Xi'an Jiaotong University
Xian Jiaotong University is a Chinese C9 League university with strengths in engineering, technology and public health located in Xian, China. XJTUs twenty schools comprise a comprehensive research university offering programs in nine areas, engineering, economics, art, philosophy, XJTU houses five national key laboratories, four national special laboratories, and two national engineering research centers. XJTUs eight affiliated teaching hospitals include two ranked in Chinas top 100, XJTU began in Shanghai in 1896 as the Nanyang Public School through an imperial edict issued by the Guangxu Emperor, under the Business and Telegraphs Office of the imperial government. Four schools were established, a school, a school of foreign studies, a middle school. The university underwent a series of transitions, in 1904, the Ministry of Commerce took over the school, and in 1905 changed its name to Imperial Polytechnic College of the Commerce Ministry. In 1906, the college was placed under the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, the Republic of China founded the School of Management in 1918.
In 1920, the Government Institute of Technology of the Communications Ministry merged with two colleges and changed its name to Nan Yang College of Chiao Tung. In 1938, the Ministry of Education took over the university, during the anti-Japanese War, the university was moved to the French Concession and in 1940 the state-run branch of Jiaotong University was set up in Chongqing. In 1941, to prevent the Wang puppet government from taking over the university, in 1942, the Wang government took over Shanghai School. So the Education Department of Guomin Government chose Chongqing Branch as the headquarters of Jiaotong University, in 1943, the graduate school was founded. After the anti-Japanese War was won, Chongqing headquarter went back to Shanghai, in 1946, the name of state-run Jiaotong University was recovered. After the Kuomintang were defeated in 1949, a part of the faculty retreated to Taiwan with Chiang Kai-shek and, in 1958, the institution that remained in Shanghai was renamed Chiao Tung University to reflect the fact that all universities under the new socialist state would be public.
In the 1950s, the romanization system was developed in Mainland China. In 1956, following the strategy, the major portion of Jiao Tong University moved to Xian, Shaanxi. In the same year, Xian Jiaotong University was listed as a key university in China, later, it became one of a handful of universities built according to the Seventh Five-Year Plan and Eighth Five-Year Plan. It was one of the universities that entered the construction of 211 project of China, in April 2000, approved by the State Council, Xian Medical University, Shaanxi Institute of Finance and Economics and Xian Jiaotong University were merged and formed the new Xian Jiaotong University. Notable faculty include Yu Mao-Hong, originator of unified strength theory, XJTUs 30,000 strong student body, including 15,000 graduate students, can pursue 84 undergraduate majors,200 masters degree disciplines, and 115 doctoral disciplines. Among these, eight are designated as first-order key disciplines by the Chinese government, XJTUs three campuses cover over 250 hectares
Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of education, it thus concerns the study of how best to teach. Spanning a broad range of practice, its aims range from furthering liberal education to the specifics of vocational education. Instructive strategies are governed by the background knowledge and experience, situation. One example would be the Socratic schools of thought, the teaching of adults, as a specific group, is referred to as andragogy. Johann Friedrich Herbart is the father of the conceptualization of pedagogy, or. Herbarts educational philosophy and pedagogy highlighted the correlation between personal development and the benefits to society. In other words, Herbart proposed that humans become fulfilled once they establish themselves as productive citizens, herbartianism refers to the movement underpinned by Herbarts theoretical perspectives. Referring to the process, Herbart suggested 5 steps as crucial components. Specifically, these 5 steps include, presentation, generalization, Herbart suggests that pedagogy relates to having assumptions as an educator and a specific set of abilities with a deliberate end goal in mind.
The word is a derivative of the Greek παιδαγωγία, from παιδαγωγός, itself a synthesis of ἄγω, I lead and it is pronounced variously, as /ˈpɛdəɡɒdʒi/, /ˈpɛdəɡoʊdʒi/, or /ˈpɛdəɡɒɡi/. Negative connotations of pedantry have sometimes been intended, or taken, doctor of Pedagogy, is awarded honorarily by some US universities to distinguished teachers. The term is used to denote an emphasis in education as a specialty in a field. The word pedagogue means leading children some say to the teacher and other leading them, in Denmark, a pedagogue is a practitioner of pedagogy. The term is used for individuals who occupy jobs in pre-school education in Scandinavia. But a pedagogue can occupy various kinds of jobs, e. g. in retirement homes, prisons and these are often recognized as social pedagogues as they perform on behalf of society. The pedagogues job is usually distinguished from a teachers by primarily focusing on teaching children life-preparing knowledge such as social skills, there is a very big focus on care and well-being of the child.
Many pedagogical institutions practice social inclusion, the pedagogues work consists of supporting the child in their mental and social development. In Denmark all pedagogues are educated at a series of institutes for social educators located in all major cities
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chair presides over meetings of the group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officers duties include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world. In some organizations, this position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator, the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U. S, president George H. W. Bush used chairman for men and chair for women. A1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as chairman, the Chronicle of Higher Education uses chairman for men and chairperson for women.
An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times, the National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using chairperson. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called Mr. Chairman, the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using chair or chairperson, rather than chairman. The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the forms are gaining ground. It advocates using chair to refer both to men and to women, the word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be in the chair and is referred to as the chair. Major dictionaries state that the word derives from chair and man, some authorities, including Riddicks Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus, and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president, note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs
A CubeSat is a type of miniaturized satellite for space research that is made up of multiples of 10×10×11.35 cm cubic units. CubeSats have a mass of no more than 1.33 kilograms per unit, CubeSats are most commonly put in orbit by deployers on the International Space Station, or launched as secondary payloads on a launch vehicle. CubeSats have been built by large and small companies alike, while other projects have been the subject of Kickstarter campaigns, uses typically involve experiments which can be miniaturized or serve purposes such as Earth observation or amateur radio. Scientific experiments with questionable underlying theory may find themselves aboard CubeSats as their low cost could justify riskier experiments, biological research payloads have been flown on several missions, with more planned. Several missions to the Moon and Mars are planned to use CubeSats, some CubeSats became the first national satellites of their countries, being launched by universities, state, or private companies.
The CubeSat reference design was proposed in 1999 by professors Jordi Puig-Suari of California Polytechnic State University, the goal was to enable graduate students to be able to design, build and operate in space a spacecraft with capabilities similar to that of the first spacecraft, Sputnik. The CubeSat, as proposed, did not set out to become a standard, rather. The first CubeSats were launched in June 2003 on a Russian Eurockot, the need for such a small-factor satellite became apparent in 1998 as a result of work done at Stanford Universitys Space System Development Laboratory. At SSDL, students had been working on the OPAL microsatellite since 1995, oPALs mission to deploy daughter-ship picosatellites had resulted in the development of a launcher system that was hopelessly complicated and could only be made to work most of the time. The picosatellites on OPAL were 10. 1×7. 6×2.5 cm, inspired by a 4-inch cubic plastic box used to display Beanie Babies in stores, Twiggs first settled on the larger 10-centimeter cube as a guideline for the new CubeSat concept. A model of a launcher was developed for the new satellite using the pusher plate concept that had been used in the modified OPAL launcher.
Twiggs presented the idea to Puig-Suari in the summer of 1999, Science and Space Applications Program conference in November 1999. The term CubeSat was coined to denote nanosatellites that adhere to the standards described in the CubeSat design specification, Cal Poly published the standard in an effort led by aerospace engineering professor Jordi Puig-Suari. His efforts have focused on CubeSats from educational institutions, the specification does not apply to other cube-like nanosatellites such as the NASA MEPSI nanosatellite, which is slightly larger than a CubeSat. GeneSat-1 was NASAs first fully automated, self-contained biological spaceflight experiment on a satellite of its size and it was the first U. S. launched CubeSat. This work, lead by John Hines, at NASA Ames Research was the catalyst for the entire NASA CubeSat program, the CubeSat specification accomplishes several high-level goals. The main reason for miniaturizing satellites is to reduce the cost of deployment and are suitable for launch in multiples.
The CubeSat design specifically minimizes risk to the rest of the launch vehicle, encapsulation of the launcher–payload interface takes away the amount of work that would previously be required for mating a piggyback satellite with its launcher
Autonomous University of Barcelona
The Autonomous University of Barcelona known as UAB is a public university mostly located in Cerdanyola del Vallès, near the city of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain. As of 2012, it consists of 57 departments in the experimental, life and human sciences, all these centers together award a total of 85 qualifications in the form of first degrees and engineering degrees. Moreover, almost 80 doctoral programs, and more than 80 other postgraduate programs are offered, UAB has more than 40,000 students and more than 3,600 academic and research staff. The UAB is an institution in terms of fostering research. The UAB is considered to be the best University in Spain by the 2012 QS World University Rankings, which ranked the university 176th overall in the world. Its subject rankings were, 144th in Life Sciences & Biomedicine, 92nd in Arts & Humanities, 106th in Natural Sciences, 95th in Social Sciences, most UAB academic activity is done on the Cerdanyola campus. Several centres exist in Manresa, Terrassa, Sant Cugat del Vallès, the UAB campus is about 20 km away from the centre of Barcelona.
It is accessible by air, by train, by coach, the Autonomous University of Barcelona was officially created by legislative decree on June 6,1968. On July 27, a disposition to the decree was added, starting the creation of the Faculty of Letters, the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Science, and the Faculty of Economical Sciences. Around ten weeks later, on October 6, the first course of the Faculty of Letters was inaugurated at Sant Cugat del Vallès Monastery, during the same month, the Faculty of Medicine was created at the Hospital de Sant Pau in Barcelona. In 1969, an agreement was signed for the acquisition of the land where the university campus is currently located, during that year, the Faculty of Sciences and the Faculty of Economical Sciences started running. During the following three years, several faculties and professional schools were created, and the works on the campus land took place. At the end of period, most existing Faculties and Schools are settled in the campus. Two years later, after the approval of the Catalan Statute, during the period between 1985 and 1992, the University underwent several faculty reforms and the creation of several new faculties.
In 1993, the University Ville was inaugurated as a student residence integrated inside the Campus complex, vila Universitària is the residential complex of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, located on its campus, which has 812 apartments with a total accommodation capacity for 2193 persons. Computer Vision Center is a computer vision research center based at UAB and it was established in 1994 by the Generalitat de Catalunya and the UAB. In 2002, the publication of Electronic Letters on Computer Vision. It participated in the Pascal Challenge in 2009, the Port dInformació Científica is a research center and institution at the campus of the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
Frank Aaen is a Danish economist and Member of Parliament for Enhedslisten. On 15 March 2006, he suffered a thrombosis, but was back in the Folketing by April and he has been a member of parliament from 1994 to 2001 and 2005 to the present. Frank Aaen is an educated economist and holds a degree in economics from Aalborg University which he received in 1985
Hamburg University of Technology
The Hamburg University of Technology is one of the youngest universities in Germany as well as among those who have achieved popularity in a short time. The university was founded in 1978 and in 1982/83 lecturing followed, around 100 senior lecturers/professors and 1,150 members of staff work at the TUHH. With an average of 5,000 students the TUHH offers a ratio of staff to students. It is located in Harburg, a district in the south of Hamburg, instead of traditional faculties, the TUHH has separate administrations for teaching and for research, research is conducted in departments, teaching is divided into schools of study. Scientists from different subjects together in the departments. Curricula are organized by academic speciality, depending on the course of study followed and it was founded in 1998 as a public-private partnership of the Hamburg University of Technology and sponsoring companies. Students graduate with an MBA or Master of Technology Management degree after completion of this course, NIT offers a 2-year double-degree program, Students study a Master of Science in an engineering program of their choice at TUHH and concurrently are taking part in the MBA/MTM program at the NIT.
The idea is to equip not only with technical knowledge. Besides the classical management disciplines, the MBA program includes a training in various soft skills, law. All classes are held in English language, the faculty consists of distinguished professors and industry experts from various universities and companies across the world. TUHH founded the TUHH Technologie GmbH, since 1992 the TuTech has been responsible for technology transfer and advice, for trade fairs and further training, as well as congresses and the initiation of projects. Examples are the Starterzentrum, the local initiation hep, the Gründerrat of the TUHH as well as a course of studies for carriermanagement, young entrepreneurs are accompanied and advised on setting up their own business. In 1994 the TUHH became the pioneer German university in the creation of modular courses, since 1997 nine masters degree courses and a bachelors degree course have been added. The library is not only used internally but as a technical library of the Hamburg region.
Its services are available to citizens who are not students
The krone is the official currency of Denmark and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875. Both the ISO code DKK and currency sign kr. are in use, the former precedes the value. The currency is referred to as the Danish crown in English. Historically, krone coins have been minted in Denmark since the 17th century, one krone is subdivided into 100 øre, the name øre possibly deriving from Latin aureus meaning gold coin. Altogether there are eleven denominations of the krone, with the smallest being the 50 øre coin, formerly there were more øre coins, but those were discontinued due to inflation. The krone is pegged to the euro via the ERM II, the oldest known Danish coin is a penny struck AD 825–840, but the earliest systematic minting produced the so-called korsmønter or cross coins minted by Harald Bluetooth in the late 10th century. Organised minting in Denmark was introduced on a larger scale by Canute the Great in the 1020s, for almost 1,000 years, Danish kings – with a few exceptions – have issued coins with their name, monogram and/or portrait.
Taxes were sometimes imposed via the coinage, e. g. by the substitution of coins handed in by new coins handed out with a lower silver content. Danish coinage was based on the Carolingian silver standard. Periodically, the value of the minted coins was reduced. This was mainly done to generate income for the monarch and/or the state, as a result of the debasement, the public started to lose trust in the respective coins. Danish currency was overhauled several times in attempts to restore public trust in the coins, in 1619 a new currency was introduced in Denmark, the krone. One krone had the value of 1 1/2 Danish Rigsdaler Species accounting for 96 Kroneskillinger, for 144 common Skillings, until the late 18th century, the krone was a denomination equal to 8 mark, a subunit of the Danish rigsdaler. A new krone was introduced as the currency of Denmark in January 1875 and it replaced the rigsdaler at a rate of 2 kroner =1 rigsdaler. This placed the krone on the standard at a rate of 2480 kroner =1 kilogram fine gold.
The latter part of the 18th century and much of the 19th century saw expanding economic activity, banknotes were increasingly used instead of coins. The introduction of the new krone was a result of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, the parties to the union were the three Scandinavian countries, where the name was krone in Denmark and Norway and krona in Sweden, a word which in all three languages literally means crown. The three currencies were on the standard, with the krone/krona defined as 1⁄2480 of a kilogram of pure gold
Tampere University of Technology
Tampere University of Technology is Finlands second-largest university in engineering sciences. The university is located in Hervanta, a suburb of Tampere, the universitys statutory duty is to pursue research and give the highest education in its field. The research, conducted by some 1,800 staff and faculty members, mostly focuses on applied science, located next to the university campus is a Technology Centre Hermia, including a large Nokia research facility. The yearly budget of the university is some 147 million euros, TUT is one of the only two Finnish universities which operate as foundation. Close to 50% of its budget is external funding, according to Times Higher Education, TUT ranks 11th in the world, and 4th in Europe, for industry collaboration. From the late 19th century, Tampere had been the most important industrial center in Finland, the Technical Institute of Tampere had provided engineers for its industries since 1911, but all higher technological education in Finland took place in Helsinki University of Technology.
In the 1950s, the city of Tampere started actively remedying the situation, a few years later, this university changed its name to University of Tampere. The founding of the Tampere University of Technology was one of the steps of the city, the university was founded in 1965 as a branch of Helsinki University of Technology and became an independent university status in 1972. The Student Union of Tampere University of Technology was established alongside the university, as a part of the Finnish university reform, Tampere University of Technology chose to become one of the two Finnish universities operating as foundations in the beginning of 2010. The university hopes that compared to the form of state agency. The university has one Finnish Center of Excellence, the Signal Processing Laboratory, in addition, it participates in two other Finnish Centers of Excellence. Among other things, the university has been developing the worlds first, biodegradable joint implant, yellow laser, in 2014, the researchers of TUT published 1586 papers in peer-reviewed international publications, meaning an average of a more than one article per researcher.
The university has 133 full professors,193 tenured lecturers, and 754 researchers, an international independent team made an assessment of research quality in TUT in 2011. The Assessment Scale was, Outstanding International Level, Very Good International Level, Good International Level, Fair International Level, when comparing the results between different faculties, the results are not comparable as the assessment was done by different group of people for different faculties. Intra-faculty comparisons however can be based on the results. Furthermore, the evaluations were accompanied with the verbal assessments. Overall, the results were mostly in the range of Very Good and Good International Level, the university awards undergraduate degrees of tekniikan kandidaatti (Bachelor of Science in Technology or Architecture, diplomi-insinööri (Master of Science in Technology, and arkkitehti. The recommended time for the completion of degree is five years to complete
AAU CubeSat was a CubeSat built and operated by students from Aalborg University in Denmark. AAU CubeSat was launched on 30 June 2003 from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome on a Russian Rockot rocket, the satellite was alive for two and a half months, during which some data was received on Earth, however, it was never possible to establish a solid communication link. It is thought there was a problem with the on-board transmitter. The aluminum frame was milled from a block to ensure that a strong. There are four rails to allow the satellite to slide in, the four rails are connected by other aluminum pieces. The subsystem circuit boards are screwed onto these pieces, carbon-fiber plates are glued onto the outside of the frame to support the solar panels and attitude control coils. The solar panels and attitude control coils are glued to the plates, AAU CubeSats payload is a CMOS digital camera. It has a resolution of 1.3 megapixels and has a depth of 24 bit. From the satellites 900 km altitude, the camera will capture pictures with a resolution of 120x110 m per pixel, the camera-chip was provided by a company called Devitech which is in Aalborg.
The Copenhagen Optical Group and the group developed the lens system. The structure for the system is made out of titanium. The communications systems on the satellite are composed of a modem, the radio is a SX450 type radio from Wood and Douglas. The modem is a MX909 chip, the satellite is positioned by three coils of wire that generate a magnetic field that interacts with Earths magnetic field. These interactions change the attitude and orientation of the satellite, the sensor array that determines attitude is made up of a magnetometer and a sun sensor. The magnetometer was provided by Honeywell and determines the direction of Earths magnetic field, the sun sensors are planar photo diodes that detect the intensity of incoming sunlight. Mass,1 kg Power, solar panels List of CubeSats AAU CubeSat
AAUSAT-II is the second student-built CubeSat built and operated by students from Aalborg University in Denmark. It was launched 28 April 200805,54 UTC from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in India on a PSLV rocket, the primary purpose of construction of satellites at Aalborg University is to give the students engineering capabilities beyond what is normally achieved within a masters program. Student satellite activities at Aalborg University started in 2003 as a result of AAUs involvement in the first pure Danish research satellite, Ørsted, aAUSAT-IIs predecessor was AAU CubeSat which was constructed in the period 2001-2003 and was launched 30 June 2003. The construction of AAUSAT-II began in 2005, after upgrades to the ground station were completed, fully functional two-way communication were achieved and continued with normal operations until May 2009 after a year of successful operation. In addition AAUSAT-II does receive and acknowledge commands from ground and log files has been requested and received, due to the very high tumbling it has not been possible to decode log files.
Below is a snapshot of the radio communication, on left side is a beacon, next a request for log is issued and AAUSAT-II reply with a transmission of the logfile. Notice the high tumbling rate.425 MHz AFSK & FSK Bit rate, 1200-9600 bit/s AX.25 FM CW TLM List of CubeSats Official homepage Launch campaign homepage