Aachen known as Bad Aachen, in French and English as Aix-la-Chapelle, in Italian as Aquisgrana, in Latin as Aquæ Granni, is a spa and border city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen developed from a Roman settlement and spa, subsequently becoming the preferred medieval Imperial residence of Charlemagne, from 936 to 1531, the place where 31 Holy Roman Emperors were crowned Kings of the Germans. Aachen is the westernmost city in Germany, located near the borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, 61 km west south west of Cologne in a former coal-mining area. One of Germany's leading institutes of higher education in technology, the RWTH Aachen University, is located in the city. Aachen's industries include science and information technology. In 2009, Aachen was ranked eighth among cities in Germany for innovation; the name Aachen is a modern descendant, like southern German Ach, German: Aach, meaning "river" or "stream", from Old High German ahha, meaning "water" or "stream", which directly translates to Latin Aquae, referring to the springs.
The location has been inhabited by humans since the Neolithic era, about 5,000 years ago, attracted to its warm mineral springs. Latin Aquae figures in Aachen's Roman name Aquae granni, which meant "waters of Grannus", referring to the Celtic god of healing, worshipped at the springs; this word became Åxhe in Walloon and Aix in French, subsequently Aix-la-Chapelle after Charlemagne had his palatine chapel built there in the late 8th century and made the city his empire's capital. Aachen's name in French and German evolved in parallel; the city is known by a variety of different names in other languages: Aachen is at the western end of the Benrath line that divides High German to the south from the rest of the West Germanic speech area to the north. Aachen's local dialect belongs to the Ripuarian language. Flint quarries on the Lousberg, Königshügel, first used during Neolithic times, attest to the long occupation of the site of Aachen, as do recent finds under the modern city's Elisengarten pointing to a former settlement from the same period.
Bronze Age settlement is evidenced by the remains of barrows found, on the Klausberg. During the Iron Age, the area was settled by Celtic peoples who were drawn by the marshy Aachen basin's hot sulphur springs where they worshipped Grannus, god of light and healing; the 25-hectare Roman spa resort town of Aquae Granni was, according to legend, founded by Grenus, under Hadrian, around 124 AD. Instead, the fictitious founder refers to the Celtic god, it seems it was the Roman 6th Legion at the start of the 1st century AD that first channelled the hot springs into a spa at Büchel, adding at the end of the same century the Münstertherme spa, two water pipelines, a probable sanctuary dedicated to Grannus. A kind of forum, surrounded by colonnades, connected the two spa complexes. There was an extensive residential area, part of it inhabited by a flourishing Jewish community; the Romans built bathhouses near Burtscheid. A temple precinct called. Today, remains have been found of three bathhouses, including two fountains in the Elisenbrunnen and the Burtscheid bathhouse.
Roman civil administration in Aachen broke down between the end of the 4th and beginning of the 5th centuries. Rome withdrew its troops from the area. By 470, the town came to be ruled by the Ripuarian Franks and subordinated to their capital, Cologne. After Roman times, Pepin the Short had a castle residence built in the town, due to the proximity of the hot springs and for strategic reasons as it is located between the Rhineland and northern France. Einhard mentions that in 765–6 Pepin spent both Christmas and Easter at Aquis villa, which must have been sufficiently equipped to support the royal household for several months. In the year of his coronation as king of the Franks, 768, Charlemagne came to spend Christmas at Aachen for the first time, he remained there in a mansion which he may have extended, although there is no source attesting to any significant building activity at Aachen in his time, apart from the building of the Palatine Chapel and the Palace. Charlemagne spent most winters in Aachen between 792 and his death in 814.
Aachen became the political centre of his empire. After his death, the king was buried in the church. In 936, Otto I was crowned king of East Francia in the collegiate church built by Charlemagne. During the reign of Otto II, the nobles revolted and the West Franks, under Lothair, raided Aachen in the ensuing confusion. Aachen was attacked again by Odo of Champagne, who attacked the imperial palace while Conrad II was absent. Odo relinquished it and was killed soon afterwards; the palace and town of Aachen had fortifying walls built by order of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa between 1172 and 1176. Over the next 500 years, most kings of Germany destined to reign over the Holy Roman Empire were crowned in Aachen; the original audience hall built by Charlemagne was torn down and replaced by the current city hall in 1330. The last king to be crowned here was Ferdinand I in 1531. During the
André Lawrence Hidi is a Canadian former ice hockey player. Hidi played seven games with the Washington Capitals. Hidi was born in Ontario; as a youth, he played in the 1973 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament with a minor ice hockey team from Toronto. Hidi played junior hockey with the Peterborough Petes to 1981 went to the University of Toronto, he was drafted by the Colorado Rockies in 1980. He was signed as a free agent in March 1984 by the Washington Capitals, he would play seven games in the NHL and 121 in the American Hockey League with the Binghamton Whalers. During his seven total career games with the Capitals, Hidi scored 2 goals and 1 assist while receiving 9 penalty minutes. In 2014, Hidi was inducted into the University of Toronto Hall of Fame; as of 2018, Hidi is the Head of Acquisitions at BMO Capital Markets. Biographical information and career statistics from Hockey-Reference.com, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database Profile at hockeysdraftcentral.com
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Secret of the Ooze is a 1991 American martial arts superhero comedy film directed by Michael Pressman, based on the fictional superhero team the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, starring Paige Turco and David Warner with the voices of Brian Tochi, Robbie Rist, Adam Carl, Laurie Faso. It is the sequel to the film Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles; the Secret of the Ooze's sequel is a third film, released in 1993, a fourth followed in 2007. The film is distributed in the United States by New Line Cinema, internationally distributed by 20th Century Fox; the film follows the adventures of the four Turtles: Leonardo, Michelangelo and their Master Splinter. Resuming from the events of the last film, the villain, The Shredder, returns to take back command of the Foot Clan, work towards getting revenge on the Turtles; when he learns the secret behind the Turtles' mutation, he becomes more dangerous than ever. The film sheds some light on the origins of Splinter and the Turtles, as well as introduces two new villains: Tokka and Rahzar.
Unlike the first film, this entry showed the use of the Turtles' weapons. They instead fight bare-fisted for much of the film, as part of an attempt to tone down the violence of the previous installment; the film was released on March 22, 1991, received mixed reviews from critics who felt it departed from the much darker tone of the original 1990 film, was more light-hearted. The film was financially successful, became the 13th highest-grossing film domestically in the year of its release; the film is a tribute to Muppets creator Jim Henson, who died less than a year before this film's release. Henson's Creature Shop created the animatronic creature costumes like the first film. Following The Shredder's defeat at the hands of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles in their last adventure, the four along with Splinter live with their news reporter friend April O'Neil while they look for a new home, afraid the Foot will attack them if they return to the sewer. Meanwhile, a young pizza delivery boy named Keno inadvertently encounters burglars on his route and tries to stop them.
Seeing him as a witness, the burglars attack Keno, who proves to be a skilled martial artist, but he is soon overwhelmed before the arrival of the turtles. They vanish after rescuing Keno, tying the burglars up and telling Keno to find a phone to call the proper authorities, taking the pizza he was delivering, leaving behind the money to pay for it; the remaining members of the The Foot meet up at an old junkyard, knowing their size has shrunk, they deduce that whoever didn’t make it might have been arrested. There, they encounter The Shredder's second-in-command Tatsu, who assumes control of the Foot, demands anyone to challenge him for the lead position, they are met by their master, who’s face has been more disfigured by his previous defeat but did not die as they thought. He sets his plan in motion, telling Tatsu to have their best men follow April, knowing she will lead them to the Turtles, as he desires revenge for them disfiguring his face. April interviews Professor Jordan Perry of Techno Global Research Industries about a possible toxic waste leak.
He assures her that everything is fine, but at the same time their scientists discover dandelions which have been mutated by the leak. Freddy, a spy for the Foot posing as April's cameraman, discovers this and reports it to his master, who decides to have Perry interrogated. Back at April's apartment, Splinter reveals to her and the turtles that the canister of mutagen which mutated them into their current state 15 years prior was created by TGRI, they too decide to talk to him; the Foot gets to Perry first and kidnaps him, salvaging the last vial canister of ooze in the process. The turtles attempt to get the canister back, but fail. Afterward, Keno gets into April's apartment under the guise of delivering pizza and discovers Splinter and the turtles. At the Shredder's hideout, Perry is forced into using the remaining ooze on a wolf and a snapping turtle, which mutate into Tokka and Rahzar. With the imminent threat to April's safety by the Foot, the turtles start to look for a new home. After an argument with Leonardo, Raphael breaks off from the group, while Michelangelo discovers an abandoned subway station and deems it a perfect hideout.
Raphael and Keno defy implant Keno into the Foot Clan to find their hideout. However, they are caught and Raphael is captured, while Keno escapes to warn the others; when they come, they are ambushed by the Foot. Donatello finds the five of them make a tactical retreat. Once back in their hideout, Perry explains that the creation of the ooze was an accident, disheartening Donatello and Raphael, who saw a higher purpose for their existence; the Shredder unleashes Rahzar into a nearby neighborhood to cause damages. The next day, Freddy sends a message to April that Tokka and Rahzar will be released into Central Park if the Turtles don't meet the Foot Clan at the construction site. Perry develops an antidote to the mutations and when they confront the two and Michelangelo trick Tokka and Rahzar into eating it, they discover the trick and brutally attack, throwing Raphael into a public dance club where Vanilla Ice is performing. A big fight ensues among hundreds of witnesses and the turtles turn Tokka and Rahzar int