He debuted as an actor in the film Jwar Bhata in 1944 produced by Bombay Talkies. His career has spanned six decades and with over 60 films. Kumar is known for his roles in such as the romantic Andaz, the swashbuckling Aan, the dramatic Devdas, the comical Azaad, the historical Mughal-e-Azam. He is the winner of nine Filmfare Awards and is the first recipient of Filmfare Best Actor Award and he still holds the record for the most number of Filmfare awards won for that category with eight wins. Critics acclaimed him among one of the greatest actors in the history of Hindi cinema, the Government of Pakistan honoured him with its highest civilian honour, the Nishan-e-Imtiaz, in 1997. His father, Lala Ghulam Sarwar, was a landlord and fruit merchant who owned orchards in Peshawar, Dilip Kumar was schooled at Barnes School, Deolali. In the late 1930s, his family relocated to Bombay, around 1940, while still in his teens and after an altercation with his father, Dilip Kumar left home for Pune. With the help of an Iranian cafe owner, and an elderly Anglo-Indian couple, without letting on his family antecedents, he got the job on the merit of his knowledge of good written and spoken English.
He managed to set up a stall at the army club. In 1942, anxious to start some venture to help out his father with finances, he met Dr. Masani at Churchgate Station. Here he met actress Devika Rani, owner of Bombay Talkies, here he met actor Ashok Kumar who was to influence his acting style telling him to act natural. He met Sashadhar Mukherjee, and both these people very close to Kumar over the years. Initially, Kumar helped out in the story-writing and scripting department because of his proficiency in Urdu language. Devika Rani requested to change his name from Yousuf to Dilip Kumar, and cast him in a role for the film Jwar Bhata. Dilip Kumars first film was Jwar Bhata in 1944 which went unnoticed, after a few more unsuccessful films, it was Jugnu in which he starred alongside Noor Jehan that became his first major hit at the box office. His next major hits were the 1948 films Shaheed and Mela and he got his breakthrough role in 1949 with Mehboob Khans Andaz in which he starred alongside Raj Kapoor and Nargis.
Shabnam released that year was another box office hit, Kumar went on to have success in the 1950s with playing leading roles in romantic films like Jogan, Tarana Hulchul Deedar, Uran Khatola, Devdas and Madhumati. These films established his image as the Tragedy King
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of Her Majestys Government in the United Kingdom. The prime minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Monarch, to Parliament, to their political party, the office is one of the Great Offices of State. The current prime minister, Theresa May, leader of the Conservative Party, was appointed by the Queen on 13 July 2016. The position of Prime Minister was not created, it evolved slowly and erratically over three hundred years due to acts of Parliament, political developments, and accidents of history. The office is therefore best understood from a historical perspective, the origins of the position are found in constitutional changes that occurred during the Revolutionary Settlement and the resulting shift of political power from the Sovereign to Parliament. The political position of Prime Minister was enhanced by the development of political parties, the introduction of mass communication. By the start of the 20th century the modern premiership had emerged, prior to 1902, the prime minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons.
However as the power of the aristocracy waned during the 19th century the convention developed that the Prime Minister should always sit in the lower house. As leader of the House of Commons, the Prime Ministers authority was further enhanced by the Parliament Act of 1911 which marginalised the influence of the House of Lords in the law-making process. The Prime Minister is ex officio First Lord of the Treasury, certain privileges, such as residency of 10 Downing Street, are accorded to Prime Ministers by virtue of their position as First Lord of the Treasury. As the Head of Her Majestys Government the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet, in addition the Prime Minister leads a major political party and generally commands a majority in the House of Commons. As such the incumbent wields both legislative and executive powers, under the British system there is a unity of powers rather than separation. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister guides the process with the goal of enacting the legislative agenda of their political party.
The Prime Minister acts as the face and voice of Her Majestys Government. The British system of government is based on an uncodified constitution, in 1928, Prime Minister H. H. Asquith described this characteristic of the British constitution in his memoirs, In this country we live. Our constitutional practices do not derive their validity and sanction from any Bill which has received the assent of the King, Lords. They rest on usage, convention, often of slow growth in their early stages, not always uniform, the relationships between the Prime Minister and the Sovereign and Cabinet are defined largely by these unwritten conventions of the constitution. Many of the Prime Ministers executive and legislative powers are actually royal prerogatives which are still vested in the Sovereign
Naushad Ali was an Indian musician. He was the foremost music directors for Hindi films and is known for popularizing the use of classical music in films. His first film as an independent music director was Prem Nagar in 1940 and his first musical success film was Rattan, following it up with 35 silver jubilee hits,12 golden jubilee and 3 diamond jubilee mega successes. Naushad was conferred the Dadasaheb Phalke Award and the Padma Bhushan in 1982 and 1992 respectively for his contribution to the Bollywood film industry, Naushad was born and raised in Lucknow, a city with a long tradition as a center of Indian Muslim culture. His father, Wahid Ali, was a munshi, as a child, Naushad would visit the annual fair at the Deva Sharif in Barabanki,25 km from Lucknow, where all the great qawwals and musicians of those days would perform before the devotees. He studied Hindustani music there under Ustad Ghurbat Ali, Ustad Yusuf Ali, Ustad Babban Saheb, as a lad, he joined a junior theatrical club and was appointed the clubs music maestro for their theatrical presentations.
He used to watch silent films at the Royal theatre in Lucknow, theatre owners would hire a team of musicians to play the tabla, harmonium and violin. The musicians would watch the film first, make notes, finalize the scales required, when the show began in the evening, they would sit in front of the screen and play music for the scenes. This was a way to be entertained and learn music at the same time. It made him grasp the nuances required in composing a films music score. In time Naushad formed his own Windsor Music Entertainers or just Windsor Entertainers, so named because he had seen the word Windsor around Lucknow and it led to the Indian Star Theatrical Company in a theatre at Golaganj colony in Lucknow. He was trained under Laddan Khan until he became capable of working independently as a composer, there he developed the sense to pick rare musical jewels from the folk tradition of Punjab, Rajasthan and Saurashtra during the companys sojourns in those regions. The travelling players got as far as Viramgam in Gujarat, where they discovered penury, even after selling off theatrical props, the company limped back to Lucknow through the kindness of one of Naushads friends.
Naushad had already become a fan in the silent era and then, in 1931, Indian cinema got voice. But his family was strict follower of Islamic diktat of prohibition of music and he ran away to Mumbai in the late 1937 to try his luck as a musician. In Mumbai, he stayed with an acquaintance from Lucknow at Colaba and after a while. He assisted music director Ustad Jhande Khan who was at the peak of his success those days, the producer was a Russian and the studio was at Chembur. The film could not be completed, Naushad was a piano player so he worked as a pianist in composer Ustad Mushtaq Hussains orchestra
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Jadoo (1951 film)
Jadoo is a 1951 Hindi psychosocial melodrama film directed by A. R. Kardar. The story writers were S. N. Bannerji and Jagdish Kanwal, with dialogues by Zahur Raja, the music director was Naushad with lyrics by Shakeel Badayuni. This was the second last film in which Naushad was to be the director for Kardar. After an association of fourteen films, Naushad composed one last time for Kardar in Deewana, prior to this Kardar had already approached composer S. D. Burman for Jeewan Jyoti. A Musical Pictures Ltd. presentation, the film starred Nalini Jaywant, Shyam Kumar, the film revolves around a young singer and dancer, who is involved with crooks, but falls in love with a police constable, Pritam. The plot of the film was inspired from The Loves of Carmen, directed by Charles Vidor, Sundari, a hot-tempered young woman makes her living as a stage dancer and singer. She appears to lead a trouble-free, fun amoral life, when the two meet, they fall in love. Sundari is arrested for a brawl where she attacks a woman, Pritam lets her escape, but gets into trouble with his superior.
Sundari steps forward and asks Pritam to be forgiven, Pritam soon finds out that Sundari is in fact a member of a gang of thieves. Their leader Rahu who is in jail at present, considers Sundari hi property, Pritam gets involved in the shady dealings along with Sundari and he is soon hunted by the police. The film ends with Pritam shooting Sundari, nd getting shot by the polie himself, Nalini Jaywant Suresh Shyam Kumar Ramesh Sharda Amanullah E. Billimoria Krishna Kumar Nawab Amir Banu Music was composed by Naushad and the lyricist was Shakeel Badayuni. Church music was used for score in Jadoo as well as for Dastan. The singers were Mohammed Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar, Shamshad Begum, Jadoo at the Internet Movie Database
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Attlee was the first person to hold the office of Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, serving under Winston Churchill in the wartime coalition government. He went on to lead the Labour Party to an election victory in summer 1945. One of only a handful of Labour frontbenchers to retain his seat in the defeat of 1931. In 1935 he became the Leader of the Party, at first advocating pacificism and appeasement, he reversed his position and by 1938 became a strong critic of Neville Chamberlains attempts to appease Adolf Hitler. He took Labour into the Churchill war ministry in 1940, initially serving as Lord Privy Seal, he was appointed Deputy Prime Minister in 1942. With victory in Europe in May 1945, the government was dissolved. Attlee led Labour to win a majority in the ensuing 1945 general election two months later. Within this context, his government undertook the nationalisation of public utilities and major industries, Attlee himself had little interest in economic matters but this settlement was broadly accepted by all parties for three decades.
Foreign policy was the domain of Ernest Bevin, but Attlee took special interest in India. He supervised the process by which India was partitioned into India and he arranged the independence of Burma, and Ceylon. His government ended the British Mandates of Palestine and Jordan, from 1947 he and Bevin pushed the United States to take a more vigorous role in the emerging Cold War against Soviet Communism. When the budgetary crisis forced Britain out of Greece in 1947 he called on Washington to counter the Communists with the Truman Doctrine and he avidly supported the Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe with American money. In 1949, he promoted the NATO military alliance against the Soviet bloc and he sent British troops to fight in the Malayan Emergency in 1948 and sent the RAF to participate in the Berlin Airlift. He commissioned an independent nuclear deterrent for the UK and he used 13,000 troops and passed special legislation to promptly end the London dock strike in 1949. After leading Labour to a victory in the 1950 general election.
Attlee was narrowly defeated by the Conservatives under Churchill in the 1951 general election and he continued as Labour leader but had lost his effectiveness by then. He retired after losing the 1955 general election and was elevated to the House of Lords, in public, Attlee was modest and unassuming, he was ineffective at public relations and lacked charisma. His strengths emerged behind the scenes, especially in committees where his depth of knowledge, quiet demeanour, objectivity and he saw himself as spokesman on behalf of his entire party and successfully kept its multiple factions in harness
Errol Leslie Flynn was an Australian-born actor who achieved fame in Hollywood after 1935. He was known for his romantic roles in Hollywood films, as well as frequent partnerships with Olivia De Havilland. Errol Leslie Flynn was born in a suburb of Hobart and his mother was born Lily Mary Young, but shortly after marrying Theodore at St. Johns Church of England, Sydney, on 23 January 1909, she changed her first name to Marelle. Flynn described his mothers family as seafaring folk and this appears to be where his lifelong interest in boats, both of his parents were native-born Australians of Irish and Scottish descent. Despite Flynns claims, the evidence indicates that he was not descended from any of the Bounty mutineers and his formal education ended with his expulsion from Shore for theft, and, he claimed, for a sexual encounter with the schools laundress. He spent the five years oscillating between the New Guinea frontier territory and Sydney. In January 1931, he engaged to Naomi Campbell-Dibbs, the youngest daughter of Mr and Mrs R Campbell-Dibbs of Temora and Bowral NSW.
Chauvel was looking for someone to play the role of Fletcher Christian, there are different stories how Errol Flynn was cast. According to one, Chauvel saw his picture in an article about a wreck involving Flynn. The most popular account is that he was discovered by cast member John Warwick, the film was not a strong success at the box office, but it was the lead role and seemed to ignite Flynns interest in acting. In late 1933 he returned to Britain to pursue a career in acting, Northampton is home to an art-house cinema named after him, the Errol Flynn Filmhouse. He performed at the 1934 Malvern Festival and in Glasgow, in 1934 Flynn was dismissed from Northampton Rep. after he threw a female stage manager down a stairwell. Asher cast him as the lead in Murder at Monte Carlo, the movie was not widely seen ), but Asher was enthusiastic about Flynns performance and cabled Warner Bros in Hollywood, recommending him for a contract. Executives agreed, and Flynn was sent out to Los Angeles, on the ship from London, Flynn met Lili Damita, an actress five years his senior whose contacts proved valuable when Flynn arrived in Los Angeles.
Warner Bros publicity described him as an Irish leading man of the London stage and his first appearance was a small role in The Case of the Curious Bride. Flynn had two scenes, one as a corpse and one in flashback and his next part was slightly bigger, in Dont Bet on Blondes, a B-picture screwball comedy. Warner Bros were preparing a big budget movie, Captain Blood, based on the novel by Rafael Sabatini. They originally intended to cast Robert Donat but he turned down the role, Warners considered a number of other actors, including Leslie Howard and conducted screen tests of those they had under contract, such as Flynn
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
In movie industry terminology usage, a sound track is an audio recording created or used in film production or post-production. Initially the dialogue, sound effects, and music in a film each has its own track, and these are mixed together to make what is called the composite track. A dubbing track is created when films are dubbed into another language. This is known as a M & E track containing all sound elements minus dialogue which is supplied by the foreign distributor in the native language of its territory. The contraction soundtrack came into public consciousness with the advent of so-called soundtrack albums in the late 1940s and these phrases were soon shortened to just original motion picture soundtrack. More accurately, such recordings are made from a music track, because they usually consist of the isolated music from a film, not the composite track with dialogue. The soundtrack to the 1937 Walt Disney film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first commercially issued film soundtrack.
It was released by RCA Victor Records on multiple 78 RPM discs in January 1938 as Songs from Walt Disneys Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and has since seen numerous expansions and reissues. The first live-action musical film to have a commercially issued soundtrack album was MGM’s 1946 film biography of Show Boat composer Jerome Kern, the album was originally issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records. Only eight selections from the film were included in this first edition of the album, in order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation. Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original, the playback recordings were purposely recorded very dry, otherwise it would come across as too hollow sounding in large movie theatres. This made these albums sound flat and boxy, the phrase is sometimes incorrectly used for Broadway cast recordings. While it is correct in some instances to call a soundtrack a cast recording it is never correct to call a cast recording a soundtrack, contributing to the vagueness of the term are projects such as The Sound of Music Live.
Which was filmed live on the set for an NBC holiday season special first broadcast in 2013, film score albums did not really become popular until the LP era, although a few were issued in 78-rpm albums. Like the 1967 re-release of the film, this version of the score was artificially enhanced for stereo, in recent years, Rhino Records has released a 2-CD set of the complete Gone With the Wind score, restored to its original mono sound. One of the film scores of all time was John Williams music from the movie Star Wars. Many film score albums go out-of-print after the films finish their theatrical runs, in a few rare instances an entire film dialogue track was issued on records. The 1968 Franco Zeffirelli film of Romeo and Juliet was issued as a 4-LP set, as a single LP with musical and dialogue excerpts, and as an album containing only the films musical score
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
The region occupies 19. 31% of Indias land area. Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse, with two ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. The Godavari River, Krishna River, Kaveri and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada and Kochi are the largest urban areas. Majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages, Tamil and Malayalam. During its history, a number of kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history. Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Pandyas, Satavahanas, Rashtrakutas, european countries entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. HDI in the states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states.
Literacy rates in the states are higher than the national average with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing. The fertility rate in South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India, South India known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names. Carnatic derived from Karnād or Karunād meaning high country has associated with South India. Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to 8000 BCE, artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region, the region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia. Trade with Phoenicians, Greeks, Syrians, the region was part of the ancient Silk Road connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West. C. to 14th century A. D. The Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. D.
was the last Indian dynasty that ruled over the region. The Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French, the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in 1857. During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad state, Travancore, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states. After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states, Madras State, Mysore State, Hyderabad State and Travancore-Cochin