Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal is an American magazine published by the Meredith Corporation. It was first published on February 16, 1883, became one of the leading women's magazines of the 20th century in the United States. From 1891 it was published in Philadelphia by the Curtis Publishing Company. In 1903, it was the first American magazine to reach one million subscribers. In the late 20th century, changing tastes and competition from television caused it to lose circulation. Sales of the magazine ensued. On April 24, 2014, Meredith announced it would stop publishing the magazine as a monthly with the July issue, stating it was "transitioning Ladies' Home Journal to a special interest publication", it is now available quarterly on newsstands only. Ladies' Home Journal was one of the Seven Sisters, as a group of women's service magazines were known; the name referred to seven prestigious women's colleges in the Northeast. The Ladies' Home Journal was developed from a popular double-page supplement in the American magazine Tribune and Farmer titled Women at Home.
Women at Home was written by Louisa Knapp Curtis, wife of the magazine's publisher Cyrus H. K. Curtis. After a year it became an independent publication, with Knapp as editor for the first six years, its original name was The Ladies Home Journal and Practical Housekeeper, but Knapp dropped the last three words in 1886. It became the leading American magazine of its type, reaching a subscribed circulation of more than one million copies by 1903, the first American magazine to do so. Edward W. Bok took over the editorship in late 1889, serving until 1919. Among features he introduced. At the turn of the 20th century, the magazine published the work of muckrakers and social reformers such as Jane Addams. In 1901 it published two articles highlighting the early architectural designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Bok introduced business practices at the Ladies' Home Journal that contributed to its success: low subscription rates, inclusion of advertising to off-set costs, reliance on popular content; this operating structure was adopted by men's magazines like McClure's and Munsey's a decade after it had become the standard practice of American women's magazines.
Scholars argue that women's magazines, like the Ladies' Home Journal, pioneered these strategies "magazine revolution". During World War II, the Ladies Home Journal was a favored venue of the government to place articles intended for homemakers, in an effort to keep up morale and support.the annual subscription price paid for the production of the magazine and its mailing. The profits came from advertising pitch to families with above-average incomes of $1000 to $3000 dollars in 1900. In the 1910s it carried about a third of the advertising in all women's magazines. By 1929 it had nearly twice as much advertising as any other publication except for the Saturday Evening Post, published by the Curtis family; the Ladies Home Journal was sold to 2 million subscribers in the mid-1920s, grew a little during the depression years, surged again during post-World War II prosperity. By the 1955, each issue sold 4.6 million copies and there were 11 million readers. In March 1970, feminists held an 11-hour sit-in at the Ladies' Home Journal's office.
As a result, they were allowed to produce a section of the magazine that August. They wanted the magazine to recognize a wider variety of choices for women's lives; the Journal, along with its major rivals, Better Homes and Gardens, Family Circle, Good Housekeeping, McCall's, Redbook and Woman's Day, were long known as the "seven sisters", after the prestigious women's colleges in the Northeast. For decades, the Journal had the greatest circulation of this group, but it fell behind McCall's in 1961. By 1968, its circulation was 6.8 million compared to McCall's 8.5 million. Society was changing and this was reflected in persons' magazine choices; that year, Curtis Publishing sold the Ladies' Home Journal, along with the magazine The American Home, to Downe Communications for $5.4 million in stock. Between 1969 and 1974 Downe was acquired by Charter Company. In 1982 it sold the magazine to Family Media Inc. publishers of Health magazine, when Charter decided to divest its publishing interests. In 1986, the Meredith Corporation acquired the magazine from Family Media for $96 million.
By 1998, the Journal's circulation had dropped to 4.5 million. The magazine debuted an extensive editorial redesign in its March 2012 issue. Photographer Brigitte Lacombe was hired to shoot cover photos, with Kate Winslet appearing on the first revamped issue; the Journal announced that portions of its editorial content would be crowdsourced from readers, who would be compensated for their work. The arrangement was one of the first of its kind among major consumer magazines. Although the magazine remained popular, it ran into increasing difficulty attracting advertising. Despite its high subscriber base, it was not a leader in the women's service category; these factors prompted the decision to end monthly publication. The magazine was relaunched as a quarterly. At the same time, the headquarters of the magazine moved from New York City to Iowa. Meredith offered its subscribers the chance to transfer their subscriptions to Meredith's sister publications. Knapp continued as the magazine's editor till Edward William Bok succeeded her as LHJ editor in 1889.
However, she remained involved with the magazine's management, she wrote a column for each issue. In 1892, the LHJ became the first magazine to refuse patent medicine advertisements. In 1896, Bok became Louisa Knapp's son-in-law when he married
Yale Law School
Yale Law School is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, United States. Established in 1824, Yale Law offers the J. D. LL. M. J. S. D. M. S. L. and Ph. D. degrees in law. The school's small size and prestige make its admissions process the most selective of any law school in the United States, with an acceptance rate of 6.7% in the 2017-18 cycle. Its yield rate of 85% is the highest of any law school in the United States. Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and World Report every year since the magazine began publishing law school rankings. Considered to be the preeminent law school in the nation, it is one of the most prestigious law schools in the world. Yale Law has produced a significant number of luminaries in law and politics, including United States presidents Gerald Ford, Bill Clinton and former U. S. secretary of state and presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton. Former president William Howard Taft was a professor of constitutional law at Yale Law School from 1913 until he resigned to become chief justice of the United States in 1921.
Alumni include current United States Supreme Court associate justices Clarence Thomas, Samuel Alito, Sonia Sotomayor and Brett Kavanaugh, as well as a number of former justices, including Abe Fortas, Potter Stewart and Byron White. S. senators. Each class in Yale Law's three-year J. D. program enrolls 200 students. Yale's flagship law review is the Yale Law Journal, one of the most cited legal publications in the nation. According to Yale Law School's 2014 ABA-required disclosures, 88.3% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required or JD-advantage employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo practitioners. The institution is known for its scholarly orientation. Another feature of Yale Law's culture since the 1930s, among both faculty and student graduates, has been an emphasis on the importance of spending at least a few years in government service. A similar emphasis has long been placed on service as a judicial law clerk upon graduation, its 7.6:1 student-to-faculty ratio is the third lowest among U.
S. law schools. Yale Law does not have a traditional grading system, a consequence of student unrest in the late 1960s. Instead, it grades first-semester first-year students on a simple Credit/No Credit system. For their remaining two-and-a-half years, students are graded on an Honors/Pass/Low Pass/Fail system; the school does not rank its students. It is notable for having only a single semester of required classes, instead of the full year most U. S. schools require. Unusually, as a result of unique Connecticut State court rules, Yale Law allows first-year students to represent clients through one of its numerous clinics. Students publish nine law journals that, unlike those at most other schools accept student editors without a competition; the only exception is YLS's flagship journal, the Yale Law Journal, which holds a two-part admissions competition each spring, consisting of a four or five-hour "bluebooking exam," followed by a traditional writing competition. Although the Journal identifies a target maximum number of members to accept each year, it is not a firm number.
Other leading student-edited publications include the Yale Journal on Regulation, the Yale Law and Policy Review, the Yale Journal of International Law. In November 2013, it was announced that a $25 million donation would bring student dormitory living back onto campus, with renovations to begin in 2018. Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and World Report in every year in which the magazine has published law school rankings. Among U. S. law schools, Yale has the lowest acceptance rate and the highest yield rate—whereas less than 10% of applicants are admitted, about 80% of those who are accepted enroll, either in the Fall following their acceptance or after a deferral. It is ranked as the second best law school in U. S and fourth in the world by the 2016 QS Rankings; the school saw a greater percentage of its students go on to become Supreme Court clerks between the 2000 and 2010 terms than any other law school, more than double the percentage of the second-highest law school.
In addition to producing the most Supreme Court clerks per capita, Yale saw a greater percentage of its graduates accept federal clerkships among the United States Courts of Appeal and District Courts than any other law school. Additionally, a 2010 survey of "scholarly impact," measured by per capita citations to faculty scholarship, found Yale's faculty to be the most cited law school faculty in the United States; the School began in the New Haven law office of Seth P. Staples in the 1800s, who began training lawyers. By 1810 he was operating a law school, he took on a former student, Samuel J. Hitchcock as a law partner, Hitchcock became the proprietor of the New Haven Law School, joined by David Daggett in 1824. (The Y
Robert Duane Ballard is a retired United States Navy officer and a professor of oceanography at the University of Rhode Island, most noted for his work in underwater archaeology: maritime archaeology and archaeology of shipwrecks. He is most known for the discoveries of the wrecks of the RMS Titanic in 1985, the battleship Bismarck in 1989, the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown in 1998, he discovered the wreck of John F. Kennedy's PT-109 in 2002 and visited Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana, who saved its crew, he leads ocean exploration on E/V Nautilus. Ballard grew up in Pacific Beach, San Diego, California to a mother of German heritage and a father of British heritage, he has attributed his early interest in underwater exploration to reading the novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, living by the ocean in San Diego, his fascination with the groundbreaking expeditions of the bathyscaphe Trieste. Ballard began working for Andreas Rechnitzer's Ocean Systems Group at North American Aviation in 1962 when his father, the chief engineer at North American Aviation's Minuteman missile program, helped him get a part-time job.
At North American, he worked on North American's failed proposal to build the submersible Alvin for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. In 1965, Ballard graduated from the University of California, Santa Barbara, earning undergraduate degrees in chemistry and geology. While a student in Santa Barbara, California, he joined Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, completed the US Army's ROTC program, giving him an Army officer's commission in Army Intelligence, his first graduate degree was in geophysics from the University of Hawaii's Institute of Geophysics where he trained porpoises and whales. Subsequently, he returned to Andreas Rechnitzer's Ocean Systems Group at North American Aviation. Ballard was working towards a Ph. D. in marine geology at the University of Southern California in 1967 when he was called to active duty. Upon his request, he was transferred from the Army into the US Navy as an oceanographer; the Navy assigned him as a liaison between the Office of Naval Research and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
After leaving active duty and entering into the Naval Reserve in 1970, Ballard continued working at Woods Hole persuading organizations and people scientists, to fund and use Alvin for undersea research. Four years he received a Ph. D. in marine geology and geophysics at the University of Rhode Island. Ballard's first dive in a submersible was in the Ben Franklin in 1969 off the coast of Florida during a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution expedition. In summer 1970, he began a field mapping project of the Gulf of Maine for his doctoral dissertation, it used an air gun that sent sound waves underwater to determine the underlying structure of the ocean floor and the submersible Alvin, used to find and recover a sample from the bedrock. During the summer of 1975, Ballard participated in a joint French-American expedition called Phere searching for hydrothermal vents over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but the expedition did not find any active vents. A 1979 expedition was aided by deep-towed still camera sleds that were able to take pictures of the ocean floor, making it easier to find the vent locations.
When Alvin inspected one of the sites they located, the scientists observed black smoke billowing out of the vents, something not observed at the Galápagos Rift. Ballard and geophysicist Jean Francheteau went down in Alvin the day after the black smokers were first observed, they were able to take an accurate temperature reading of the active vent, recorded 350 °C. They continued searching for more vents along the East Pacific Rise between 1980 and 1982. Ballard joined the United States Army in 1965 through the Army's Reserve Officers Training program, he was designated as an intelligence officer and received a commission as a second lieutenant in the Army Reserve. When called to active duty in 1967, he asked to fulfill his obligation in the United States Navy, his request was approved, he was transferred to the Navy Reserve on the reserve active duty list. After completing his active duty obligation in 1970, he was returned to reserve status, where he remained for much of his military career, being called up only for mandatory training and special assignments.
He retired from the Navy as a commander in 1995 after reaching the statutory service limit. While Ballard had been interested in the sea since an early age, his work at Woods Hole and his scuba diving experiences off Massachusetts spurred his interest in shipwrecks and their exploration, his work in the Navy had involved assisting in the development of small, unmanned submersibles that could be tethered to and controlled from a surface ship, were outfitted with lighting and manipulator arms. As early as 1973, he saw this as way of searching for the wreck of the Titanic. In 1977, he led his first expedition, unsuccessful. In summer 1985, Ballard was aboard the French research ship Le Suroît, using the side scan sonar SAR to search for the Titanic's wreck; when the French ship was recalled, he transferred onto a ship from the R/V Knorr. Unbeknownst to some, this trip was financed by the U. S. Navy for secret reconnaissance of the wreckage of two Navy nuclear powered attack submarines, the USS Scorpion and the USS Thresher, which sank in the 1960s, not for the Titanic.
Back in 1982, he approached the Navy about his new deep sea underwater robot craft, the Argo, his search for the Titanic. The Navy was not interested in financing it. However, they were interested in finding out what happened to their missing submarines and concluded that Argo was their
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
A Night to Remember (1958 film)
A Night to Remember is a 1958 British drama film adaptation of Walter Lord's 1955 book, which recounts the final night of RMS Titanic. Adapted by Eric Ambler and directed by Roy Ward Baker, the film stars Kenneth More and features Michael Goodliffe, Laurence Naismith, Kenneth Griffith, David McCallum and Tucker McGuire, it was filmed in the United Kingdom and tells the story of the sinking, portraying the main incidents and players in a documentary-style fashion with considerable attention to detail. The production team, supervised by producer William MacQuitty used blueprints of the ship to create authentic sets, while Fourth Officer Joseph Boxhall and ex-Cunard Commodore Harry Grattidge worked as technical advisors on the film, its budget of £600,000 was exceptional and made it the most expensive film made in Britain up to that time. The World Premiere was on 3 July 1958 at the Odeon Leicester Square. Titanic survivor Elizabeth Dowdell attended the American premiere in New York on Tuesday 16 December 1958.
The film received critical acclaim upon release and is still regarded as "the definitive cinematic telling of the story." Among the many films about the Titanic, A Night to Remember has long been regarded as the high point by Titanic historians and survivors alike for its accuracy, despite its modest production values, compared with the Oscar-winning version of Titanic. In 1912, the Titanic is the largest vessel afloat and is believed to be unsinkable. Passengers aboard for her maiden voyage are the cream of British society. Boarding are first class passengers Sir Richard and Lady Richard, second class passengers Mr. Clarke and Mrs. Clarke, a young newly wed couple, steerage passengers Mr. Murphy, Mr. Gallagher and Mr. James Farrel. Second Officer Charles Lightoller is readying for the voyage. On 10 April, Titanic sails out to sea. On 14 April, at sea, the ship receives a number of ice warnings from other steamers. Only a few of the messages are relayed to Captain Edward J. Smith, who orders a lookout, but does not slow the ship or consider changing course.
Late that night, the SS Californian spots float ice in the distance, tries to send a message to the Titanic. On board the Titanic, the steerage passengers are enjoying their time on the ship when Murphy spies a young Polish girl, asks her to dance with him. In the depths of the ship, Thomas Andrews, the ship's builder, inspects the boiler room. Up in the wireless room, wireless operators Jack Phillips and Harold Sydney Bride are changing shifts. Phillips receives an ice warning, but when more messages arrive for him to send out, it is lost under them. On the Californian, field ice is spotted, the ship stops, for it is too dangerous to proceed, a message is sent to the Titanic; because the Californian is so close, the message is loud, Phillips interrupts the message. On the Titanic, passengers begin to settle in for the night, while some, including Mr. Hoyle and Jay Yates stay up to gamble; the vessel collides with an iceberg. Captain Smith sends for Thomas Andrews. Andrews determines that the ship will sink within two hours, it lacks sufficient lifeboat capacity for everyone on board.
A distress signal is sent out, efforts begin to signal the SS Californian, visible on the horizon 10 miles away, but its radio operator is off duty and does not hear the distress signal. The radio operator on the RMS Carpathia receives the distress call and alerts Captain Arthur Rostron, who orders the ship to head to the site; the ship is 58 miles away, will take around four hours to reach the Titanic. Meanwhile, the Californian remains where it is, the crew failing to comprehend why the large ship they are in sight of is firing rockets. Captain Smith orders Officers William Murdoch to start lowering the lifeboats. On Lightoller's side, men are not allowed on board, but Murdoch, working the other side of the ship, is far more lenient, letting men board lifeboats. Chief Baker Charles Joughin, after giving up his space in a lifeboat, turns to the bottle to ease his ailments. In the Grand Staircase, Robbie Lucas runs into Mr. Andrews and asks if the ship is damaged. Andrews tells him to get his wife and children into the boats.
Lucas rouses his children and wife to go to the lifeboats. He gets them safety in a boat, turns away, realizing he will never see his family again. Murphy and Farrel help the Polish girl, her mother find their way though the ship, get them in a lifeboat; the Richards, Hoyle are admitted to a boat by Murdoch. Yates gives a female passenger a note to send to his sister. Andrews advises the Clarkes on; as the stewards struggle to hold back women and children in third-class, most of those from first- and second-class board the lifeboats and launch away from the ship. The ship fills with water, the passengers begin to realize the danger, as the ship lists more and more; when the third-class passengers are allowed up from below, chaos ensues. The Titanic's bow submerges, only two collapsible lifeboats are left. Lightoller and other able seamen struggle to free them. Captain Smith remained on the Titanic's bridge when the forward superstructure went under, died there. Lightoller and many others are swept off the ship.
Thomas Andrews, asked if he will save himself, remains in the first-class smoking room, lamenting his failure to build a strong and safe ship. Passengers jump into the sea; the Clarkes, struggling in the water, are killed by a falling funnel. The stricken liner sinks into the icy sea. Many passenge
The Atomic Age known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945, during World War II. Although nuclear chain reactions had been hypothesized in 1933 and the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction had taken place in December 1942, the Trinity test and the ensuing bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that ended World War II represented the first large-scale use of nuclear technology and ushered in profound changes in sociopolitical thinking and the course of technology development. While atomic power was promoted for a time as the epitome of progress and modernity, entering into the nuclear power era entailed frightful implications of nuclear warfare, the Cold War, mutual assured destruction, nuclear proliferation, the risk of nuclear disaster, as well as beneficial civilian applications in nuclear medicine, it is no easy matter to segregate peaceful uses of nuclear technology from military or terrorist uses, which complicated the development of a global nuclear-power export industry right from the outset.
In 1973, concerning a flourishing nuclear power industry, the United States Atomic Energy Commission predicted that, by the turn of the 21st century, one thousand reactors would be producing electricity for homes and businesses across the U. S. However, the "nuclear dream" fell far short of what was promised because nuclear technology produced a range of social problems, from the nuclear arms race to nuclear meltdowns, the unresolved difficulties of bomb plant cleanup and civilian plant waste disposal and decommissioning. Since 1973, reactor orders declined as electricity demand fell and construction costs rose. Many orders and completed plants were cancelled. By the late 1970s, nuclear power had suffered a remarkable international destabilization, as it was faced with economic difficulties and widespread public opposition, coming to a head with the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, both of which adversely affected the nuclear power industry for many decades.
In 1901, Frederick Soddy and Ernest Rutherford discovered that radioactivity was part of the process by which atoms changed from one kind to another, involving the release of energy. Soddy wrote in popular magazines that radioactivity was a “inexhaustible” source of energy, offered a vision of an atomic future where it would be possible to “transform a desert continent, thaw the frozen poles, make the whole earth one smiling Garden of Eden.” The promise of an “atomic age,” with nuclear energy as the global, utopian technology for the satisfaction of human needs, has been a recurring theme since. But "Soddy saw that atomic energy could be used to create terrible new weapons"; the concept of a nuclear chain reaction was hypothesized in 1933, shortly after Chadwick's discovery of the neutron. Only a few years in December 1938 nuclear fission was discovered by Otto Hahn and his assistant Fritz Strassmann, proved with Hahn's radiochemical methods; the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction took place in December 1942 under the leadership of Enrico Fermi.
In 1945, the pocketbook The Atomic Age heralded the untapped atomic power in everyday objects and depicted a future where fossil fuels would go unused. One science writer, David Dietz, wrote that instead of filling the gas tank of your car two or three times a week, you will travel for a year on a pellet of atomic energy the size of a vitamin pill. Glenn T. Seaborg, who chaired the Atomic Energy Commission, wrote "there will be nuclear powered earth-to-moon shuttles, nuclear powered artificial hearts, plutonium heated swimming pools for SCUBA divers, much more"; the phrase "Atomic Age" was coined by William L. Laurence, a New York Times journalist who became the official journalist for the Manhattan Project which developed the first nuclear weapons, he witnessed both the Trinity test and the bombing of Nagasaki and went on to write a series of articles extolling the virtues of the new weapon. His reporting before and after the bombings helped to spur public awareness of the potential of nuclear technology and in part motivated development of the technology in the U.
S. and in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union would go on to test its first nuclear weapon in 1949. In 1949, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission chairman, David Lilienthal stated that "atomic energy is not a search for new energy, but more a beginning of human history in which faith in knowledge can vitalize man's whole life"; the phrase gained popularity as a feeling of nuclear optimism emerged in the 1950s in which it was believed that all power generators in the future would be atomic in nature. The atomic bomb would render all conventional explosives obsolete and nuclear power plants would do the same for power sources such as coal and oil. There was a general feeling that everything would use a nuclear power source of some sort, in a positive and productive way, from irradiating food to preserve it, to the development of nuclear medicine. There would be an age of peace and plenty in which atomic energy would "provide the power needed to desalinate water for the thirsty, irrigate the deserts for the hungry, fuel interstellar travel deep into outer space".
This use would render the Atomic Age as significant a step in technological progress as the first smelting of Bronze, of Iron, or the commencement of the Industrial Revolution. This included cars, leading Ford to display the Ford Nucleon concept car to the public in 1958. There was the promise of golf balls which could always be fo
Pointillism is a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of color are applied in patterns to form an image. Georges Seurat and Paul Signac developed the technique in 1886; the term "Pointillism" was coined by art critics in the late 1880s to ridicule the works of these artists, is now used without its earlier mocking connotation. The movement Seurat began; the Divisionists, used a similar technique of patterns to form images, though with larger cube-like brushstrokes. The technique relies on the ability of the eye and mind of the viewer to blend the color spots into a fuller range of tones, it is related to a more technical variant of the method. Divisionism is concerned with color theory, whereas pointillism is more focused on the specific style of brushwork used to apply the paint, it is a technique with few serious practitioners today, is notably seen in the works of Seurat and Cross. However, see Andy Warhol's early works, Pop Art; the practice of Pointillism is in sharp contrast to the traditional methods of blending pigments on a palette.
Pointillism is analogous to the four-color CMYK printing process used by some color printers and large presses that place dots of Cyan, Magenta and Key. Televisions and computer monitors use a similar technique to represent image colors using Red and Blue colors. If red and green light are mixed, the result is something close to white light. Painting is inherently subtractive, but Pointillist colors seem brighter than typical mixed subtractive colors; this may be because subtractive mixing of the pigments is avoided, because some of the white canvas may be showing between the applied dots. The painting technique used for Pointillist color mixing is at the expense of the traditional brushwork used to delineate texture; the majority of Pointillism is done in oil paint. Anything may be used in its place, but oils are preferred for their thickness and tendency not to run or bleed. Pointillé is used for intricate binding of hand-made book covers in the seventeenth century, the decoration of metallic arms and armor, for the decoration of hand-finished firearms.
Pointillism refers to a style of 20th-century music composition. Different musical notes are made in seclusion, rather than in a linear sequence, giving a sound texture similar to the painting version of Pointillism; this type of music is known as punctualism or klangfarbenmelodie. Charles Angrand Chuck Close Henri-Edmond Cross Henri Delavallée Albert Dubois-Pillet Louis Fabien Georges Lemmen Maximilien Luce Camille Pissarro John Roy Georges Seurat Paul Signac Vincent van Gogh Théo van Rysselberghe Hippolyte Petitjean Jan Toorop A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte by Georges Seurat Bathing at Asnieres by Georges Seurat The Windmills at Overschie by Paul Signac Banks of Seine by Georges Seurat A Coastal Scene by Théo van Rysselberghe Family in the Orchard by Théo van Rysselberghe Countryside at Noon by Théo van Rysselberghe Afternoon at Pardigon by Henri-Edmond Cross Rio San Trovaso, Venice by Henri-Edmond Cross The Seine in front of the Trocadero by Henri-Edmond Cross The Pine Tree at St. Tropez by Paul Signac Opus 217.
Against the Enamel of a Background Rhythmic with Beatsand Angles and Tints, Portrait of M. Félix Fénéon in 1890 by Paul Signac The Yellow Sail, Venice by Paul Signac Notre Dame Cathedral by Maximilien Luce Le Pont De Pierre, Rouen by Charles Angrand The Beach at Heist by Georges Lemmen Aline Marechal by Georges Lemmen Vase of Flowers by Georges Lemmen Micromontage, similar technique in music Stippling Pixel art Georges Seurat, 1859–1891, a digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries Signac, 1863–1935, a digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries