Palma de Mallorca Airport
Palma de Mallorca Airport is an international airport located 8 km east of Palma, Spain, adjacent to the village of Can Pastilla. The airport on the Balearic Islands is Spain's third largest airport after Madrid–Barajas and Barcelona-El Prat. Palma de Mallorca was used by 27.9 million passengers in 2017. The airport is the main base for the Spanish carrier Air Europa and a focus airport for Ryanair, EasyJet and Jet2.com. The airport shares runways with the nearby Son Sant Joan Air Force Base, operated by the Spanish Air Force; the interest of the Spanish Government in developing airmail during the first decades of the 20th century, put into study the possibility of establishing an air postal line in the Balearic Islands. In 1921, the company Aeromarítima Mallorquina established the postal line Barcelona - Palma, which used seaplanes in the port of Palma de Mallorca. Before the creation of this airline, trials were made in two flat fields: Son Sant Joan and Son Bonet, both of them being elected for the builiding of aerdromes.
In 1934, with the intention of flying touristic flights to the island, the company Aero-Taxi de Mallorca is created, stablishing a flight school in Son Sant Joan. A year another one will be founded in Son Bonet. In May 1935 the company LAPE, Líneas Aéreas Postales Españolas, antecessor of Iberia. A month after, in August, the first regular air route between Madrid and Palma, stopping at Valencia, is created. A year this line is replaced by other, connecting Palma and Barcelona. Three years Lufthansa and Iberia stablish new lines in Son Bonet, while Son Sant Joan is beginning to be used by the military. Through the years, Son Bonet will become the main civilian airport in the island, while the creation of Son Sant Joan Air Force Base will limit any further civilian enterprises at the aerodrome. In 1954, the runway was enlarged and paved to enable the operation of F-86 Sabre fighters, which meant the diversion of the Palma - Llucmajor road. During those years, the first paved taxiways and aprons were built, while Son Bonet received the first big groups of European tourists thanks to the airlines BEA, Air France and Aviaco.
The increase in traffic, the inability to enlarge Son Bonet, made the authors of the 1958 National Airport Plan propose building a large civilian airport in the premises of Son Sant Joan airbase. The National Airport Council approved this plan the following year and commercial traffic was transferred from Son Bonet to Son Sant Joan; this would become the birth of. During that year, a terminal and a civilian apron were built south of the military facilities, along with a VHF communication center. A VOR was installed in the island; the 7 of July 1960, the airport was opened to both domestic and international traffic. Just two weeks expansion of the airport was declared urgent by the government, on summer 1961 the works of extension of the runway and taxiway were started. At the end of the year, more plans were made, including a power plant, a communications centre and fire and rescue facilities. After reaching 1 million passengers for the first time in 1962, in 1965, a new terminal was constructed, air navigation services were completed at the end of the following year.
In 1965 Air Spain began operating from the airport and a smaller terminal, which today is module B was planned to be built. Passenger numbers had increased reaching 2 million in 1965. A second runway was to be built, it was to be built parallel to the existing one, work began on it in 1970. Two years terminal B went into service, the second runway opened in 1974. In 1980, the airport carried 7 million passengers. However, this increased to nearly 10 million in 1986; this yet again led to a new terminal to be constructed, today's current central terminal building where passengers both enter and exit the airport and check in and retrieve their luggage. Construction was designed by the Majorcan architect Pere Nicolau Bover. During the construction in 1995, passenger numbers exceeded 15 million; the new terminal opened in 1997. Following a decline in passenger numbers at the airport following the September 11 attacks in 2001, numbers rose between 2002 and 2007 when traffic peaked at 23.2 million passengers, however from 2007 there has been a decline in passenger numbers with 21.1 million using the airport in 2010.
Today, Palma de Mallorca airport carries over 29.7 million passengers to their destinations, with 178,253 aircraft movements to mainland Spain and the United Kingdom. In November 2015, Air Berlin announced that it would shut down its hub operations at the airport which it had maintained for over ten years. All seven domestic connection routes to the mainland - such as flights to Valencia and Sevilla - as well as the route to Faro in Portugal ceased during spring 2016. During the Summer months the dual-runway airport handles as many movements as London–Gatwick, on the busiest day of the week as much as 1,100 movements - as many as London–Heathrow, the busiest in Europe. According to the operational data provided by AENA, the airport can handle 66 movements per hour or during a 24-hour operational period 1,600 aircraft movements. Palma de Mallorca Airport occupies an area of 6.3 km2. Due to rapid growth of passenger numbers, additional infrastructure was added to the two terminals A and B; this main
Larnaca International Airport
Larnaca International Airport – Glafcos Clerides is an international airport located 4 km southwest of Larnaca, Cyprus. Larnaca International Airport is Cyprus' main international gateway and the largest of the country's two commercial airports, the other being Paphos International Airport on the island's southwestern coast; the airport was given its current name in July 2016, in honour of former President of Cyprus Glafcos Clerides. Larnaca Airport was hastily developed towards the end of 1974 after the invasion of Cyprus by Turkey on 20 July of the same year, which forced the closure of the Nicosia International Airport; the site on which it was built had been used as an airfield in the 1930s and, subsequently, as a military installation by British forces. Larnaca International opened on 8 February 1975, with only limited infrastructure facilities and a prefabricated set of buildings comprising separate halls for departures and arrivals; the first airlines to use the new airport were Cyprus Airways, using Viscount 800s leased from British Midland, Olympic Airways, using NAMC YS-11s.
The runway at Larnaca International was too short for jet aircraft. On 19 February 1978, Larnaca Airport was the scene of the Egyptian raid on Larnaca International Airport: a 1-hour gun battle between Unit 777, an Egyptian military counter-terrorism force, who had raided Larnaca International, the Cypriot National Guard; the crisis had begun the previous day, when Youssef Sebai, editor of a prominent Egyptian newspaper and friend of Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat, was assassinated at the Nicosia Hilton hotel by two gunmen as he was preparing to address the Afro-Asian Peoples’ Solidarity Organization conference being held at the hotel. The gunmen, a Jordanian and a Kuwaiti, opposed to the Sadat regime, took 50 hostages among the conference attendees, including two representatives of the PLO who happened to be attending the conference. Non-Arab delegates and women were released shortly. Yasser Arafat, with the Cypriot president's agreement, dispatched an unarmed force of 16 to assist with negotiations and any possible rescue operation.
Through negotiations with the Cypriot government, the two attackers were allowed to board a plane to escape with their 15 remaining hostages, including the two PLO hostages. They forced the plane to approach several countries including Libya and Syria but each time their request to land was refused, so after refueling in Djibouti, the plane was forced to return to Larnaca Airport. Egypt dispatched its entire antiterrorist squad aboard a C-130 Hercules to deal with the hijacking. On landing in Larnaca, the commandos launched an all-out assault on the DC-8 as Cypriot negotiators had secured the hostage-takers' surrender. Cypriot President Spyros Kyprianou and other senior officials observing the events on site were forced to retreat from the airport control tower after it was hit by bullets; the Egyptian commandos surrendered to the Cypriot forces. The two hijackers were persuaded by the British pilots to give up; the hostages exited the aircraft unharmed. The Cypriots counted eight wounded. 15 members of the 74-man Egyptian Unit 777 died.
President Kyprianou offered reconciliation and apologies, but maintained that Cyprus could not have allowed the Egyptians to act. Egypt and Cyprus each withdrew their diplomatic missions, frosty relations between the two countries persisted for some time; the two hijackers were condemned to death by a Cypriot court, but the sentence was commuted by Kyprianou and the hijackers released. The status of Cyprus as a major tourist destination means that air traffic has risen to over 5 million passengers a year; this is double the capacity. For this reason, a tender was put out in 1998 to develop the airport further and increase its capacity. Completed elements of the expansion include a new control tower, fire station, runway extension, additional administrative offices; the surrounding road network was improved by upgrading the B4 road and by completing the A3 Motorway. A new junction has been constructed near the new terminal; the new terminal was built some 500–700 m west of the old terminal, adjacent to the new control tower, with new aprons and jetways.
The old terminal building is slated to be demolished and refurbished as a cargo centre, is used as a private terminal for visiting heads of state, VIPs, private aircraft operators. The airport's geographic location in-between Europe, Africa and the Middle East facilitates it as an airline hub for traffic and flight operations between these locations, it holds domestic and international passenger and cargo services by over 30 airlines. Notably, Gulf Air used to provide a non-stop service to New York-JFK twice a week; the airport has one primary passenger terminal. Departures are accommodated on while arrivals at the ground level. A second "VIP terminal" exists, used for visiting heads of state, some private aviation, for cargo; the airport utilises a single large apron for all passenger aircraft. The concept architectural design of the passenger terminal was developed by French architects at Aéroports de Paris with Sofréavia in France. Detail and Tender design was completed in Cyprus by 1998, with local architectural office Forum Architects and a large engineering team under the coordination of ADP.
The design was used as a base for the BOT projects of both Larnaca and Paphos International Airports though significant changes were made on "value engineering" ground
Varna Airport is the airport of Varna, the historical maritime capital of Bulgaria. Varna Airport is the third largest airport in Bulgaria and an important destination during the summer leisure seasons; the airport is located 10 kilometers from the center of Varna near the town of Aksakovo. The airport serves Golden Sands and northeastern Bulgaria; the busiest season for the airport is from the end of May to the beginning of October. The history of the airport dates back to 1916 when two sheds for the first hydro-port in Bulgaria were built in the Peinerdzhik area. Irregular mail-plane service from Sofia to Varna was held between 1919 and 1920 and it was not until 1947 that a permanent airline between the two cities was established. What had grown into Tihina Airport was situated west of the present-day Asparuhov bridge and was indeed quite primitive for the demands of a modern city, thus in 1946 a decision was made and a new airport was constructed several kilometres west of the city, near the village of Aksakovo, with local people enthusiastically working on the site together with the constructors.
Construction and improvement continued throughout the years, with a new terminal built in 1972 and a new runway in 1974. In 2013, a new passenger terminal opened and the one constructed in the 20th century was closed down. There are domestic and international flights from Varna to about 70 destinations in 25 countries, with Bulgarian and foreign airlines; the airport is close to the Port of the railway system. The airport has one asphalt-covered runway 09/27 with ILS CAT I system on 09 edge and a parking apron for 24 aircraft. In June 2006 the Bulgarian Government awarded Fraport AG Frankfurt Airport Services Worldwide a 35-year-long concession on both Varna and Burgas airports in return for investments exceeding €500 million, including a new passenger terminal by 2008. From 15 October 2011 until 28 February 2012, Varna airport was closed for a reconstruction of the runway. All flights were operated to/from Burgas Airport. In 2016 the airport handled 1,689,595 passengers - a 20.8% increase compared to 2015.
The airport has three terminals: Terminal 1, built in 1972, Terminal 3, used during the summer season, the new Terminal 2, opened in August 2013. Terminal 1 was extended several times over the years; the departures area had six security checkpoints. In the terminal there were various outlets: cafes, fast food restaurants, currency exchange, duty-free shops. There were ten boarding gates; the arrivals area had two luggage belts, as well as a tax-free shop. Terminal 1 still has a VIP business lounge. In 2010 the VIP room was renovated; as of 2014, all flights, including no-frills, are managed by Terminal 2. Hence, the old terminal is closed except the VIP area. Terminal 2 started operations on 18 August 2013. In December 2011 the construction work on the new Terminal 2 began. T2 has a capacity of 1,800,000 passengers per year and 25 check-in desks, it covers an area of 18,000 square metres. T2's buildings are designed so that their capacity can be increased as an extension to the existing architectural part.
The first passenger service on T2 was a domestic flight to Sofia operated by the national carrier Bulgaria Air and first international passengers served were on a Belavia flight from Minsk. T2 was designed by London-based architecture firm Pascall+Watson; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights at Varna Airport: Bus line 409 connects the airport with Varna city center and resorts nearby. On 5 June 1992 Balkan Bulgarian Airlines Tupolev 154B overran runway 27 in bad weather conditions. There were no casualties. On 24 May 2013, Air VIA flight 502 from Leipzig/Halle to Varna overran runway 09 at Varna Airport after touchdown. Two passengers were injured during evacuation. On July 8 2014, Lars Mittank, a German student vacationing in Golden Sands, mysteriously disappeared near Varna Airport. Mittank had been alone in Bulgaria the previous two days and reported to be behaving strangely, was last seen on security cameras fleeing from the airport into the surrounding forest.
List of airports in Bulgaria List of airlines of Bulgaria List of the busiest airports in Europe by passenger traffic Media related to Varna Airport at Wikimedia Commons Varna Airport Homepage History of Varna Airport
Dublin Airport is an international airport serving Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. It is operated by DAA; the airport is located 10 km north of Dublin in Fingal. In 2018, over 31.5 million passengers passed through the airport, making it the airport's busiest year on record. It is the 13th busiest airport in Europe, is the busiest of the Republic of Ireland's airports by total passenger traffic, it has the greatest traffic levels on the island of Ireland, followed by Belfast International Airport. The airport has an extensive short and medium haul network, served by an array of carriers, as well as a significant long-haul network focused on North America, the Middle East and East Asia, it serves as the headquarters of Ireland's flag carrier – Aer Lingus, regional airline Stobart Air, Europe's largest low-cost carrier – Ryanair, ASL Airlines Ireland, together with another two airlines, CityJet and Norwegian Air International. United States border preclearance services are available at the airport for U.
S.-bound passengers. Shannon Airport is the only other airport in Europe to offer this facility. In 1917, during World War I, the townland of Collinstown was selected as the site of a base for the British Royal Flying Corps. By April 1918, when the Flying Corps was renamed the Royal Air Force, Collinstown Aerodrome was more than 20% complete. Construction was completed in 1919. On 20 March 1919 a group of 30 Irish Volunteers, including five employed by the RAF, stole 75 rifles and 5,000 rounds of ammunition from the base; as Collinstown Camp the site was used for internment of Irish republicans. At the end of 1922 the land and buildings at Collinstown were transferred to the Irish Free State; the airfield fell into disrepair and grass grew on the former runways. In 1936 the Executive Council of the Irish Free State established a new civil airline, Aer Lingus, which began operating from the military aerodrome, Casement Aerodrome, at Baldonnel to the southwest of Dublin. A decision was made; the former Collinstown site, extended into the neighbouring townlands of Rock and Corballis, was chosen.
Work on the new airport began in 1937. By the end of 1939, a grass airfield surface, internal roads, car parks and electrical power and lighting were set up; the inaugural flight from Dublin took place on 19 January 1940 to Liverpool. In August 1938, work began on a new airport terminal building; the terminal building was designed by architect Desmond FitzGerald, brother of politician Garret FitzGerald. FitzGerald, who had designed an airport terminal as part of his college studies, led a team of architects that included Kevin Barry, Daithí Hanley, Charles Aliaga Kelly, Dermot O'Toole and Harry Robson; the terminal building opened in early 1941, with its design influenced by the tiered structure of the luxury ocean liners of the time. The terminal was awarded the Triennial Gold Medal of the Royal Hibernian Institute of Architects in 1942 and is today a listed building. Due to World War II, known as The Emergency in the Irish Free State, services were restricted at Dublin Airport until late 1945.
The only international scheduled routes operated during this time were by Aer Lingus to Liverpool. The end of the war meant the beginning of a major expansion in services at the airport. Aer Lingus resumed its London service to Croydon in November 1945. In 1947, KLM started the first European flights to Dublin with a service to Amsterdam. Three new concrete runways were completed in 1948, in 1950 - after ten years in operation - the airport had welcomed a total of 920,000 passengers. Throughout the 1950s Dublin Airport expanded with uninterrupted traffic growth. Runway extensions and terminal enhancements were carried out to deal with the influx of traffic and passengers. New airlines began serving the airport also; these included British European Airways, BKS. In 1958, a new transatlantic service was started by Aer Lingus via Shannon Airport. By the mid 1950s, it was clear that the original terminal building was too small to cope with growing passenger numbers. A new North Terminal was opened in June 1959.
The plan was that North Terminal would handle all US and European flights, but instead it became the arrivals terminal for all Dublin Airport passengers, while the original passenger terminal was used for departures. During the 1960s, the number of scheduled carriers continued to grow. By the close of the 1960s, a sizeable number of Boeing 737s, BAC One-Elevens, Boeing 707s and Hawker Siddeley Tridents were using the airport regularly. To cope with larger aircraft in the late 1960s new departure gate piers were added close to the old terminal to cope with larger aircraft; these piers would subsequently be connected to Terminal 1. During 1969, the airport handled 1,737,151 passengers; the advent of wide-body aircraft posed challenges for aviation. In 1971, Aer Lingus took delivery of two new Boeing 747 aircraft. To cope with this, a new £10 million passenger terminal capable of handling six million passengers per year, which became known as Terminal 1, was opened in June 1972; the growth, anticipated at Dublin's airport during the 1970s did not materialise immediately.
In 1983 Aer Lingus opened its'Aer Lingus Commuter' division which took delivery of Sho
Bulgaria Air is the flag carrier airline of Bulgaria, with its headquarters at Sofia Airport in Sofia. The company is a leader in terms of local market share; the airline operates short and medium haul aircraft to destinations in Europe, Middle East, Russia, focus cities are Burgas and Varna. In 2016 the company carried 1,246,350 passengers on both scheduled and charter flights, a decrease of 2% compared to 2015; the number of operations decreased 0.5% from 4697 in 2015 to 4675 in 2016. The airline was established in 2002 as a successor to the insolvent Balkan Bulgarian Airlines and commenced operations on 4 December that year. By order of the Minister of Transport and Communications it was declared the national flag carrier in November 2002. Bulgaria Air began operations using the name "Balkan Air Tour." The airline was known by that name for just a short period of time. The name "Bulgaria Air" and initial logo were determined by a public competition. Bulgaria Air was privatised in 2006. Hemus Air paid €6.6m and promised to invest a further €86m over the next five years.
Since all flights and operations of Hemus Air and its subsidiary Viaggio Air are under name and management of the merged company, Bulgaria Air. On 20 November 2008, Bulgaria Air became a full member of the International Air Transport Association. In mid-2011 Bulgaria Air announced that after a thorough analysis of its destinations it had chosen to purchase seven new Embraer E-190 aircraft; the delivery of the first aircraft was in early 2012, whilst the remaining aircraft were delivered in 2013. The company planned to lease Airbus A321s from 2016. Bulgaria Air operates 22 routes from Sofia Airport, including two domestic routes to Bourgas and Varna. During the summer season Bulgaria Air operates flights to and from Varna airport. New services to Beirut, Palma de Mallorca and Prague were launched in 2012. Bulgaria Air has codeshare agreements with the following airlines: Bulgaria Air has special interline agreements with the following airlines: Bulgaria Air performing charter flights for over 60 leading tour operators, air transport brokers and other companies of the aviation and tourist industries.
During the summer season the airline operated flights from Burgas and Varna airports to destinations in Russia, Poland, Germany. The company operated charter flights and from Sofia airport to popular holiday destinations in Greece, Egypt, Italy, Spain; as of October 2016, the Bulgaria Air fleet consists of the following aircraft: ATR 42-300 BAe 146-200 BAe 146-300 Boeing 737-300 Boeing 737-500 In November 2002 public contests were held in Bulgaria to determine a name and logo for the new airline. Thousands of people voiced their opinions. After searching through the submissions, the name and logo were chosen; the design was used for about four years, until 2006, when an improved, more professional design was introduced. After the full fleet integration of Hemus Air and Viaggio Air, a new livery had to be developed once again. In mid-2010, the first Bulgaria Air Airbus A319 was rolled out wearing the finalised colour scheme; the company offers service for VIP clients with an Avro RJ70 Business Jet.
The passenger compartment of the aircraft is equipped with 26 armchairs, dining tables and multiple LCD displays, as well as on-board Wi-Fi. "Fly More" is the name of the Bulgaria Air Frequent flyer programme. There are three levels of membership: Basic - initial level from which the collection of points starts; the member receives a temporary card with identification code. Silver Standard Card - After the member conducts 5 flight he/she receives a permanent membership card. Silver Card holders may exchange their bonus points for additional services. Gold Privilege Card - The level is reached after earning 30,000 points within 18 months of enrollment into the programme. Gold cardholders enjoy a wider range of benefits. Central Cooperative Bank is issuing Visa Classic and Visa Gold co-branded Credit Cards with Bulgaria Air; these cards are giving numerous privileges to their holders. In 2010 Bulgaria Air and LSG Sky Chefs created; the total investment for Bulgaria Air reaches to $1.3 million. Future investment plans envision a new canteen to serve the airport staff at Sofia Airport.
Bulgaria On Air: The Inflight Magazine - Bulgaria Air's inflight magazine. Its first edition was in 2003. Bulgaria On Air: The Business Magazine - In April 2011 the inflight magazine was extended with an edition, distributed in some hotels and shopping centers. Bul Air is the charter brand of Bulgaria Air; the company was founded in 1954, but after merging with the Bulgarian national carrier TABSO became part of BALKAN –Bulgarian Airlines. In 2015 the company was revived by Bulgaria Air. Transport in Bulgaria Media related to Bulgaria Air at Wikimedia Commons Official website "Bulgaria Air News". Bulgaria Air
Asphalt known as bitumen, is a sticky and viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, is classed as a pitch. Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was used; the word is derived from the Ancient Greek ἄσφαλτος ásphaltos. The primary use of asphalt is in road construction, where it is used as the glue or binder mixed with aggregate particles to create asphalt concrete, its other main uses are for bituminous waterproofing products, including production of roofing felt and for sealing flat roofs. The terms "asphalt" and "bitumen" are used interchangeably to mean both natural and manufactured forms of the substance. In American English, "asphalt" is used for a refined residue from the distillation process of selected crude oils. Outside the United States, the product is called "bitumen", geologists worldwide prefer the term for the occurring variety. Common colloquial usage refers to various forms of asphalt as "tar", as in the name of the La Brea Tar Pits.
Occurring asphalt is sometimes specified by the term "crude bitumen". Its viscosity is similar to that of cold molasses while the material obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil boiling at 525 °C is sometimes referred to as "refined bitumen"; the Canadian province of Alberta has most of the world's reserves of natural asphalt in the Athabasca oil sands, which cover 142,000 square kilometres, an area larger than England. The word "asphalt" is derived from the late Middle English, in turn from French asphalte, based on Late Latin asphalton, the latinisation of the Greek ἄσφαλτος, a word meaning "asphalt/bitumen/pitch", which derives from ἀ-, "without" and σφάλλω, "make fall"; the first use of asphalt by the ancients was in the nature of a cement for securing or joining together various objects, it thus seems that the name itself was expressive of this application. Herodotus mentioned that bitumen was brought to Babylon to build its gigantic fortification wall. From the Greek, the word passed into late Latin, thence into French and English.
In French, the term asphalte is used for occurring asphalt-soaked limestone deposits, for specialised manufactured products with fewer voids or greater bitumen content than the "asphaltic concrete" used to pave roads. The expression "bitumen" originated in the Sanskrit words jatu, meaning "pitch", jatu-krit, meaning "pitch creating" or "pitch producing"; the Latin equivalent is claimed by some to be gwitu-men, by others, subsequently shortened to bitumen, thence passing via French into English. From the same root is derived the Anglo-Saxon word cwidu, the German word Kitt and the old Norse word kvada. In British English, "bitumen" is used instead of "asphalt"; the word "asphalt" is instead used to refer to asphalt concrete, a mixture of construction aggregate and asphalt itself. Bitumen mixed with clay was called "asphaltum", but the term is less used today. In Australian English, the word "asphalt" is used to describe a mix of construction aggregate. "Bitumen" refers to the liquid derived from the heavy-residues from crude oil distillation.
In American English, "asphalt" is equivalent to the British "bitumen". However, "asphalt" is commonly used as a shortened form of "asphalt concrete". In Canadian English, the word "bitumen" is used to refer to the vast Canadian deposits of heavy crude oil, while "asphalt" is used for the oil refinery product. Diluted bitumen is known as "dilbit" in the Canadian petroleum industry, while bitumen "upgraded" to synthetic crude oil is known as "syncrude", syncrude blended with bitumen is called "synbit"."Bitumen" is still the preferred geological term for occurring deposits of the solid or semi-solid form of petroleum. "Bituminous rock" is a form of sandstone impregnated with bitumen. The oil sands of Alberta, Canada are a similar material. Neither of the terms "asphalt" or "bitumen" should be confused with coal tars. Tar is the thick liquid product of the dry distillation and pyrolysis of organic hydrocarbons sourced from vegetation masses, whether fossilized as with coal, or freshly harvested; the majority of bitumen, on the other hand, was formed when vast quantities of organic animal materials were deposited by water and buried hundreds of metres deep at the diagenetic point, where the disorganized fatty hydrocarbon molecules joined together in long chains in the absence of oxygen.
Bitumen occurs as a solid or viscous liquid. It may be mixed in with coal deposits. Bitumen, coal using the Bergius process, can be refined into petrols such as gasoline, bitumen may be distilled into tar, not the other way around; the components of asphalt include four main classes of compounds: Naphthene aromatics, consisting of hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds Polar aromatics, consisting of high molecular weight phenols and carboxylic acids produced by partial oxidation of the material Saturated hydrocarbons. Most natural bitumens a
Naples International Airport
Naples International Airport is the international airport serving Naples, Italy. It is located 3.2 NM north-northeast of the city in the Capodichino district of Naples. The airport has one terminal building: Terminal 1 is used for all the flights; the district of Capodichino – in the area known as "Campo di Marte" – hosted the first flight exhibitions in Naples in 1910. During the First World War, "Campo di Marte" became a military airport in order to defend the town against Austro-Hungarian and German air attacks. During World War II, the airport was used by the United States Army Air Forces extensively during the Italian Campaign, it was used by the Twelfth Air Force as a combat airfield, which stationed the following units at the airport: 79th Fighter Group. When the combat units moved out, Air Transport Command used the airport as a major transshipment hub for cargo, transiting aircraft and personnel for the remainder of the war. Commercial traffic started in 1950. In 1980 GE. S. A. C. was established to administer the airport.
In 1995 GE. S. A. C. Drew up – with BAA assistance – a new master plan, which marked the beginning of a twenty-year development plan. After two years GE. S. A. C. was the first airport management company in Italy to be privatised: BAA acquires 70% of the share package from the City Council and Province of Naples. In 1998 the "Galleria Napoli" opened, a shopping arcade open 365 days a year inside Terminal 1. In 2002 H. R. H. Prince Charles inaugurated the new departure lounge; the airport has a single runway in bituminous concrete, with one taxiway. There is one apron with 9 of which self-maneuvering and the remaining Push Back; the airport is class 4D ICAO and has the classification of military airport opened to commercial air traffic 24 hours/day. The airport management company is responsible for managing the airport and coordinating and control activities of all the private operators present in the airport. Capodichino hosts some aeronautical industrial activities, like Atitech, Alenia Aeronautica, Tecnam Costruzioni Aeronautiche.
Annual passenger statistics from 2000 through 2017: 2000: 4,136,508 passengers 2001: 4,003,001 passengers 2002: 4,132,874 passengers 2003: 4,587,163 passengers 2004: 4,632,388 passengers 2005: 4,588,695 passengers 2006: 5,095,969 passengers 2007: 5,775,838 passengers 2008: 5,642,267 passengers 2009: 5,322,161 passengers 2010: 5,584,114 passengers 2011: 5,768,873 passengers 2012: 5,801,836 passengers 2013: 5,444,422 passengers 2014: 5,960,035 passengers 2015: 6,163,188 passengers 2016: 6,775,988 passengers 2017: 8,577,507 passengers 2018: 9,932,029 passengers Capodichino is accessible from all the city thanks to the exit of the so-called "Tangenziale", an urban highway connecting the city of Naples to metropolitan area and highways to Rome and Caserta and Bari, Benevento and Avellino. Fixed taxi rates are in use for the main destinations within the city limits of Naples from Airport to: Naples Centre, Molo Beverello, Mergellina. Bus line 3S and Alibus, operated by ANM, connect the airport to Piazza Garibaldi and Piazza Municipio.
Distance airport/centre city is about 7 km. The airport is connected to Avellino, Caserta, Sorrento and Serre. On 15 February 1958, a United States Air Force Douglas VC-47A Skytrain, 42-93817, c/n 13771, built as a C-47A-25-DK and upgraded, en route from its home base, Ramstein-Landstuhl Air Base, Germany, to Istanbul, departed Capodichino Airport on a flight to Athens, with 16 servicemen aboard. Following a report 30 minutes after departure when the crew reported en route at 6500 feet and switching to the Rome ATC, nothing further was heard from the flight, which never contacted Rome, nor arrived in Greece. Dense fog over the Ionian Sea and mountainous southern Italy on 17 February impeded search efforts for the missing aircraft. "U. S. authorities did not exclude the possibility the plane might have been forced down in Communist Albania." On 19 February, the burned and scattered wreckage was found high on the rugged slope of Mount Vesuvius at the 3,800-foot level, about 200 feet below the top of the cone of the volcano.
A search plane first spotted the wreckage following "four days of fruitless ground and air search impeded by fog and snow." Patrols of U. S. servicemen, Italian soldiers and carabinieri reached the crash site four hours after it was found, battling though heavy snow, but reported no survivors amongst the 16 on board. They stated. According to a 1958 Associated Press report, "a surgeon said death was instantaneous." There were 15 Air Force officers and men from Ramstein-Landstuhl Air Base, one seaman of the USS Tripoli on board. The report stated that "officials declined to venture a theory on the cause of the crash except that the weather was bad and the pilot, Capt. Martin S. Schwartz of Ashland, had not flown from Capodichino field." U. S. military forces have been present on this site US Navy personnel, since 1951. Among two other facilities in Naples, Naval Support Activ