipino Americans had the smallest percentage of individuals who had problems with English. In 2000, among U. S.-born Filipino Americans, three quarters responded. In 2003, Tagalog was the fifth most-spoken language in the United States, with 1.262 million speakers. Tagalog usage is significant in California and Washington, while Ilocano usage is significant in Hawaii. Many of Cal
A mockumentary or docucomedy is a type of movie or television show depicting fictional events but presented as a documentary. These productions are used to analyze or comment on current events and issues by using a fictional setting, or to parody the documentary form itself. While mockumentaries are comedic, pseudo-documentaries are their dramatic equivalents. However, pseudo-documentary should not be confused with docudrama, a fictional genre in which dramatic techniques are combined with documentary elements to depict real events. Docudrama is different from docufiction. Mockumentaries are presented as historical documentaries, with B roll and talking heads discussing past events, or as cinéma vérité pieces following people as they go through various events. Examples emerged during the 1950s when archival film footage became easy to locate. A early example was a short piece on the "Swiss Spaghetti Harvest" that appeared as an April fools' joke on the British television program Panorama in 1957.
The term "mockumentary", which originated in the 1960s, was popularized in the mid-1980s when This Is Spinal Tap director Rob Reiner used it in interviews to describe that film. Mockumentaries are partly or wholly improvised, as an unscripted style of acting helps to maintain the pretense of reality. Comedic mockumentaries have laugh tracks to sustain the atmosphere, although exceptions exist. Music "is employed to expose the ambiguities and fallacies of conventional storytelling. Early work, including Luis Buñuel's 1933 Land Without Bread, Orson Welles's 1938 radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds, various April Fools' Day news reports, vérité-style film and television during the 1960s and 1970s, served as precursor to the genre. Early examples of mock-documentaries include The Connection, A Hard Day's Night, 1964, David Holzman's Diary, 1967, Pat Paulsen for President, 1968, Take the Money and Run, 1969, The Clowns, 1970, by Federico Fellini, All You Need Is Cash, 1978. Albert Brooks was an early popularizer of the mockumentary style with his film Real Life, 1979, a spoof of a PBS documentary.
Woody Allen's Take the Money and Run is presented in documentary-style with Allen playing a fictional criminal, Virgil Starkwell, whose crime exploits are "explored" throughout the film. Jackson Beck, who used to narrate documentaries in the 1940s, provides the voice-over narration. Fictional interviews are interspliced throughout those of Starkwell's parents who wear Groucho Marx noses and mustaches; the style of this film was appropriated by others and revisited by Allen himself in films such as Zelig and Sweet and Lowdown. Early use of the mockumentary format in television comedy may be seen in several sketches from Monty Python's Flying Circus, such as "Hell's Grannies", "Piranha Brothers", "The Funniest Joke in the World"; the Hart and Lorne Terrific Hour featured mockumentary pieces which interspersed both scripted and real-life man-in-the-street interviews, the most famous being "The Puck Crisis" in which hockey pucks were claimed to have become infected with a form of Dutch elm disease.
All You Need Is Cash, developed from an early series of sketches in the comedy series Rutland Weekend Television, is a 1978 television film in mockumentary style about The Rutles, a fictional band that parodies The Beatles. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the mockumentary format has got considerable attention; the 1980 South African film The Gods Must be Crazy is presented in the manner of a nature documentary, with documentary narrator Paddy O'Byrne describing the events of the film in the manner of a biologist or anthropologist presenting scientific knowledge to viewers. In 1982, The Atomic Cafe is a Cold-War era American "mockumentary" film that made use of archival government footage from the 1950s. Woody Allen's 1983 film Zelig stars Allen as a curiously nondescript enigma, discovered for his remarkable ability to transform himself to resemble anyone he is near, Allen is edited into historical archive footage. In 1984, Christopher Guest co-wrote and starred in the mockumentary This is Spinal Tap, directed by Rob Reiner.
Guest went on to write and direct other mockumentaries including Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, all written with costar Eugene Levy. Tim Robbins' 1992 film Bob Roberts was a mockumentary centered around the senatorial campaign of a right-wing stock trader and folksinger, the unsavory connections and dirty tricks used to defeat a long-term liberal incumbent played by Gore Vidal. Man Bites Dog is a 1992 Belgian black comedy crime mockumentary written and directed by Rémy Belvaux, André Bonzel, Benoît Poelvoorde. In 1995, Peter Jackson and Costa Botes directed Forgotten Silver, which claimed New Zealand "director" Colin McKenzie was a pioneer in filmmaking; when the film was revealed to be a mockumentary, Jackson received criticism for tricking viewers. In 1998, director Mike Clattenburg wrote and directed a short film titled One Last Shot, shot in black-and-white; the film followed the exploits, in documentary style, of Ricky and Julian, two criminals doing what they did just about every day.
In 1999 a sequel feature film Trailer Park Boys in black-and-white, was released. Both films serve a
American folk-music revival
The American folk-music revival began during the 1940s and peaked in popularity in the mid-1960s. Its roots went earlier, performers like Josh White, Burl Ives, Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, Big Bill Broonzy, Richard Dyer-Bennet, Oscar Brand, Jean Ritchie, John Jacob Niles, Susan Reed, Paul Robeson and Cisco Houston had enjoyed a limited general popularity in the 1930s and 1940s; the revival brought forward styles of American folk music that had, in earlier times, contributed to the development of country and western and rock and roll music. The folk revival in New York City was rooted in the resurgent interest in square dancing and folk dancing there in the 1940s, which gave musicians such as Pete Seeger popular exposure; the folk revival more as a popular and commercial phenomenon begins with the career of The Weavers, formed in November 1948 by Pete Seeger, Lee Hays, Fred Hellerman, Ronnie Gilbert of People's Songs, of which Seeger had been president and Hays executive secretary. People's Songs, which disbanded in 1948–49, had been a clearing house for labor movement songs, in 1948 had thrown all its resources to the failed presidential campaign of Progressive Party candidate Henry Wallace, a folk-music aficionado.
Hays and Seeger had sung together as the politically activist Almanac Singers, a group which they founded in 1941 and whose personnel included Woody Guthrie, Josh White, Lead Belly, Cisco Houston, Bess Lomax Hawes. The Weavers had a big hit in 1950 with the single of Lead Belly's "Goodnight, Irene"; this was number one on the Billboard charts for thirteen weeks. On its flip side was "Tzena, Tzena", an Israeli dance song that concurrently reached number two on the charts; this was followed by a string of Weaver hit singles that sold millions, including ""So Long It's Been Good to Know You" and "Kisses Sweeter Than Wine". The Weavers' career ended abruptly when they were dropped from Decca's catalog because Pete Seeger had been listed in the publication Red Channels as a probable subversive. Radio stations refused to play their records and concert venues canceled their engagements. A former employee of People's Songs, Harvey Matusow, himself a former Communist Party member, had informed the FBI that the Weavers were Communists, although Matusow recanted and admitted he had lied.
Pete Seeger and Lee Hays were called to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1955. Despite this, a Christmas Weaver reunion concert in 1955 was a smash success and the Vanguard LP album of that concert, issued in 1957, was one of the top sellers of that year, followed by other successful albums. Folk music, which carried the stigma of left-wing associations during the 1950s Red Scare, was driven underground and carried along by a handful of artists releasing records. Barred from mainstream outlets, artists like Seeger were restricted to performing in schools and summer camps, the folk-music scene became a phenomenon associated with vaguely rebellious bohemianism in places like New York City, North Beach, in the college and university districts of cities like Chicago, Boston and elsewhere. Ron Eyerman and Scott Baretta speculate that: t is interesting to consider that had it not been for the explicit political sympathies of the Weavers and other folk singers or, another way of looking at it, the hysterical anti-communism of the Cold War, folk music would likely have entered mainstream American culture in greater force in the early 1950s making the second wave of the revival nearly a decade redundant.
The media blackout of performers with alleged communist sympathies or ties was so effective that Israel Young, a chronicler of the 60s Folk Revival, who himself was drawn into the movement through an interest in folk dancing, communicated to Ron Eyerman that he himself was unaware for many years of the movement's 1930s and early'40s antecedents in left-wing political activism. In the early and mid-1950s, acoustic-guitar-accompanied folk songs were heard in coffee houses, private parties, open-air concerts, sing-alongs, at college-campus concerts. Associated with political dissent, folk music now blended, to some degree, with the so-called beatnik scene. S. and Canada, home to cool jazz and recitations of personal beatnik poetry. Two singers of the 1950s who sang folk material but crossed over into the mainstream were Odetta and Harry Belafonte, both of whom sang Lead Belly and Josh White material. Odetta, who had trained as an opera singer, performed traditional blues and songs by Lead Belly.
Belafonte had hits with Jamaican calypso material as well as the folk song-like sentimental ballad "Scarlet Ribbons". The Kingston Trio, a group originating on the West Coast, were directly inspired by the Weavers in their style and presentation and covered some of the Weavers' material, predominantly traditional; the Kingston Trio avoided overtly political or protest songs and cultivated a clean-cut, collegiate persona. They were discovered while playing at a college club called the Cracked Pot by Frank Werber, who became their manager and secured them a deal with Capitol Records, their first hit was a catchy rendition of an old-time folk murder ballad, "Tom Dooley", sung at Lead Belly's funeral concert. This sold more than three million copies. T
Parker Christian Posey is an American actress and musician. She works with Christopher Guest and has appeared in several of his mockumentaries, such as Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration, Mascots. Posey is the recipient of a Golden Globe Award nomination, a Satellite Award nomination and two Independent Spirit Award nominations. Posey made her film debut in Joey Breaker. Following small roles in Coneheads and the cult classic Dazed and Confused, she was labelled "Queen of the Indies" for starring in a succession of independent films throughout the 1990s, such as Sleep with Me, Party Girl, The Doom Generation and Screaming, The Daytrippers, The House of Yes and Clockwatchers, her other notable film appearances include You've Got Mail, Scream 3, Josie and the Pussycats, Personal Velocity, The Sweetest Thing, Blade: Trinity, Superman Returns, Fay Grim, Broken English, The Eye, Spring Breakdown, Irrational Man, Café Society. Outside of film, Posey starred in the television movie Hell on Heels: The Battle of Mary Kay and has guest-starred on numerous series, such as Futurama, The Simpsons, Will & Grace, Boston Legal and Recreation, The Good Wife, Inside Amy Schumer, Search Party.
Since 2018 she has starred as June Harris on the Netflix series Lost in Space. Posey was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Lynda, a chef, Chris Posey, owner of a car dealership, she has Christopher. Posey's first name was given to her because her mother had a childhood friend she admired named Parker. After Posey's birth, her family lived in Louisiana for 11 years, they moved to Laurel, where her mother worked as a chef and culinary instructor for the Viking Range Corporation in Greenwood, her father operated a car dealership. Posey was raised as a Catholic. Posey attended the State University of New York at Purchase, where she studied drama and roomed with actresses Sherry Stringfield and Orlagh Cassidy. Posey got her first break in television with the role of Tess Shelby on the daytime soap opera As the World Turns. Posey's first major role in a feature film was in Dazed and Confused with Ben Affleck, Matthew McConaughey, Jason London; the film has been identified as a cult classic. In 2003, Entertainment Weekly ranked the film #17 on their list of "The Top 50 Cult Films", third on their list of the 50 Best High School Movies, 10th on their "Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years" list, ranked it #6 on their "The Cult 25: The Essential Left-Field Movie Hits Since'83" list.
In 1994, she appeared in Hal Hartley's short film Opera No. 1, with Adrienne Shelley. Throughout the late 1990s, Posey co-starred in 32 independent films and was nicknamed "Queen of the Indies"; these films include Personal Velocity, Clockwatchers, The Daytrippers, Party Girl and The House of Yes. In particular, she received positive reviews for the latter film, with her role as a delusional woman in love with her own brother. In an interview in January 2012, Parker said that the unofficial title has sometimes been a hindrance: I'm trying to work in studio movies, but they won't hire me. I get feedback from my agent saying,'She's too much of an indie queen.' And on the other side, my name doesn't get the financing to do a movie over $1 million. And I'm called'the indie queen.' So it's a challenging path because I know so much about the indie side of the business. Because I grew up in it... But it's different times, and this stuff gets projected onto me. People are like,'You're here every year, you do so many indie movies.'
And I'm like,'No, I did Broken English five years ago.' She has co-starred in Christopher Guest's films, including five of his mock documentaries, the first being Waiting for Guffman in 1996. In 1998, Posey appeared in Hartley's film Henry Fool, the big budget studio film You've Got Mail. In 2000, she starred in Guest's third mock documentary Best in Show, in the big budget horror film Scream 3. Critical reaction to Posey's performance in the latter film was positive, earned her an MTV Movie Award nomination. However, she lost to Adam Sandler; the next year she played the antagonist in Josie and the Pussycats. From 2001-2002, she appeared in a supporting role in the popular NBC sitcom Grace. In 2003, she starred in Guest's A Mighty Wind; the next year she appeared in Sisters of Mercy, Laws of Attraction, Blade: Trinity. Posey co-starred in the 2005 film Adam & Steve. In 2006, Posey appeared in Superman Returns as Kitty Kowalski, Lex Luthor's ditzy sidekick, a character based on Eve Teschmacher from the 1978 film Superman.
Posey was the only actress considered for the role. Superman Returns was a box office success; the film was successful at the 33rd Saturn Awards, Posey, a few fellow cast members, the visual effects department were all nominated. The same year she played the title character in Fay Grim, the sequel to Henry Fool, appeared in For Your Consideration. In 2007, Posey was cast in the lead role on the TV series The Return of Jezebel James; the show was given 13 episodes, the show was cut to seven episodes in anticipation of the pending writers strike. It premiered on the Fox television network in 2008 as a mid-season replacement. However, the show was canceled after the third episode aired due to unacceptably low ratings, she starred in Zoe Cassavetes' 2007 film Broke
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, thus can be difficult to define with precision, cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significance of the term should be applied with caution. Witchcraft occupies a religious divinatory or medicinal role, is present within societies and groups whose cultural framework includes a magical world view; the concept of witchcraft and the belief in its existence have persisted throughout recorded history. They have been present or central at various times and in many diverse forms among cultures and religions worldwide, including both "primitive" and "highly advanced" cultures, continue to have an important role in many cultures today; the predominant concept of witchcraft in the Western world derives from Old Testament laws against witchcraft, entered the mainstream when belief in witchcraft gained Church approval in the Early Modern Period.
It posits a theosophical conflict between good and evil, where witchcraft was evil and associated with the Devil and Devil worship. This culminated in deaths and scapegoating, many years of large scale witch-trials and witch hunts in Protestant Europe, before ceasing during the European Age of Enlightenment. Christian views in the modern day are diverse and cover the gamut of views from intense belief and opposition to non-belief, in some churches approval. From the mid-20th century, witchcraft – sometimes called contemporary witchcraft to distinguish it from older beliefs – became the name of a branch of modern paganism, it is most notably practiced in the Wiccan and modern witchcraft traditions, no longer practices in secrecy. The Western mainstream Christian view is far from the only societal perspective about witchcraft. Many cultures worldwide continue to have widespread practices and cultural beliefs that are loosely translated into English as "witchcraft", although the English translation masks a great diversity in their forms, magical beliefs and place in their societies.
During the Age of Colonialism, many cultures across the globe were exposed to the modern Western world via colonialism accompanied and preceded by intensive Christian missionary activity. Beliefs related to witchcraft and magic in these cultures were at times influenced by the prevailing Western concepts. Witch hunts and killing or shunning of suspected witches still occurs in the modern era, with killings both of victims for their magical body parts, of suspected witchcraft practitioners. Suspicion of modern medicine due to beliefs about illness being due to witchcraft continues in many countries to this day, with tragic healthcare consequences. HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease are two examples of often-lethal infectious disease epidemics whose medical care and containment has been hampered by regional beliefs in witchcraft. Other severe medical conditions whose treatment is hampered in this way include tuberculosis, leprosy and the common severe bacterial Buruli ulcer. Public healthcare requires considerable education work related to epidemology and modern health knowledge in many parts of the world where belief in witchcraft prevails, to encourage effective preventive health measures and treatments, to reduce victim blaming and stigmatization, to prevent the killing of people and endangering of animal species for body parts believed to convey magical abilities.
The word witch is of uncertain origin. There are numerous etymologies. One popular belief is that it is "related to the English words wit, wisdom," so "craft of the wise." Another is from the Old English wiccecræft, a compound of "wicce" and "cræft". In anthropological terminology, witches differ from sorcerers in that they don't use physical tools or actions to curse; this definition was pioneered in a study of central African magical beliefs by E. E. Evans-Pritchard, who cautioned that it might not correspond with normal English usage. Historians of European witchcraft have found the anthropological definition difficult to apply to European witchcraft, where witches could use physical techniques, as well as some who had attempted to cause harm by thought alone. European witchcraft is seen by historians and anthropologists as an ideology for explaining misfortune; the witchcraft label has been applied to practices people believe influence the mind, body, or property of others against their will—or practices that the person doing the labeling believes undermine social or religious order.
Some modern commentators believe. The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against their will was present in many cultures, as traditions in both folk magic and religious magic have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users. Many examples appear in early texts, such as those from ancient Babylonia. Malicious magic users can become a credible cause for disease, sickness in animals, bad luck, sudden death, impo
Harry Julius Shearer is an American actor, voice actor, writer, radio host and producer. Born in Los Angeles, Shearer began his career as a child actor. From 1969 to 1976, Shearer was a member of a radio comedy group. Following the breakup of the group, Shearer co-wrote the film Real Life with Albert Brooks and started writing for Martin Mull's television series Fernwood 2 Night. Shearer was a cast member on Saturday Night Live between 1979 and 1980, 1984 and 1985. Shearer co-created, co-wrote and co-starred in the 1984 film This Is Spinal Tap, a satirical rockumentary, which became a cult hit. In 1989, he joined the cast of the animated sitcom The Simpsons. Shearer has appeared in films including A Mighty Wind and The Truman Show, has directed two, Teddy Bears' Picnic and The Big Uneasy, he has written three books. Since 1983, Shearer has been the host of the public radio comedy/music program Le Show, incorporating satire and sketch comedy. Shearer has won a Primetime Emmy Award, has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in the radio category, has received several other Emmy and Grammy Award nominations.
He has been married to singer-songwriter Judith Owen since 1993. He is "artist in residence" at Loyola University, New Orleans. Shearer was born December 23, 1943, in Los Angeles, the son of Dora Warren, a bookkeeper, Mack Shearer, his parents were Jewish emigrants from Poland. Starting when Shearer was four years old, he had a piano teacher whose daughter worked as a child actress; the piano teacher decided to make a career change and become a children's agent, since she knew people in the business through her daughter's work. The teacher asked Shearer's parents for permission to take him to an audition. Several months she called Shearer's parents and told them that she had gotten Shearer an audition for the radio show The Jack Benny Program. Shearer received the role, he described Jack Benny as "very warm and approachable... He was a guy who dug the idea of other people on the show getting laughs, which sort of spoiled me for other people in comedy." Shearer said in an interview that one person who "took him under his wing" and was one of his best friends during his early days in show business was voice actor Mel Blanc, who voiced many animated characters, including Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck and Barney Rubble.
Shearer made his film debut in the 1953 film Abbott and Costello Go to Mars, in which he had a small part. That year he appeared in The Robe. Throughout his childhood and teenage years he worked in television and radio. In 1957, Shearer played the precursor to the Eddie Haskell character in the pilot episode of the television series Leave It to Beaver. After the filming, Shearer's parents said. Instead they wanted him to just do occasional work. Shearer and his parents made the decision not to accept the role in the series if it was picked up by a television network. Shearer attended UCLA as a political science major in the early 1960s and decided to quit show business to become a "serious person". However, he says this lasted a month, he joined the staff of the Daily Bruin, UCLA's school newspaper, during his first year, he was editor of the college humor magazine including the June 1964 parody, Preyboy He worked as a newscaster at KRLA, a top 40 radio station in Pasadena, during this period. According to Shearer, after graduating, he had "a serious agenda going on, it was'Stay Out of the Draft'."
He attended graduate school at Harvard University for one year and worked at the state legislature in Sacramento. In 1967 and 1968, he was a high school teacher, teaching social studies, he left teaching following "disagreements with the administration."From 1969 to 1976, Shearer was a member of The Credibility Gap, a radio comedy group that included David Lander, Richard Beebe and Michael McKean. The group consisted of "a bunch of newsmen" at KRLA 1110, "the number two station" in Los Angeles, they wanted to do more than just straight news, so they hired comedians who were talented vocalists. Shearer heard about it from a friend so he brought over a tape to the station and nervously gave it to the receptionist, he found out. The group's radio show was canceled in 1970 by KRLA and in 1971 by KPPC-FM, so they started performing in various clubs and concert venues. While at KRLA, Shearer interviewed Creedence Clearwater Revival for the Pop Chronicles music documentary. In 1973, Shearer appeared as Jim Houseafire on How Time Flys, an album by The Firesign Theatre's David Ossman.
The Credibility Gap broke up in 1976 when Lander and McKean left to perform in the sitcom Laverne & Shirley. Shearer started working with Albert Brooks, producing one of Brooks' albums and co-writing the film Real Life. Shearer started writing for Martin Mull's television series Fernwood 2 Night. In the mid-1970s, he started working with Rob Reiner on a pilot for ABC; the show, which starred Christopher Guest, Tom Leopold and McKean, was not picked up. In August 1979, Shearer was hired as a writer and cast member on Saturday Night Live, one of the first additions to the cast, an unofficial replacement for John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd, who were both leaving the show. Al Franken recommended Shearer to Saturday Night Live creator Lorne Michaels. Shearer describes his experience on the show as a "living hell" and "not a real pleasant place to work." He did not get along well w
Michael McKean is an American actor and musician, known for a variety of roles played since the 1970s. McKean's first big role was playing annoying neighbor Lenny Kosnowski on the sitcom Laverne & Shirley. In the mid-1990s he was a repertory cast member on Saturday Night Live, he has played roles in several Christopher Guest ensemble films as David St. Hubbins, lead vocalist and co-lead guitarist of the fictional rock band Spinal Tap in This Is Spinal Tap, he co-wrote the song "A Mighty Wind", which won a Grammy Award, as well as "A Kiss at the End of the Rainbow" from the same film, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Song. McKean portrayed Chuck McGill, brother of Saul Goodman, as a series regular on the AMC drama series Better Call Saul. McKean was born October 17, 1947, in New York City, the son of Ruth, a librarian, Gilbert McKean, one of the founders of Decca Records, was raised in Sea Cliff, New York, on Long Island. McKean is of Irish, English and some German and Dutch, descent, he graduated from high school in 1965.
In early 1967 he was a member of the New York City "baroque pop" band The Left Banke and played on the "Ivy, Ivy"/"And Suddenly" single. McKean began his career in Pittsburgh while a student at Carnegie Mellon, their partnership grew after graduation as part of the comedy group The Credibility Gap with Harry Shearer in Los Angeles, but McKean's breakthrough came in 1976 when he and Lander joined the cast of Laverne & Shirley portraying Lenny and Squiggy. McKean directed one episode, the characters became something of a phenomenon releasing an album as Lenny and the Squigtones in 1979, which featured a young Christopher Guest on guitar. "Foreign Legion of Love" was a big hit for the Squigtones, with frequent play on the Dr. Demento Show. McKean played his character in an episode of Happy Days. After leaving Laverne & Shirley in 1982, McKean played David St. Hubbins in the comedy This is Spinal Tap with both Guest and Shearer, appeared in the soap opera spoof Young Doctors in Love. McKean became a recognizable name in film and television, with appearances in films such as Used Cars, Planes and Automobiles, Earth Girls Are Easy, taking a lead role in Short Circuit 2.
In 1990, McKean landed a memorable role opposite Kiefer Sutherland and Dennis Hopper in the American adventure comedy movie, Flashback. That same year, McKean was part of an ensemble cast in the television series Grand on NBC which, only aired for a short time. In 1991 McKean co-wrote the second episode and directed the final episode of the mock documentary series Morton & Hayes, created by Phil Mishkin and Rob Reiner. Having appeared as a musical guest and host of Saturday Night Live, McKean joined the cast from 1994 to 1995. At the age of 46, he was the oldest person to join the SNL cast at the time, one of a handful of SNL cast members to appear on the show before becoming a cast member, the only one to be a musical guest and a host before becoming a cast member. During this time, he released a video follow up to Spinal Tap, played the villainous Mr. Dittmeyer in The Brady Bunch Movie, played the boss Gibby in the HBO series Dream On. After leaving Saturday Night Live, McKean spent a lot of time doing children's fare, voicing various TV shows and movies.
McKean appeared in a number of movie roles, including the film adaptation of Memoirs of an Invisible Man, Coneheads and Radioland Murders. In 1997, he performed the lead voice role in the video game Zork Grand Inquisitor as Dalboz of Gurth and appeared in the 1999 films Teaching Mrs. Tingle and Mystery, Alaska. McKean's television guest appearances include The Simpsons, Star Trek: Voyager, Boy Meets World, She Wrote, Murphy Brown and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman, Caroline in the City. In 1998, he guest starred in a two-part episode of The X-Files called "Dreamland" in which his character, Morris Fletcher, switched bodies with Fox Mulder; the character was a success, reappeared in 1999's "Three of a Kind", an episode which focused on the recurring characters of The Lone Gunmen. The character appeared on their short-lived spin-off series in 2001, returned to The X-Files in its final season for an episode called "Jump the Shark". McKean reunited with Christopher Guest in Best in Show and appeared in Little Nicky, The Guru, And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself, A Mighty Wind in which The Folksmen are played by the actors who played as Spinal Tap.
McKean had a regular role as the brassy made-up bandleader Adrian Van Voorhees in Martin Short's Comedy Central series, Primetime Glick. He had guest roles on such shows as Law & Order, Family Guy, SpongeBob SquarePants, Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law, he did voiceover work as Henry's cousin, Louie, on Oswald, which coincidentally featured the voice of David Lander as Henry. And he lent his voice to an episode of Kevin Smith's Clerks: The Animated Series, never aired on ABC but was included on the VHS and DVD versions of the series. In 2003, he guest starred on Smallville, the Superman prequel in which his wife, Annette O'Toole, starred as Martha Kent. McKean played Perry White, who becomes Clark Kent's boss, he had previou