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A Nightmare on Elm Street

A Nightmare on Elm Street is a 1984 American slasher film written and directed by Wes Craven, produced by Robert Shaye. It is the first installment in the A Nightmare on Elm Street film series and stars Heather Langenkamp, John Saxon, Ronee Blakley, Robert Englund as Freddy Krueger, Johnny Depp in his film debut; the plot concerns four teenagers living on one street in the fictitious town of Springwood, who are invaded and killed in their dreams, thus killed in reality, by a burnt killer with a bladed leather glove. Craven filmed A Nightmare on Elm Street on an estimated budget of $1.8 million. The film was released on November 9, 1984, grossed $57 million worldwide. A Nightmare on Elm Street was met with rave critical reviews and is considered to be one of the greatest horror films made, spawning a franchise consisting of six sequels, a television series, a crossover with Friday the 13th, various other merchandise. A remake of the same name was released in 2010; the film is credited with using many of the tropes found in the low-budget horror films of the 1970s and 1980s that originated with John Carpenter's Halloween and led this subgenre to be called the slasher film.

The film includes. Critics and film historians state that the film's premise is the struggle to define the distinction between dreams and reality, manifested by the lives and dreams of the teens in the film. Critics today praise the film's ability to transgress "the boundaries between the imaginary and real", toying with audience perceptions; the film was followed by A Nightmare on Elm Street 2: Freddy's Revenge. In March 1981, in Springwood, Tina Gray awakens from a nightmare wherein she is attacked by a disfigured man in decayed clothes who wears a blade-fixed work glove on his right hand, her mother points out four mysterious slashes on her nightgown. The following morning she is consoled by her best friend, Nancy Thompson, Nancy's boyfriend, Glen Lantz; the two stay at Tina's house when Tina's mother goes out of town, but their sleepover is interrupted by Tina's boyfriend, Rod Lane. When Tina falls asleep, she dreams of being chased by the disfigured man. Rod sees her dragged and fatally slashed by an unseen force.

The next day, Rod is arrested by Nancy's father, Lieutenant Don Thompson, despite his pleas of innocence. At school, Nancy falls asleep in class. While masquerading as Tina, the man chases her to the boiler room where she is cornered and burns her arm on a pipe; the burn startles her awake in class and she notices a burn mark on her arm. At home, Nancy is nearly drowned by the man. Nancy goes to Rod at the police station, who tells her about what happened to Tina and his own similar dreams. Nancy invites Glen to watch over her. In her dream, she sees the man prepare to kill Rod in his cell, but he turns his attention towards her. Nancy wakes up when her alarm clock goes off; the man kills Rod by wrapping bed sheets around his neck like a noose. Nancy and Glen find his body hanging in his cell. At Rod's funeral, Nancy's parents become worried, her mother, takes her to a sleep disorders clinic, where, in a dream, Nancy grabs the man's fedora and pulls it from the dream into reality. Marge begins to drink and smoke and bars the windows at home.

She reveals to Nancy that the man, Fred Krueger was an insane child murderer, released on a technicality and burned alive by Marge and other parents seeking vigilante justice. Nancy realizes that Krueger, now a vengeful ghost, desires revenge and to satiate his psychopathic needs, she tries to call Glen to warn him. Glen falls asleep and is sucked into his bed by Krueger, a large fountain of blood is released in his room. Now alone, Nancy puts Marge to sleep and asks Don, across the street investigating Glen's death, to break into the house in twenty minutes, she rigs booby traps around the house, grabs Krueger out of the dream and into the real world. The booby traps affect Krueger enough that Nancy is able to light him on fire with a Molotov cocktail and lock him in the basement. Nancy rushes to the door for help; the police arrive to find. Nancy and Don go upstairs to find a burning Krueger smothering Marge in her bedroom. After Don puts out the fire and Marge vanish into the bed; when Don leaves the room, Krueger rises from the bed behind Nancy.

Realizing that Krueger is powered by his victim's fear of him, Nancy calmly turns her back to him and Krueger evaporates when he attempts to lunge at her. Nancy steps outside into a bright and foggy morning where all of her friends and her mother are still alive; as she gets into Glen's convertible to go to school, the top comes down and locks them in as the car drives uncontrollably down the street. Three girls in white dresses playing jump rope are heard chanting Krueger's nursery rhyme as Marge is grabbed by Krueger through the front door window; the cast of A Nightmare on Elm Street included a crew of veteran actors such as Robert Englund and John Saxon and several aspiring young actors like Johnny Depp and Heather Langenkamp. Robert Shaye has two uncredited roles as broadcasters for local television news and KRGR Radio station. Krueger's disfigured face was brought to life by makeup man David Miller, who based his creation on photographs of burn victims that he obtained from the UCLA Medical Center.

A Nightmare on Elm

Arabist (political)

As used in modern American, political discourse, the term Arabist refers to a non-Arab observer with experience or specialization in Arabic language and culture, perceived to be excessively sympathetic towards Arab political views in relation to the Arab–Israeli conflict. Accusations of bias, the term's use as a pejorative arose in the United States where "Arabists" in public service in the State Department, were perceived as being "pro-Arab" by pro-Zionist and Jewish organizations and commentators following World War II and in the run-up to the partition of Palestine. Rafael Medoff, in describing how the Jewish American community emerged from obscurity to play a role in behind-the-scenes power politics before coming to center stage, writes of the period: "Much of the Jewish political struggle in the United States during the late 1940s was a battle between American Zionists and State Department Arabists, for the hearts and minds of the White House and the American public. Through the press, the Zionists waged a critical battle to create a conventional wisdom."

A similar time frame for the emergence of such a politically charged connotation was provided by Joseph Kraft in 1971, when he wrote that the term Arabist referred to anyone, trained in the Arabic language and made the study of the Middle East his or her life's work. Over the last four decades, however, it has been used in a more specific and derogatory manner to refer to those government Middle East specialists, most with Arabic-language training, who have spent extensive time in the Middle East and are seen to identify with the Arab cause or be "pro-Arab."State Department Arabists have long been a favorite target of Washington neoconservatives because the latter's support for the hawkish Likud line in Israeli politics makes them hostile to any effort in Washington to balance U. S. foreign policy between support for Israel and recognition of Arab interests. More in describing the development of American foreign policy in the Middle East, Matthew Jacobs avoids using the term Arabist altogether, "as it suggests language skills that few professional observers of the Middle East possessed prior to the mid-1950s and because it has become a contentious and derogatory term, with significant political implications since the early 1970s."

Freeze-Out of the Arabists – Article about American Arabists from The Nation in 2004 Review of above book about American Arabists, by Richard B. Parker Robert D. Kaplan, Arabists: The Romance of the American Elite and Schuster ISBN 0-02-874023-8

Palace of Sports

Palace of Sports or Sports Palace is a generic name of comprehensive indoors sports venues introduced in the Soviet Union of big size that includes various sports halls and auxiliary space. Designated to host sports events in front of spectators; as a name it is still used in a number of post-Soviet states. Many of them had standard architectural design; some of them were renamed, e.g. into Palace of Sports. The term is used in other countries. For example, in Hispanophone countries, the term is Palacio de los Deportes. Kiev Palace of Sports, Ukraine Meteor Palace of Sports, Ukraine Tbilisi Sports Palace, Georgia Vilnius Palace of Concerts and Sports, Lithuania was included in the "Registry of Cultural Values" in 2006. Sports Palace Aukštaitija, Panevėžys, Lithuania Minsk Sports Palace, Belarus Kazakhstan Sports Palace, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan Boris Alexandrov Sports Palace, Kazakhstan Baluan Sholak Sports Palace, Kazakhstan Berlin Sportpalast, Germany known for its Nazi Party rallies Istana Olahraga Gelora Bung Karno, Indonesia Royal Bafokeng Sports Palace, South Africa Palacio de los Deportes, Mexico City, Mexico Palacio de los Deportes, Costa Rica Palacio de los Deportes Virgilio Travieso Soto, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Palacio de los Deportes del Cibao, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic Palacio de Recreación y Deportes, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico Palacio de los Deportes de Torrevieja, Spain.

Palacio de los Deportes de La Rioja, Logroño, Spain Palacio de Deportes de Gijón Palacio de Deportes de Santander Palacio de Deportes de la Comunidad de Madrid Palacio de Deportes de Murcia Palacio de Deportes de Granada Palacio de Deportes de San Pablo Palacio de Deportes Mediterráneo, Almería, Spain Palais des Sports de Beaulieu Palais des Sports, Besançon Palais des Sports de Fetes Palais des Sports de Gerland Palais des Sports de Pau Palais des sports André-Brouat, Toulouse Palais des Sports, Grenoble Palais des Sports Jean Weille Palais des Sports, Orléans Palais des Sports, Paris in Porte de Versailles Palais des Sports, Sherbrooke Palais des Sports, Val d'Or Palazzo dello Sport, for Italian venues Palace of Culture Pioneers Palace People's House, previous term that existed in the Russian Empire House of the Red Army House of Military Officers Palace of the Soviets Sports complex


Spratton is a village and civil parish in the English county of Northamptonshire. The local government authority is Daventry District Council. At the time of the 2001 census, the parish's population was 1,099 people, increasing to 1,150 at the 2011 Census. Spratton is 7.1 miles north 6.5 miles from Long Buckby and 11.4 miles from Daventry. The village is situated on the A5199 road; the parish church of Spratton stands on Brixworth Road. Parts of the west wall of the church date from the Norman period, along with one of the windows in the church tower; the ecclesiastical parish is part of the diocese of Peterborough. The church, built from ironstone, stands on high ground in the centre of the village and has a tower with a spire; the chancel is 29 feet long by 15 feet wide. The earliest church built on the site dated from 1120, but it has been altered and remodelled over the centuries; the interior of the church was restored in 1847 by Sir George Gilbert Scott, the north porch rebuilt. The spire was rebuilt.

The great great grandmother of George Washington was baptised in the church, there is a plaque saying this in the church. Spratton Hall is a Grade II listed building; the hall was built in the late 18th century. The hall is now used as an independent co-educational school called Spratton Hall School and was founded by K. C. Hunter and his wife Joan in 1951. There are over 400 pupils at the school aged 4–13 years old. Spratton Hall, the largest house in the village, is a Grade II listed building with grounds extending to 50 acres; the house was built in 1760 on the site of an earlier farmhouse. Constructed with limestone from Kingsthorpe, it is a plain three-storey structure with a slate roof. Actor Tenniel Evans taught English and drama there for a short time in the early 1950s before returning to theatre. English international rugby union player Matt Dawson was a gap student at Spratton Hall from 1996 to 1997. Michael Ellis MP was educated there. Harry Mallinder first played rugby there; the village has one public house, the King’s Head on Brixworth Road which operates as a restaurant under the name of Brasserie 23.

There is a butchers, Saul’s on Brixworth Road, established in 1926. There is the local shop Spratton village store, situated on Brixworth Road. Spratton used to host a folk music festival in July every year but stopped because they lost money 2 years in a row. Bands that have appeared include Capercaillie, Show of Hands and Peatbog Faeries. In addition to the music, there were craft stalls, children's entertainment and a bar serving real ales and ciders; the Victorian cricketer Charles Studd was born in the village in 1860 Amphillis Twigden, the great-great grandmother of George Washington, first President of the United States, was born in the parish of Spratton at Little Creaton. Former England cricketer Devon Malcolm lived in the village; the suffragette Emily Davison was working as a live-in governess to the Moorhouse family at The Grange, Spratton, at the time of the 1901 census Spratton Local History Society Media related to Spratton at Wikimedia Commons

Nilaave Vaa

Nilaave Vaa is a 1998 Indian Tamil-language romantic drama film directed by A. Venkatesh and produced by K. T. Kunjumon; the film stars Vijay and Suvalakshmi in the main lead roles, while Sanghavi and Manivannan play other supporting roles. The film was declared as average at the box office, it was dubbed in Hindi as Ek Aur Sikander. Siluvai is the son of Cruz, they are Christians living in a fishing village. In another town, Perumaal is the father to Gauri. Sangeetha comes to the small fishing village. Siva is proposed to marry her. However, Gauri falls in love with Siva's friend, after hearing that Perumal does not want to accept the Hindu-Christian marriage, she decides to elope with her lover; this leads to Siluvai's love affair. However, upon hearing Siluvai's story, gives a great speech to the villagers and unites Siluvai and Sangeetha; this low-budget production was jointly produced on Vijay's home banner and K T Kunjumon, still reeling under the failure of Ratchagan. Rakshana was signed on as heroine but was subsequently replaced by Suvalakshmi.

Mansoor Ali Khan had signed to be the villain in Nilaave Vaa, but the actor returned the advance of ₹50,000 and took back his 40 days of call sheets, with Anantharaj replacing him. A critic from concluded that the film was "not impressive", while mentioning that "Vijay rocked as usual" and that Raghuvaran "has given a good performance as usual". Vijay mentioned that he had expected the film to do good business, but its box office earnings were average; the film score and the soundtrack were composed by film composer Vidyasagar. The lyrics were written by Vairamuthu; the songs proved to be successful, despite the average performance of the film. Nilaave Vaa on IMDb


Wulfad was the archbishop of Bourges from 866 until his death. Prior to that, he was the abbot of Soissons, he served as a tutor to Carloman, a younger son of King Charles the Bald. Carloman succeeded Wulfad as abbot of Soissons in 860. Wulfad was ordained a priest by Archbishop Ebbo of Reims, deposed in 835 and re-instated in 840. Wulfad was ordained during Ebbo's second incumbency, which ended in 841, he may have served the anti-king Pippin II of Aquitaine, an opponent of Charles the Bald, as a notary during 847–48, a period in which support for Pippin reached a high. In 857, Charles tried to promote him to the vacant see of Langres, but was blocked by Ebbo's successor, Hincmar. In 859, Wulfad was removed from his priestly office, along with all the other priests and subdeacons ordained by Ebbo, at the synod of Savonnières, held under Hincmar's presidency. Neither Wulfad's support for Pippin nor his defrocking by Hincmar deterred Charles the Bald from appointing him archbishop of Bourges in 866.

He had supported the king during the Neustrian rebellions of 858–60, for in a charter of 859 Charles calls him "our dearest abbot and minister". Although Hincmar disputed Wulfad's eligibility for the episcopate, the synod held at Soissons in August 866 refused to adjudicate the case. In 868 Charles convinced Pope Nicholas I that Wulfad's "prudence and vigour" were needed to counter the Vikings that threatened the region around Bourges; the pope confirmed. In Wulfad's day, all books were copied by hand, thus friends lent books to friends to allow them to copy them out for their own libraries. A list of books in Wulfad's library intended to circulate among his friends, has survived on the back of a manuscript copy of the philosopher John Scotus Eriugena's Ambigua. Wulfad was a close associate of Eriugena, who dedicated to him his Periphyseon and called him a "collaborator in philosophical disputes". Wulfad's list of books includes titles by Eriugena, including the latter's translations of Pseudo-Dionysius and Maximus the Confessor's Ad Thalassium.

There is a poem preserved in the manuscript F. 67 in the Leiden Universiteitsbibliothek that preserves a poem addressed to Wulfad by a monk suffering from the cold while his fellow monk, Wulfad's former student, was by a warm fire. History of Roman Catholicism in France