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Aarau

Aarau is a town, a municipality, the capital of the northern Swiss canton of Aargau. The town is the capital of the district of Aarau, it is predominantly Protestant. Aarau is situated on the Swiss plateau, in the valley of the Aare, on the river's right bank, at the southern foot of the Jura Mountains, is west of Zürich, 65 kilometres northeast of Bern; the municipality borders directly on the canton of Solothurn to the west. It is the largest town in Aargau. At the beginning of 2010 Rohr became a district of Aarau; the official language of Aarau is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The old city of Aarau is situated on a rocky outcrop at a narrowing of the Aare river valley, at the southern foot of the Jura mountains. Newer districts of the city lie to the south and east of the outcrop, as well as higher up the mountain, in the valley on both sides of the Aare; the neighboring municipalities are Küttigen to the north and Buchs to the east, Suhr to the south-east, Unterentfelden to the south, Eppenberg-Wöschnau and Erlinsbach to the west.

Aarau and the nearby neighboring municipalities have grown together and now form an interconnected agglomeration. The only exception is Unterentfelden whose settlements are divided from Aarau by the extensive forests of Gönhard and Zelgli. Nine-tenths of the city is south of the Aare, one tenth is to the north, it has an area, as of 2006, of 8.9 km2. Of this area, 6.3 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 55.2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The lowest elevation, 365 meters, is found at the banks of the Aar, the highest elevation, at 471 meters, is the Hungerberg on the border with Küttigen. A few artifacts from the Neolithic period were found in Aarau. Near the location of the present train station, the ruins of a settlement from the Bronze Age have been excavated; the Roman road between Salodurum and Vindonissa passed through the area, along the route now covered by the Bahnhofstrasse. In 1976 divers in the Aare found part of a seven-meter wide wooden bridge from the late Roman times.

Aarau was founded around AD 1240 by the counts of Kyburg. Aarau is first mentioned in 1248 as Arowe. Around 1250 it was mentioned as Arowa; however the first mention of a city sized settlement was in 1256. The town was ruled from the "Rore" tower, incorporated into the modern city hall. In 1273 the counts of Kyburg died out. Agnes of Kyburg, who had no male relations, sold the family's lands to King Rudolf I von Habsburg, he granted Aarau its city rights in 1283. In the 14th century the city was expanded in two stages, a second defensive wall was constructed. A deep ditch separated the city from its "suburb. In 1415 Bern invaded lower Aargau with the help of Solothurn. Aarau capitulated after a short resistance, was forced to swear allegiance to the new rulers. In the 16th century, the rights of the lower classes were abolished. In March 1528 the citizens of Aarau allowed the introduction of Protestantism at the urging of the Bernese. A growth in population during the 16th Century led to taller buildings and denser construction methods.

Early forms of industry developed at this time. On 11 August 1712, the Peace of Aarau was signed into effect; this granted each canton the right to choose their own religion thereby ending Catholicism's control. Starting in the early 18th century, the textile industry was established in Aarau. German immigration contributed to the city's favorable conditions, in that they introduced the cotton and silk factories; these educated immigrants were responsible for educational reform and the enlightened, revolutionary spirit that developed in Aarau. On 27 December 1797, the last Tagsatzung of the Old Swiss Confederacy was held in Aarau. Two weeks a French envoy continued to foment the revolutionary opinions of the city; the contrast between a high level of education and a low level of political rights was great in Aarau, the city refused to send troops to defend the Bernese border. By Mid-March 1798 Aarau was occupied by French troops. On 22 March 1798 Aarau was declared the capital of the Helvetic Republic.

It is therefore the first capital of a unified Switzerland. Parliament met in the city hall. On 20 September, the capital was moved to Lucerne. In 1803, Napoleon ordered the fusion of the cantons of Aargau and Fricktal. Aarau was declared the capital of the enlarged canton of Aargau. In 1820 the city wall was torn down, with the exception of the individual towers and gates, the defensive ditches were filled in; the wooden bridge, dating from the Middle Ages, across the Aare was destroyed by floods three times in thirty years, was replaced with a steel suspension bridge in 1851. This was replaced by a concrete bridge in 1952; the city was linked up to the Swiss Central Railway in 1856. The textile industry in Aarau broke down in about 1850 because of the protectionist tariff policies of neighboring states. Other industries had developed by that time to replace it, including the production of mathematical instruments and cement. Beginning in 1900, numerous electrical enterprises developed. By the 1960s, more citizens worked in service industries or for the canton-level government than in manufacturing.

During the 1980s many of the industries left Aarau completely. In 1802 the Canton School was established.

Tim Tolkien

Tim Tolkien is an English sculptor who has designed several monumental sculptures, including the award-winning Sentinel. He has a wood metal sculpture business at Cradley Heath, West Midlands, he is a bass player and member of the band Klangstorm, founded in 1996. Tim is the great-nephew of the writer J. R. R. Tolkien, he went to the Royal Grammar School, High Wycombe. He graduated with a degree in fine art from the University of Reading in 1984. Sentinel is Tolkien's most famous work to date. In 1996, he was appointed by CAN who were awarded the contract to develop public art proposals for the estate using National Lottery money, as an artist in residence to help with regeneration of the Castle Vale estate in Birmingham; the following year, he consulted with residents about an art project for the entrance to the estate. They favoured a sculpture featuring Spitfires, reflecting the area's flying history and the Castle Bromwich Assembly which stood nearby; the large steel and aluminium Sentinel Spitfire sculpture was the result, showing three Spitfires peeling off up into the air in different directions.

It was unveiled on 14 November 2000, near the former factory which built them, by their former test pilot Alex Henshaw. Tolkien sculpted a memorial to the actor Sir Cedric Hardwicke, at the latter's birthplace of Lye, West Midlands, for Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council; the memorial takes the form of a giant filmstrip, the illuminated cut metal panels illustrating scenes from some of Sir Cedric's best-known roles, which include The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Shape of Things to Come, The Ghost of Frankenstein. It was unveiled in November 2005, his proposals for a 20-foot high statue of Treebeard, an Ent from The Lord of the Rings, to be erected on the Green at Moseley, near J. R. R. Tolkien's childhood home in Birmingham, have met with some controversy, but permission for its erection – scheduled for May 2007 – was granted by Birmingham City Council. Tolkien undertook the redesign of Lea Hall railway station, with Eric Klein Velderman. R. R.'s home town, Birmingham. Sentinel Spitfire sculpture Birmingham Post: Tolkien statue plan splits community Lye movie star gets civic honour Klangstorm review archived website Toyah Armour for Toyah Film with Toyah

1977 LPGA Tour

The 1977 LPGA Tour was the 28th season since the LPGA Tour began in 1950. The season ran from February 11 to November 13; the season consisted of 32 official money events. Debbie Austin and Judy Rankin won five each. Rankin led the money list with earnings of $122,890, becoming the first player to win $100,000 in a season. There were six first-time winners in 1977: Debbie Austin, Silvia Bertolaccini, Vivian Brownlee, Bonnie Lauer, Debbie Massey, Hollis Stacy; the tournament results and award winners are listed below. The following table shows all the official money events for the 1977 season. "Date" is the ending date of the tournament. The numbers in parentheses after the winners' names are the number of wins they had on the tour up to and including that event. Majors are shown in bold. LPGA Tour official site 1977 season coverage at golfobserver.com