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A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects, written by the 18th-century British proto-feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy. In it, Wollstonecraft responds to those educational and political theorists of the 18th century who did not believe women should receive a rational education, she argues that women ought to have an education commensurate with their position in society, claiming that women are essential to the nation because they educate its children and because they could be "companions" to their husbands, rather than mere wives. Instead of viewing women as ornaments to society or property to be traded in marriage, Wollstonecraft maintains that they are human beings deserving of the same fundamental rights as men. Wollstonecraft was prompted to write the Rights of Woman after reading Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord's 1791 report to the French National Assembly, which stated that women should only receive a domestic education.

Wollstonecraft wrote the Rights of Woman hurriedly to respond directly to ongoing events. While Wollstonecraft does call for equality between the sexes in particular areas of life, such as morality, she does not explicitly state that men and women are equal, her ambiguous statements regarding the equality of the sexes have since made it difficult to classify Wollstonecraft as a modern feminist since the word and the concept were unavailable to her. Although it is assumed now that the Rights of Woman was unfavourably received, this is a modern misconception based on the belief that Wollstonecraft was as reviled during her lifetime as she became after the publication of William Godwin's Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman; the Rights of Woman was well received when it was first published in 1792. One biographer has called it "perhaps the most original book of century". Wollstonecraft's work had a profound impact on advocates for women's rights in the nineteenth century, in particular on the Declaration of Sentiments, the document written at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 that laid out the aims of the suffragette movement in the United States.

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman was written against the tumultuous background of the French Revolution and the debates that it spawned in Britain. In a lively and sometimes vicious pamphlet war, now referred to as the Revolution controversy, British political commentators addressed topics ranging from representative government to human rights to the separation of church and state, many of these issues having been raised in France first. Wollstonecraft first entered this fray in 1790 with A Vindication of the Rights of Men, a response to Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France. In his Reflections, Burke criticized the view of many British thinkers and writers who had welcomed the early stages of the French revolution. While they saw the revolution as analogous to Britain's own Glorious Revolution in 1688, which had restricted the powers of the monarchy, Burke argued that the appropriate historical analogy was the English Civil War in which Charles I had been executed in 1649.

He viewed the French revolution as the violent overthrow of a legitimate government. In Reflections he argues that citizens do not have the right to revolt against their government because civilization is the result of social and political consensus. One of the key arguments of Wollstonecraft's Rights of Men, published just six weeks after Burke's Reflections, is that rights cannot be based on tradition; when Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord presented his Rapport sur l'instruction publique to the National Assembly in France, Wollstonecraft was galvanized to respond. In his recommendations for a national system of education, Talleyrand had written: Let us bring up women, not to aspire to advantages which the Constitution denies them, but to know and appreciate those which it guarantees them... Men are destined to live on the stage of the world. A public education suits them: it early places before their eyes all the scenes of life: only the proportions are different; the paternal home is better for the education of women.

Wollstonecraft dedicated the Rights of Woman to Talleyrand: "Having read with great pleasure a pamphlet which you have published, I dedicate this volume to you. At the end of 1791, French feminist Olympe de Gouges had published her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, the question of women's rights became central to political debates in both France and Britain; the Rights of Woman is an extension of Wollstonecraft's arguments in the Rights of Men. In the Rights of Men, as the title suggests, she is concerned with the rights of particular men while in the Rights of Woman, she is concerned with the rights afforded to "woman", an abstract category, she does not isolate her argument to British women. The first chapter of the Rights of Woman addresses the issue of natural rights and asks who has those inalienable right

Chris Parr

Chris Parr is a British theatre director and television drama producer and executive. Chris Parr grew up in Sussex, he was educated at Chichester High School for Boys, where his contemporaries included Howard Brenton, David Wood and the late David Horlock, Queen's College,Oxford, to which he won an Open Scholarship to read Classics. However, he left Oxford without a degree but with the intention of making a career in the theatre. From 1969 to 1972, Parr was the first Fellow in Theatre at the University of Bradford. During this period he worked with Bradford University Drama Group, directing or producing new plays by writers, notably Howard Brenton, David Edgar and Richard Crane, who were getting, or were about to get, attention on a national level. From 1975 to 1981 he was Artistic Director of the Traverse Theatre, where he ran the Royal Court Theatre's Sunday Night Programme and developed and directed plays by new and emerging Scottish playwrights. Writers such as John Byrne and Tom McGrath emerged in this time.

In 1994, he was appointed head of drama at BBC Birmingham, in the same year he produced the serial Takin' Over the Asylum, which won a BAFTA award. In 1995 he moved to the BBC's central drama department in London to become Head of Drama Series. By 2002, he had moved to Thames Television as head of drama. Revenge by Howard Brenton Gum and Goo by Howard Brenton, Bradford University Theatre Group, 1969–70 Heads by Howard Brenton, University of Bradford Drama Group, 1969 The Education of Skinny Spew by Howard Brenton, University of Bradford Drama Group, 1969 Triple Bill: Laughs etc, History of a Poor Old Man and The Old Jew Two Kinds of Angels Inquisition A Fart for Europe True-Life New Reekie A&R Rents The Case of David Anderson QC The Long March The Rainbow Heartlanders Kings of the Road The Musical Children of the North You, Me & Marley Martin Chuzzlewit Takin' Over the Asylum Preston Front II The Bill Dangerfield Preston Front Backup Dalziel and Pascoe Cruel Train'New Challenge at BBC' Bradford University News and Views, November 1995.

Retrieved 3 December 2005

Dom Fernando II e Glória

Dom Fernando II e Glória is a wooden-hulled, 50-gun frigate of the Portuguese Navy. She was launched in 1843 and made her maiden voyage in 1845. Built at the shipyard of Daman in Portuguese India, it was Portugal's last sailing warship to be built and the last ship that undertook the Carreira da Índia, a regular military line that connected Portugal to its colonies in India since the beginning of the 16th century; the ship remained in active service until 1878, when she made her last sea voyage, having travelled more than one hundred thousand miles, the equivalent of five circumnavigations of the world. After long service it was destroyed by a fire in 1963 with the burned wooden-hull remaining beached at the mud-flats of the river Tagus for the next 29 years. In 1990 the Portuguese Navy decided to restore her to her appearance in the 1850s. During the World Exhibition of 1998 the ship remained in Lisbon as a museum ship on the dependency of the Navy Museum, being classified as an Auxiliary Navy Unit.

Since 2008, the ship lies on the southern margin of the Tagus river in Almada. In 1821, the Intendant of the Royal Navy of Goa, Cândido José Mourão Garcez Palha, proposed to the Portuguese government the construction of a new frigate in the Portuguese colony of Daman, who possessed to the east a large forest of teak wood in Nagar-Aveli, considered to be an excellent wood for ship building; the authorization for the construction was given in 1824, by the Portuguese king João VI. The civil war period and the political and economical problems in Portugal, delayed the construction for several times throughout the years, she was built in the Shipyards of the Royal Navy Arsenal under the supervision of the naval builder engineer Gil José da Conceição, being involved in its construction both Portuguese and Indian workers. She was launched in 1843, towed to Goa for fitting out as a full-rigged ship, she was named as a tribute to the king consort of Portugal Ferdinand II, husband of the Portuguese Queen Maria II, to Our Lady of Glory, a figure of special devotion among the catholic population of Goa.

The frigate was noted for her spacious accommodations, a critical factor on voyages that could take three months or more without an intermediate port of call. The maiden voyage took place between 2 February and 4 July 1845 under the command of Captain Torcato José Marques, with a crew of 145 men, connecting Goa to Lisbon. Since it was used on several types of missions over the years: Transporting military units, colonial administrators throughout the Empire, degredados to the Portuguese colonies in Africa and India. Transporting in 1852 to the Portuguese island of Madeira, the Empress consort of Brazil Amélie of Leuchtenberg, her daughter Princess Maria Amélia of Brazil, sick with tuberculosis and was looking for a good climate to recover from her disease, dying however five months after the arrival. Transporting to Angola in 1854 the Portuguese explorer António da Silva Porto and the thirteen members of is expedition after their completion of the crossing of Africa, from the coast of Angola to the coast of Mozambique.

Participation in May 1855 as flagship of a Portuguese naval force in Ambriz, against a local rebellion. Participation in 1860 in the colonization of Huíla, transporting sheep and horses from South Africa to Angola. In 1865, she replaced the sailing ship Vasco da Gama as the Artillery School of the Portuguese Navy, conducting training missions up until 1878, when it completed her last training mission on sea in a voyage to the Azores islands. In this last voyage she rescued the crew of the American barque Lawrence Boston, which had caught fire off the Azores archipelago. After this, she remained permanently moored in Lisbon as the Naval Artillery School with significant modifications being made on her in 1889, with the replacement of her elegant masts, the construction of two redoubts on both her sides for the placement of modern cannons, to better serve her role of artillery instruction unit. In 1938 served as the flagship of the naval forces of Continental Portugal, based in the river Tagus.

In 1940, after being considered unfit for navy service, it became the headquarters of the Fragata Dom Fernando Welfare Institution destined to give general education as well as teaching seamanship to underprivileged youth, up until 3 April 1963. On this day, during repair work, a huge fire erupted destroying the ship's hull and structure. After the fire was extinguished, the frigate was towed to an area where the navigation on the river Tagus wouldn't be disturbed, remaining abandoned and half buried in the mud-flats for the next 29 years. In October 1990 the Portuguese Navy and the National Commission for the Commemoration of the Portuguese Discoveries initiated efforts in order of restoring the frigate as she was in the 1850s. On 22 January 1992, the wooden hull was removed from the mud-flats and set floating again, placed in a floating dock and transported to the dry dock of the Arsenal of Alfeite first, in 1993 to the Ria-Marine shipyards in Aveiro, where it remained for the next 5 years being restored, receiving widespread public and private support.

On 27 April 1998, Dom Fernando II e Glória was reinstated in the Portuguese Navy as an Auxiliary Navy Unit. On 12 August 1998, it was delivered to the Navy Museum after being considered by Decree an Historical Navy Ship on 18 July 1998. During its stay at Expo'98 that marked the 500th anniversary of the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, she was a major attraction being visited by 900,000 people. In September 1998, the World Ship Trust awarded Dom Fernando II e Glória with the International Maritime Heritage Award, which considered her re

2017 World Championships in Athletics – Men's 110 metres hurdles

The men's 110 metres hurdles at the 2017 World Championships in Athletics was held at the London Olympic Stadium on 6−7 August. Russian defending champion Sergey Shubenkov, having missed the Olympics due to the drugs scandal, was competing as an Authorised Neutral Athlete. Since the last World Championships, Omar McLeod had won the Indoor World title and the Olympics and had the year's fastest time; the returning silver medallist was his countryman Hansle Parchment, while the returning bronze medalist was world record holder Aries Merritt, who underwent a kidney transplant four days after the previous championships. In the final, from the gun, McLeod had a slight lead over the first hurdle and retained the lead throughout. Shubenkov looked to be the only athlete gaining on him from behind. Balázs Baji was close over the first hurdle, but after hitting the second hurdle fell back to sixth before recovering to take the bronze. Before the competition records were as follows: No records were set at the competition.

The standard to qualify automatically for entry was 13.48. The event schedule, in local time, was as follows: The first round took place on 6 August in five heats as follows: The first four in each heat and the next four fastest qualified for the semifinals; the overall results were as follows: The semifinals took place on 6 August in three heats as follows: The first two in each heat and the next two fastest qualified for the final. The overall results were as follows: The final took place on 7 August at 21:31; the wind was 0.0 metres per second and the results were as follows

1930 Australian Grand Prix

The 1930 Australian Grand Prix was a motor race held at the Phillip Island circuit in Victoria, Australia on 24 March 1930. The race, organised by the Light Car Club of Victoria, was the third Australian Grand Prix and the third held at Phillip Island, it was staged as a scratch race with the Class A cars starting first, followed by the Class B entries three minutes and the Class C cars a further three minutes after that. The Grand Prix title was awarded to the entry recording the fastest time for the race. Of the 22 cars which started the race, nine completed the race distance within the 4½ hour time limit; the race was won by Bill Thompson driving a Bugatti Type 37A. Cars competed in classes according to cylinder capacity. Class A: Cars up to 850cc Class B: Cars over 850cc and up to 1100cc Class C: Cars over 1100cc and up to 1500cc Class D: Cars over 1500cc and up to 2000ccOnly one entry, the 1517cc Lea-Francis Hyper of Mick Carlton, was received for Class D. At the discretion of the organisers it was placed in Class C.

Attendance: Over 7,000 Starters: 22 Classified finishers: 9 Winner's average speed: 65.5 mph Sealed Handicap winner: Cyril Dickason Fastest lap: Bill Thompson – approx. 75 mph Race time limit: 4½ hours


Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch, or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language, spoken in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide; as a standard form of the Moselle Franconian language, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages. The status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the primary example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. In Luxembourg, 50.9% of citizens can speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in small parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken.

The language is spoken by a few descendants of Luxembourg immigrants in the United States and Canada. Other Moselle Franconian dialects are spoken by ethnic Germans long settled in Transylvania, Romania. Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, these remain from the French Revolution. There are several distinct dialect forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be seen between small villages. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a "Standard Luxembourgish" through the process of koineization. There is no distinct geographic boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other related High German dialects. Spoken Luxembourgish is hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects.

However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand and speak Luxembourgish as far as the everyday vocabulary is concerned. However, the large number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics, or with certain speakers. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium and France. Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social People's Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourg's borders. A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no recognised system, until the adoption of the "OLO" on 5 June 1946; this orthography provided a system for speakers of all varieties of Luxembourgish to transcribe words the way they pronounced them, rather than imposing a single, standard spelling for the words of the language.

The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography. New principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. Fiireje, rééjelen, shwèzt, veinejer bültê, âprê, ssistém This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. A more successful standard emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977; the orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch, provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October 1975. Modifications to this standard were proposed by the Permanent Council of the Luxembourguish language and adopted in the spelling reform of 30 July 1999. A detailed explanation of current practice for Luxembourgish can be found in Lulling; the Luxembourgish alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters plus three letters with diacritics: "é", "ä", "ë".

In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are preserved: French: Boîte, Enquête, Piqûre, etc. German: blöd, Bühn, etc. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n-deletion in certain contexts; the effects of this rule are indicated in writing, therefore must be taken into account when spelling words and morphemes ending in ⟨n⟩ or ⟨nn⟩. For example: wann ech ginn "when I go", but wa mer ginn "when we go" fënnefandrësseg "thirty-five", but fënnefavéierzeg "forty-five"; the consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. /p͡f/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard German. Just as for many native speakers of Standard German, it tends to be simplified to word-initially. For example, Pflicht is realised in careful speech. /v/ is