Chicago International Film Festival
The Chicago International Film Festival is an annual film festival held every fall. Founded in 1964 by Michael Kutza, it is the longest-running competitive film festival in North America, its logo is a stark and white close up of the composite eyes of early film actresses Theda Bara, Pola Negri and Mae Murray, set as repeated frames in a strip of film. In 2010, the 46th Chicago International Film Festival presented 150 films from more than 50 countries; the Festival's program is composed of many different sections, including the International Competition, New Directors Competition, Black Perspectives, Cinema of the Americas, Reel Women. Its main venue is the AMC River East 21 Theatre in the Streeterville neighborhood of Chicago; the International Connections Program was created in 2003 in order to raise awareness of the international film culture and diversity of Chicago, to make the festival more appealing to audience and staff of various ethnicities. Foreign films are screened for free throughout the city weekly from July through September.
2018 - Jesper Christensen for Before the Frost 2017 - Aleksandr Yatsenko for Arrhythmia 2016 – Adrian Titieni for Graduation 2015 – Alexi Mathieu and Jules Gauzelin for A Childhood 2014 – Anton Yelchin for Rudderless 2013 – Robert Wieckiewicz for Walesa: Man of Hope 2012 – Denis Lavant for Holy Motors 2011 – Maged El Kedwany for 678 2010 – Youssouf Djaoro for A Screaming Man 2009 – Filippo Timi for Vincere 2008 – Michael Fassbender for Hunger 2007 – Sam Riley for Control 2006 – Jürgen Vogel for The Free Will 1989 – Jörg Gudzuhn for Fallada, letztes Kapitel 1987 – Avtandil Makharadze for Monanieba 1971 – Ezzatollah Entezami for The Cow 2018 - Zhao Tao for Ash Is Purest White 2017 - Jowita Budnik and Eliane Umuhire for Birds Are Singing in Kigali 2016 – Rebecca Hall for Christine 2015 – Lizzie Brocheré for Full Contact 2014 – Geraldine Chaplin for Sand Dollars 2013 – Nadeshda Brennicke for Banklady 2012 – Ulla Skoog for The Last Sentence 2011 – Olivia Colman for Tyrannosaur 2010 – Liana Liberato for Trust 2009 – Giovanna Mezzogiorno for Vincere 2008 – Preity Zinta for Heaven on Earth 2007 – Yu Nan for Tuya's Marriage 2006 – Viktoriya Isakova, Darya Moroz, Anna Ukolova for The Spot 2005 – Inka Friedrich, Nadja Uhl for Summer in Berlin 2003 – Ludivine Sagnier for Little Lili Winners of the festival's Lifetime Achievement Award include Steven Spielberg, Helen Hunt, Dustin Hoffman, Martin Landau, Shirley MacLaine, Lord Richard Attenborough, François Truffaut, Jodie Foster, Sigourney Weaver, Robin Williams, Manoel de Oliveira, Clint Eastwood.
Bruce Dern Terrence Howard Susan Sarandon Shirley MacLaine Robert Zemeckis Irma P. Hall, Robert Townsend and Harry J. Lennix Annette Bening Robin Williams Nicolas Cage Chicago International Children's Film Festival Chicago International Documentary Film Festival Chicago International REEL Shorts Festival List of film festivals Chicago International Film Festival
Chadian Civil War (2005–2010)
The most recent Chadian Civil War began in December 2005. Since its independence from France in 1960, Chad has been swamped by the civil war between the Arab-Muslims of the north and the Sub-Saharan-Christians of the south; as a result and presidency in Chad drifted back and forth between the Christian southerners and Muslim northerners. When one side was in power, the other side started a revolutionary war to counter it. France, the former colonial power, Chad's northern neighbour Libya have both become involved at various times throughout the civil war. By the mid-1990s the civil war had somewhat stabilised, in 1996 Idriss Déby, a northerner, was confirmed president in Chad's first democratic election. In 1998 an armed rebellion began in the north, led by President Déby's former defence chief, Youssouf Togoimi. A Libyan peace deal in 2002 failed to put an end to the fighting. In 2003, conflict in the neighbouring Darfur region in Sudan leaked across the border into Chad. Refugees from Sudan were joined by Chadian civilians who were trying to escape rebel violence and filled the camps.
It was clear. At the same time, Sudan's rebels got help from Chad's government. In February 2008, three rebel groups joined forces and launched an attack on Chad's capital, N'Djamena. After launching an assault that failed to seize the presidential palace, the attack was decisively repulsed. France sent in troops to shore up the government. Many of the rebels were former allies of President Idriss Déby, they accused him of corruption towards members of his own tribe. The battle at the start of December 2005 in the Chadian capital N'djamena came as no surprise. For the years prior to the eruption, the Sudanese government was trying to overthrow the Chadian president, Idriss Déby, using Chadian rebels as middle men; the three armed groups involved in attacks in 2008 were armed by Sudanese security forces intent on cutting off the support that Déby was giving to the rebels in Darfur the Justice and Equality Movement, on the offensive in Darfur. The war in Chad was a result of four distinct forces. For one, the war appeared to be a continuation of the conflicts of Darfur and Chad, which include the competition for power and land.
Secondly, there was an internal Chadian conflict. Déby reverted to a one-man military rule after a hopeful broadening of the base of his regime in the late 1990s, coupled by the growth of civil politics in N'djamena. Déby relied on a close-knit group of kinsmen and on claiming the allotted government finances for his own agenda, distributing aid in return for civilian loyalty. Third is Khartoum's strategy for managing security within its border, which include treating the weak surrounding states as extensions of its internal limits; the Sudan security helped bring Déby to power in 1990 as part of their responsibility that saw it engage militarily in Eritrea, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic over the military decade. In the same way that Khartoum used a combination of extortion and retribution to control its provincial elites in Darfur, it used the same tools to influence its trans-border limits. Furthermore, the regional competition for dominance through an immense area of central Africa has been governed by state authority.
This isolated area includes Chad, CAR, northern DRC, as well as the areas of Tripoli and Sudan, with Kinshasa, Kigali and Asmara are competing for influence across this area, as well as Khartoum. The implementation of the reforms promised in an August 2007 agreement with opposition parties was slow and uneven. Throughout the country, government forces continued to arbitrarily arrest and detain civilians and suspected rebels on the basis of ethnicity, subject them to cruel and unusual punishment. Chad's prison conditions are among the harshest on the African continent. Weak institutions of justice contributed to a culture of exemption; the government has not investigated or prosecuted serious abuses against civilians, such as killings and rapes by government security forces and rebels following clashes at Am Dam in May 2009. More than 250,000 Sudanese refugees and 168,000 Chadian displaced people live in camps and elsewhere in eastern Chad. In April 2010 5,000 new Sudanese refugees arrived from West Darfur, following renewed fighting there between the Sudanese rebel group Justice and Equality Movement and Sudanese government forces.
The conflict involved Chadian government forces and several Chadian rebel groups. These include the United Front for Democratic Change, United Forces for Development and Democracy, Gathering of Forces for Change and the National Accord of Chad; the conflict has involved the Janjaweed, while Sudan supported the rebels, while Libya mediated in the conflict, as well as diplomats from other countries. Chadian rebels attacked Guéréda, 120 kilometers north of Adré, on December 7, 2005, leaving ten dead and five wounded; the attack marked the beginning of a campaign of rebel incursions from Darfur and prompted the Chadian government to condemn Khartoum for backing the rebels. On December 18, 2005, the Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et la Liberté, a Chadian rebel group based in Darfur, attacked the border town of Adré, Chad. Adré is the strategic key to Chad’s defense against attacks launched from Sudan. Chadian president Idriss Déby, prompted by defections from the Chadian army to Chadian rebel groups between October and December 2005, had begun reinforcing Adré, as well as A
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation. It was founded by Sime Silverman in New York in 1905 as a weekly newspaper reporting on theater and vaudeville. In 1933 it added Daily Variety, based in Los Angeles. Variety.com features breaking entertainment news, box office results, cover stories, photo galleries and more, plus a credits database, production charts and calendar, with archive content dating back to 1905. Variety has been published since December 16, 1905, when it was launched by Sime Silverman as a weekly periodical covering theater and vaudeville with its headquarters in New York City. Sime was fired by The Morning Telegraph in 1905 for panning an act which had taken out an advert for $50, said that it looked like he would have to start his own paper in order to be able to tell the truth. With a loan of $1,500 from his father-in-law, he launched Variety as editor. In addition to Sime's former employer The Morning Telegraph, other major competitors on launch were The New York Clipper and the New York Dramatic Mirror.
The original cover design, similar to the current design, was sketched by Edgar M. Miller, a scenic painter, who refused payment; the front cover contained pictures of the original editorial staff, who were Alfred Greason, Epes W Sargeant and Joshua Lowe, as well as Sime. The first issue contained a review by Sime's son Sidne known as Skigie, claimed to be the youngest critic in the world at seven years old. In 1922, Sime acquired The New York Clipper, reporting on the stage and other entertainment since 1853 and folded it two years merging some of its features into Variety. In 1922, Sime launched the Times Square Daily, which he referred to as "the world's worst daily" and soon scrapped. During that period, Variety staffers worked on all three papers. After the launch of The Hollywood Reporter in 1930, which Variety sued for alleged plagiarism in 1932, Sime launched Daily Variety in 1933, based in Hollywood, with Arthur Ungar as the editor, it replaced Variety Bulletin, issued in Hollywood on Fridays.
Daily Variety was published every day other than Sunday but on Monday to Friday. Ungar was editor until 1950, followed by Joe Schoenfeld and Thomas M. Pryor, succeeded by his son Pete; the Daily and the Weekly were run as independent newspapers, with the Daily concentrating on Hollywood news and the Weekly on U. S. and International coverage. Sime Silverman had passed on the editorship of the Weekly Variety to Abel Green as his replacement in 1931. Green remained as editor from 1931 until his death in 1973. Sime's son Sidne succeeded him as publisher of both publications. Following his death from tuberculosis in 1950, his only son Syd Silverman, was the sole heir to what was Variety Inc. Young Syd's legal guardian Harold Erichs oversaw Variety Inc. until 1956. After that date Syd Silverman managed the company as publisher of both the Weekly Variety in New York and the Daily Variety in Hollywood, until the sale of both papers in 1987 to Cahners Publishing for $64 million, he remained as publisher until 1990 when he was succeeded on Weekly Variety by Gerard A. Byrne and on Daily Variety by Sime's great grandson, Michael Silverman.
Syd became chairman of both publications. In 1953, Army Archerd's "Just for Variety" column appeared on page two of Daily Variety and swiftly became popular in Hollywood. Archerd broke countless exclusive stories, reporting from film sets, announcing pending deals, giving news of star-related hospitalizations and births; the column appeared daily for 52 years until September 1, 2005. On December 7, 1988, the editor, Roger Watkins and oversaw the transition to four-color print. Upon its launch, the new-look Variety measured one inch shorter with a washed-out color on the front; the old front-page box advertisement was replaced by a strip advertisement, along with the first photos published in Variety since Sime gave up using them in the old format in 1920: they depicted Sime and Syd. For twenty years from 1989 its editor-in-chief was Peter Bart only of the weekly New York edition, with Michael Silverman running the Daily in Hollywood. Bart had worked at Paramount Pictures and The New York Times.
In April 2009, Bart moved to the position of "vice president and editorial director", characterized online as "Boffo No More: Bart Up and Out at Variety". From mid 2009 to 2013, Timothy M. Gray oversaw the publication as Editor-in-Chief, after over 30 years of various reporter and editor positions in the newsroom. In October 2012, Reed Business Information, the periodical's owner, sold the publication to Penske Media Corporation. PMC is the owner of Deadline Hollywood, which since the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike has been considered Variety's largest competitor in online showbiz news. In October 2012, Jay Penske, Chairman and CEO of PMC, announced that the website's paywall would come down, the print publication would stay, he would invest more into Variety's digital platform in a townhall. In March 2013, Variety owner Jay Penske appointed three co-editors to oversee different parts of the publication's industry coverage; the decision was made to stop printing Daily Variety with the last printed edition published on March 19, 2013 with the headline "Variety A
Abéché is the 4th largest city in Chad, the capital of Ouaddaï Region. The town is served by Abéché Airport, it has within it the remnants of the ancient capital, including palaces and the tombs of former sultans. The city of Abéché was made capital of the Wadai Sultanate in the 1890s, after the wells at Ouara, the former capital, had dried out. In 1909, French troops invaded the Kingdom and established a garrison in Abéché. France took power. At that time, Abéché was the largest city in Chad with 28,000 people, but major epidemics reduced the population to 6000 in 1919. In 1935, the sultanate was restored by orders of the French government, Muhammed Ouarada, heir to the throne after his father became king. Once one of the strongholds of the Arabic slave trade route, the city is known today for its markets, church and for its sultan's palace. Abéché has several schools, a hospital, a university and is one of the major garrisons of the Armee Nationale du Tchad ANT. There is Airport ID: AE, operated sunrise to sunset with flights to N'Djaména.
On 25 November 2006, the city was taken by the Union of Forces for Democracy, a rebel group that seeks to depose president Idriss Déby. Extensive looting took place during the night. On the same day, nearby Biltine was captured by the Rally of another rebel group. A day both cities were retaken by the Chadian army. On 30 October 2007, the city came to international attention when 17 French volunteers working for the charity Zoé's Ark were arrested there for alleged child abduction. Abeche is the centrum for the delivery of humanitarian assistance for approx. 240,000 Darfurian refugees living in 12 camps east of the town, in the border region to Sudan. A number of organizations opened office 2003 and 2004, e.g. UNHCR, the Red Cross, the German GTZ and UNICEF. Demographic evolution: It is surrounded by savanna and is an important cattle raising center; the manufacture of camel-hair blankets is one of the industries of the area. It has major roads connecting itself to the capital, N'Djamena, as well as Sarh, to neighboring Sudan.
The city is served by Abéché Airport. The Lycee Franco-Arabe school is located here. Abeche is the hottest major city in Chad, it gets 336 days a year above 32 °C. Its rainy season is from June to September; the hottest months are from March to June. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot semi-arid climate, it is one of the hottest cities on earth with average year-round daily high of over 36 degrees Celsius, an average daily mean of around 29 degrees Celsius
Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes Festival, until 2002 called the International Film Festival and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, it is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate; the board of directors appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival. The 2018 Cannes Film Festival took place between 8 and 19 May 2018; the jury president was Australian actress Cate Blanchett, Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or. The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival.
Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival, which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias. The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and the beginning of World War II put an end to this plan. On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented; the festival was not held in 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the Palais des Festivals was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival, held in autumn.
During the early 1950s, the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing; because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the Palme d'Or was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival, given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection. In 1959, the Marché du Film was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."In 1962, the International Critics' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president; the 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, in protest to the eviction of the President of the Cinémathèque Française.
The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, they founded the Film Directors' Society that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors' Fortnight, a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films. During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, Maurice Bessy the General Delegate, he introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like MASH, Chronicle of the Years of Fire marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country; until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, another for foreign films.
In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films.
Emil Abossolo M'Bo is a Cameroonian-French television and film actor who has played in French and American productions. Abossolo was born in the capital city of Cameroon, his father took him to the movies theatre. Since that day acting has been his passion. Abossolo has been living in France for over twenty years now, he has a son named Akeva. Abossolo is a multi-lingual actor, he speaks five languages. His career started on stage, where he played Hamlet, Titus Andronicus and La Tragédie du Roi Christophe, he starred in several French television shows such as Plus Belle la Vie. Internationally he is known for his appearances in the television show Highlander: The Series, Queen of Swords, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles. More Emil has been playing in African productions, he played in Ezra, the movie that received the 2007 Stallion of Yennenga at the Panafrican Film and Television Festival of Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Émil Abossolo-Mbo on IMDb