Virginia Cathryn "Gena" Rowlands is an American actress, whose career in film and television has spanned over six decades. A four-time Emmy and two-time Golden Globe winner, she is known for her collaborations with her late actor-director husband John Cassavetes in ten films, including A Woman Under the Influence and Gloria, which earned her nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actress, she won the Silver Bear for Best Actress for Opening Night. In November 2015, Rowlands received an Honorary Academy Award in recognition of her unique screen performances. Rowlands was born on June 1930, in Madison, Wisconsin, her mother, Mary Allen, was a housewife who worked as an actress under the stage name Lady Rowlands. Her father, Edwin Myrwyn Rowlands, was a state legislator, he was a member of the Wisconsin Progressive Party, was of Welsh descent. She had David Rowlands, her family moved to Washington, D. C. in 1939, when Edwin was appointed to a position in the United States Department of Agriculture.
From 1947–50, she attended the University of Wisconsin, where she was a popular student renowned for her beauty. While in college, she was a member of Kappa Kappa Gamma, she left for New York City to study drama at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. In the early 1950s, Rowlands performed with repertory theatre companies and at the Provincetown Playhouse, she toured in a national production of the play. Rowlands costarred with Paul Stewart in the 26-episode syndicated TV series Top Secret, she guest starred on such anthology television series as Robert Montgomery Presents, Appointment with Adventure, Kraft Television Theatre, Studio One. In 1956, she starred in Middle of the Night opposite Edward G. Robinson, she appeared alongside her husband John Cassavetes on an episode of the 1959–60 NBC detective series Johnny Staccato. She appeared on an episode of the NBC western series, starring Darren McGavin, the ABC adventure series, The Islanders, set in the South Pacific. In 1959, Rowlands appeared in the Western series Laramie episode titled "Run to Tumavaca".
Rowlands made her film debut in The High Cost of Loving in 1958. In 1961–62, she starred in David Miller's "Lonely are the Brave", with Kirk Douglas and Walter Mathau and Carroll O'Connor, she starred as Jerri Bondi, the wife of Paul Bondi, but still caring for ex-lover, cowboy Jack Burns, in a fantastically moving performance. In that same season, she appeared on ABC's Target: The Corruptors!, starring Stephen McNally. She guest starred in CBS's The Lloyd Bridges Show and ABC's Breaking Point. In 1963, she guest-starred in an episode on the NBC western series, Bonanza and The Virginian, "The Lonely Hours", "Murder Case" and "Ride The Nightmare" on CBS's The Alfred Hitchcock Hour. In 1967, she was cast as socialite Adrienne Van Leyden in the prime time ABC soap opera Peyton Place. Rowlands and Cassavetes made ten films together: A Child Is Waiting, Machine Gun McCain and Moskowitz, A Woman Under the Influence, Two-Minute Warning, Opening Night, Gloria and Love Streams. According to Boston University film scholar Ray Carney, Rowlands sought to suppress an early version of Cassavetes' first film, that Carney says he rediscovered after decades of searching.
Rowlands became involved in the screenings of Husbands and Love Streams, according to Carney. The UCLA Film and Television Archive mounted a restoration of Husbands, as it was pruned down by Columbia Pictures several months after its release, in an attempt to restore as much of the removed content as possible. At Rowlands' request, UCLA created an alternative print with ten minutes of content edited out, as Rowlands felt that these scenes were in poor taste; the alternative print is the only one, made available for rental. In 1985, Rowlands played the mother in the critically acclaimed made-for-TV movie An Early Frost, she won an Emmy for her portrayal of former First Lady of the United States Betty Ford in the 1987 made-for-TV movie The Betty Ford Story. In 1988, Rowlands starred in Woody Allen's dramatic film Another Woman, she played Marion Post, a middle-aged professor, prompted to a journey of self-discovery when she overhears the therapy sessions of another woman. The review in Time Out described the character's trajectory: "Marion gets to thinking, is appalled to realise that so many assumptions about her own life and marriage are unfounded: in her desire for a controlled existence, she has evaded the emotional truth about relationships with her best friend and husband."
Time Out praised the "marvellous" performances in the film, adding, "Rowlands' pitched approach to a demanding role is stunning." Film4 called her performance "sublime", while Roger Ebert noted that it marked a considerable change in tone from her work with Cassavetes, thus showing "how good an actress Rowlands has been all along."In 2002, Rowlands appeared in Mira Nair's HBO movie Hysterical Blindness, for which she won her third Emmy. She was seen in The Notebook, directed by her son Nick Cassavetes; the same year, she won her first Daytime Emmy for her role as Mrs. Evel
A blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor. Blue-collar work may involve skilled or unskilled manufacturing, sanitation, custodial work, textile manufacturing, power plant operations, commercial fishing, pest control, food processing, oil field work, waste disposal, recycling, plumbing, mechanic, warehousing, technical installation, many other types of physical work. Blue-collar work involves something being physically built or maintained. In contrast, the white-collar worker performs work in an office environment and may involve sitting at a computer or desk. A third type of work is a service worker whose labor is related to customer interaction, sales or other service-oriented work. Many occupations blend white, or pink industry categorizations. Blue-collar work is paid hourly wage-labor, although some professionals may be paid by the project or salaried. There is a wide range of payscales for such work depending upon field of experience; the term blue collar was first used in reference to trades jobs in 1924, in an Alden, Iowa newspaper.
The phrase stems from the image of manual workers wearing blue denim or chambray shirts as part of their uniforms. Industrial and manual workers wear durable canvas or cotton clothing that may be soiled during the course of their work. Navy and light blue colors conceal potential dirt or grease on the worker's clothing, helping him or her to appear cleaner. For the same reason, blue is a popular color for boilersuits; some blue collar workers have uniforms with the name of the business and/or the individual's name embroidered or printed on it. The popularity of the colour blue among manual labourers contrasts with the popularity of white dress shirts worn by people in office environments; the blue collar/white collar colour scheme has socio-economic class connotations. However, this distinction has become blurred with the increasing importance of skilled labour, the relative increase in low-paying white-collar jobs. Since many blue-collar jobs consist of manual labor, educational requirements for workers are lower than those of white-collar workers.
Only a high school diploma is required, many of the skills required for blue-collar jobs will be learned by the employee while working. In higher level jobs, vocational training or apprenticeships may be required, for workers such as electricians and plumbers, state-certification is necessary. With the information revolution, Western nations have moved towards a service and white collar economy. Many manufacturing jobs have been offshored to developing nations which pay their workers lower wages; this offshoring has pushed agrarian nations to industrialized economies and concurrently decreased the number of blue-collar jobs in developed countries. In the United States, blue collar and service occupations refer to jobs in precision production and repair occupations. In the United States, an area known as the Rust Belt comprising the Northeast and Midwest, including Western New York and Western Pennsylvania, has seen its once large manufacturing base shrink significantly. With the de-industrialization of these areas starting in the mid-1960s cities like Cleveland, Ohio.
Due to this economic osmosis, the rust belt has experienced high unemployment and urban blight. Due to many blue-collar jobs involving manual labor and unskilled workers, automation poses a threat of unemployment for blue-collar workers. One study from the MIT Technology Review estimates that 83% of jobs that make less than $20 per hour are threatened by automation; some examples of technology that threaten workers are self-driving cars and automated cleaning devices, which could place blue-collar workers such as truck drivers or janitors out of work. Others have suggested that technological advancement will not lead to blue-collar job unemployment, but rather shifts in the types of work that blue-collar workers do; some foresee computer coding as becoming the blue-collar job of the future. Proponents of this idea view coding as a skill that can be learned through vocational training, suggest that more coders will be needed in a technologically advancing world. Others see future of blue-collar work as humans and computers working together to improve efficiency.
Such jobs would consist of labeling. Blue-collar workers have played a large role in electoral politics. In the 2016 United States Presidential election, many attributed Donald Trump's victories in the states of Ohio and Michigan to blue-collar workers, who overwhelmingly favored Trump over opponent Hillary Clinton. Among white-working class citizens, Trump won 64% of the votes, compared to only 32% for Clinton; this was the largest margin of victory among this group of voters for any presidential candidate since 1980. Many attributed Trump's success among this bloc of voters to his opposition of international trade deals and environmental regulations, two of the largest threats to blue-collar employment. Opponents of this view believe Trump's success with this bloc had more to do with an anti-immigrant and nationalist platform that supports deportation and discourages investment in higher education. "Blue-collar" can be
National Film Registry
The National Film Registry is the United States National Film Preservation Board's selection of films deserving of preservation. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992, 1996, 2005, again in October 2008; the NFPB's mission, to which the NFR contributes, is to ensure the survival and increased public availability of America's film heritage. The 1996 law created the non-profit National Film Preservation Foundation which, although affiliated with the NFPB, raises money from the private sector; the NFPB adds to the NFR up to 25 "culturally or aesthetically significant films" each year, showcasing the range and diversity of American film heritage to increase awareness for its preservation. A film becomes eligible for inclusion ten years after its original release. For the first selection in 1989, the public nominated 1,000 films for consideration. Members of the NFPB developed individual ballots of possible films for inclusion.
The ballots were tabulated into a list of 25 films, modified by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington and his staff at the Library for the final selection. Since 1997, members of the public have been able to nominate up to 50 films a year for the NFPB and Librarian to consider; the NFR includes films ranging from Hollywood classics to orphan films. A film is not required to be feature-length, nor is it required to have been theatrically released in the traditional sense. In addition, television programs and foreign films are not excluded from consideration, although American films are given preference; the Registry contains newsreels, silent films, student films, experimental films, short films, music videos, films out of copyright protection or in the public domain, film serials, home movies, documentaries and independent films. As of the 2018 listing, there are 750 films in the Registry; the earliest listed film is Newark Athlete, the most recent is Brokeback Mountain. Counting the 11 multi-year serials in the NFR once each by year of completion, the year with the most films selected is 1939, with 19 films from that year chosen.
The time between a film's debut and its selection varies greatly. The longest span is 121 years; the shortest span is the minimum 10 years. This table is through the 2018 induction list. For purposes of this list, multi-year serials are counted only once by year of completion. Category:United States National Film Registry films National Recording Registry These Amazing Shadows, a 2011 documentary film that tells the history and importance of the registry National Film Registry homepage Classic Movie Hub: National Film Registry List These Amazing Shadows site for Independent Lens on PBS
Kim Stanley was an American actress in television and theatre, but with occasional film performances. She began her acting career in theatre, subsequently attended the Actors Studio in New York City, New York, she received the 1952 Theatre World Award for her role in The Chase, starred in the Broadway productions of Picnic and Bus Stop. Stanley was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for her roles in A Touch of the Poet and A Far Country. In the 1950s, Stanley was a prolific performer in television, progressed to film, with a well-received performance in The Goddess, she was the narrator of To Kill a Mockingbird, starred in Séance on a Wet Afternoon, for which she won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress. She was less active during the remainder of her career, she received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress – Miniseries or a Movie for her performance as Big Mama in a television adaptation of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof in 1985.
That same year, Kim Stanley was inducted into the American Theatre Hall of Fame. Stanley was born in Tularosa, New Mexico, the daughter of Ann, an interior decorator, J. T. Reid, a professor of philosophy and education at the University of New Mexico, located in Albuquerque, her father was of Irish or Scottish descent and raised in Texas, where he met her mother. She had three brothers, she was a drama major at the University of New Mexico, studied at the Pasadena Playhouse and adopted her maternal grandmother's surname as her stage name. Stanley was a successful Broadway actress with only a few film roles, she was singled out by The New York Times critic Brooks Atkinson for her early work. She attended the Actors Studio, studying under Elia Kazan, Lee Strasberg, Vivian Nathan, she received the 1952 Theatre World Award for her performance as Anna Reeves in The Chase, starred in such Broadway hits as Picnic, playing Millie Owens and Bus Stop, playing Cherie. She was nominated for the 1959 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for A Touch of the Poet and the 1962 Tony for Best Actress in a Play for her portrayal of Elizabeth von Ritter in Henry Denker's A Far Country.
Stanley portrayed Maggie "The Cat" in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof in the original London production of the play. Stanley was a leading lady of live television drama, which flourished in New York City during the 1950s. Among her many starring roles was Wilma, a star-struck 15-year-old girl from the U. S. Gulf Coast of Texas in Horton Foote's A Young Lady of Property, which aired on The Philco-Goodyear Television Playhouse on April 5, 1953, she was played Masha in the London performance of an Actors Studio production of Anton Chekhov's play The Three Sisters Her first film was The Goddess, playing a tragic movie star. She starred in Séance on a Wet Afternoon, winning both the National Board of Review Award for Best Actress and the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress and the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role. A filmed version of Strasberg-directed Three Sisters opened with Stanley reprising the role of Masha, is the only time one can see her perform in a film alongside Geraldine Page, Sandy Dennis, Shelley Winters and other well-known names of the Actors Studio.
She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture for her performance as Frances Farmer's possessive mother in Frances. She played Pancho Barnes in The Right Stuff. Stanley was the uncredited narrator in the drama film To Kill a Mockingbird; as the narrator, she represents the character Jean Louise Finch as an adult. Mary Badham portrays Scout as a child in the film, she received an Emmy Award for Outstanding Single Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role for her appearance in the episode, "A Cardinal Act of Mercy", of the television series, Ben Casey, an Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or a Special for her appearance in the 1984 television adaptation of Tennessee Williams's Southern melodrama Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, this time as Big Mama. Stanley did not act during her years, preferring the role of teacher, in New York City, Los Angeles, Santa Fe, New Mexico, where she died.
She was inducted into the New Mexico Entertainment Hall of Fame in 2012. Stanley was married four times: to Bruce Hall, Curt Conway, Alfred Ryder, Joseph Siegel. All four marriages ended in divorce, she had three children: one by Curt Conway. During her marriage to Ryder, Stanley converted to Judaism. Stanley died of uterine cancer at a nursing home in Santa Fe at the age of 76, she was survived by her brother Justin, her three children, several nephews and nieces. A biography, Female Brando: the Legend of Kim Stanley, by Jon Krampner, was published by Back Stage Books, a division of Watson-Guptill. Partial listing of stage work: Biography portal Film
Pan and scan
Pan and scan is a method of adjusting widescreen film images so that they can be shown in fullscreen proportions of a standard definition 4:3 aspect ratio television screen cropping off the sides of the original widescreen image to focus on the composition's most important aspects. Some film directors and enthusiasts disapprove of pan and scan cropping, because it can remove up to 45% of the original image on 2.35:1 films or up to 53% on earlier 2.55:1 presentations, changing the director or cinematographer's original vision and intentions. The most extreme examples remove up to 75% of the original picture on such aspect ratios as 2.76:1 in epics such as Ben-Hur and It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World. Lawrence of Arabia is an exception to the 75% rule, because its aspect ratio is 2.20:1. The vertical equivalent is known as "tilt and scan" or "reverse pan and scan"; the method was most common in the days of VHS, before widescreen home media such as Laserdisc, DVD and Blu-ray. Center cut is similar with the difference as the name suggests that it is a direct cut of the material from the center of the image with no horizontal panning or vertical tilting involved.
This method doesn't require the permission or availability of the film maker or director to identify the most important part of each frame. Most video displays have three options for 16:9 widescreen frame formatting, which are either center cut, letterbox or full frame; the first two options are reliant on the video stream's aspect ratio flag being set correctly. For the first several decades of television broadcasting, sets displayed images with a 4:3 aspect ratio in which the width is 1.33 times the height—similar to most theatrical films prior to 1960. This was fine for pre-1953 films such as The Wizard of Casablanca. Meanwhile, in order to compete with television and lure audiences away from their sets, producers of theatrical motion pictures began to use "widescreen" formats such as CinemaScope and Todd-AO in the early to mid-1950s, which enable more panoramic vistas and present other compositional opportunities. Films with these formats might be twice as wide as a TV screen. To present a widescreen movie on such a television requires one of two techniques to accommodate this difference: One is "letterboxing", which preserves the original theatrical aspect ratio, but is not as tall as a standard television screen, leaving black bars at the top and bottom of the screen.
Pan and scan cuts out as much as half of the image. In the 1990s, when so-called "Sixteen-By-Nine" or "Widescreen" televisions offered a wider 16:9 aspect ratio, they allowed films made at 1.66:1 and 1.85:1 to fill most or all of the screen, with only small letterboxing or cropping required. DVD packaging began to use the expression, "16:9 – Enhanced for Widescreen TVs." However, films shot at aspect ratios of 2.20:1, 2.35:1, 2.39:1, 2.55:1, 2.76:1 might still be problematic when displayed on televisions of any type. But when the DVD is "anamorphically enhanced for widescreen", or the film is telecast on a high-definition channel seen on a widescreen TV, the black spaces are smaller, the effect is still much like watching a film on a theatrical wide screen. Though 16:9 remain standard as of 2018, wider-screen consumer TVs in 21:9 have been released to the market by multiple brands. During the "pan and scan" process, an editor selects the parts of the original filmed composition that seem to be the focus of the shot and makes sure that these are copied.
When the important action shifts to a new position in the frame, the operator moves the scanner to follow it, creating the effect of a "pan" shot. In a scene in which the focus does not shift from one horizontal position to another—such as actors at each extreme engaging in rapid conversation with each other—the editor may choose to "cut" from one to the other rather than panning back and forth. If the actors are closer together on the screen, the editor may pan alternately cropping one or the other partially; this method allows the maximum resolution of the image, since it uses all the available vertical video scan lines—which is important for NTSC televisions, having a rather low number of lines available. It gives a full-screen image on a traditional television set. However, it has several drawbacks; some visual information is cropped out. It can change a shot in which the camera was stationary to one in which it is panning, or change a single continuous shot into one with frequent cuts. In a shot, panned to show something new, or one in which something enters the shot from off-camera, it changes the timing of these appearances to the audience.
As an example, in the film Oliver!, made in Panavision, the criminal Bill Sikes commits a murder. The murder takes place offscreen, behind a staircase wall, Oliver is a witness to it; as Sikes steps back from behind the wall, we see Oliver from the back watching him in terror. In the pan-and-scan version of the film, we see Oliver's reaction as the murder is being committed, but not when Sikes steps backward from the wall having done it. In a pan and scan telecast, a character will seem to be speaking offscreen, when what has happened is that the pan and scan technique has cut his image out of the screen; as television screenings of feature films became more common and more financially important, cinematographers began to work
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition and ultra high-definition resolution; the main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs; the plastic disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple-layer discs are available for BD-XL re-writer drives. High-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution and at up to 60 frames per second.
DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 576p. Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats; the BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband. The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used.
Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a more-dense storage format that could hold higher-definition media. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Panasonic, TDK, applying the new diodes: UDO, DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would become Blu-ray Disc; the core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was announced as Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members; the first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder, made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had now developed an ultra-hard yet thin polymer coating for Blu-ray discs. Cartridges used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped; the BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy; the first BD-ROM players were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx, MGM's The Terminator. The earliest releases used the same method used on standard DVDs; the first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006; the first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006, it recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. As of June 2008, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were