Aarhus is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality. It is located on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula, in the geographical centre of Denmark, 187 kilometres northwest of Copenhagen and 289 kilometres north of Hamburg, Germany; the inner urban area contains 273,077 inhabitants and the municipal population is 340,421. Aarhus is the central city in Business Region Aarhus and in the East Jutland metropolitan area, which had a total population of 1.378 million in 2016. The history of Aarhus began as a fortified Viking settlement founded in the 8th century and with the first written records stemming from the bishopric seated here from at least 948; the city was founded on the northern shores of a fjord at a natural harbour and the primary driver of growth was for centuries seaborne trade in agricultural products. Market town privileges were granted in 1441, but growth stagnated in the 17th century as the city suffered blockades and bombardments during the Swedish Wars.

In the 19th century it was occupied twice by German troops during the Schleswig Wars but avoided destruction. As the industrial revolution took hold, the city grew to become the second-largest in the country by the 20th century. Today, Aarhus is at the cultural and economic core of the region and the largest centre for trade, services and tourism in Jutland; the city ranks as the 92nd largest city in the European Union, as number 234 among world cities. It is a top 100 conference city in the world. Aarhus is the principal industrial port of the country in terms of container handling and an important trade hub in Kattegat. Major Danish companies have based their headquarters here and people commute for work and leisure from a wide area in Region Midtjylland, it is a centre for research and education in the Nordic countries and home to Aarhus University, Scandinavia's largest university, including Aarhus University Hospital and INCUBA Science Park. Being the Danish city with the youngest demographics, with 48,482 inhabitants aged under 18, Aarhus is the second fastest growing Danish city, with an average growth of 4,500 people per annum since 2008.

Aarhus is known for its musical history. In the 1950s, many jazz clubs sprang up around the city, fuelled by the young population. By the 1960s, the music scene diversified into rock and other genres. In the 1970s and 1980s, Aarhus became the centre for Denmark's rock music, fostering many iconic bands such as Kliché, TV-2 and Gnags. Aarhus is home to the annual eight-day Aarhus Jazz Festival, the SPoT Festival, the NorthSide Festival. In 2017, Aarhus was European Capital of Culture along with Paphos in Cyprus; the name originates from the city's location at the mouth of Aarhus Å. The spelling "Aarhus" is first found in 1406 and became the norm in the 17th century. In Valdemar's Census Book the city was called Arus, in Icelandic it was known as Aros written as Aars, it is a compound of the two words ár, genitive of á, oss. With the Danish spelling reform of 1948, "Aa" was changed to "Å"; some Danish cities resisted the new spelling of their names, notably Aabenraa. Århus city council explicitly embraced the new spelling, as it was thought to enhance an image of progressiveness.

In 2010, the city council voted to change the name from Århus to Aarhus to strengthen the international profile of the city. The renaming came into effect on 1 January 2011. Certain geographically affiliated names have been updated to reflect the name of the city, such as the Aarhus River, changed from Århus Å to Aarhus Å, it is still grammatically correct to write geographical names with the letter Å and local councils are allowed to use the Aa spelling as an alternative. Whichever spelling local authorities choose, most newspapers and public institutions will accept it; some official authorities such as the Danish Language Committee, publisher of the Danish Orthographic Dictionary, still retain Århus as the main name, providing Aarhus as a new, second option, in brackets and some institutions are still using Århus explicitly in their official name, such as the local newsmedia Århus Stiftstidende and the schools Århus Kunstakademi and Århus Statsgymnasium for example. It is notable. "Aa" was used by some major institutions between 1948-2011 as well, such as Aarhus University or the largest local sports club, Aarhus Gymnastikforening, who have never used the "Å"-spelling.

Founded in the early Viking Age, Aarhus is one of the oldest cities in Denmark, along with Ribe and Hedeby. Archaeological evidence under the Aros settlement's defences indicate the site was a town as early as the last quarter of the 8th century earlier than had been supposed. Discoveries after a 2003 archaeological dig unearthed half-buried longhouses, glass pearls and a road dated to the late 700s. Archaeologists have conducted several excavations in the inner city since the 1960s revealing wells, streets and workshops. In the buildings and adjoining archaeological layers, everyday utensils like combs and basic multi-purpose tools from the year 900 have been found; the centre of Aarhus was once a pagan burial site until Aarhus's first church, Holy Trinity Church, a timber structure, was built upon it during the reign of Frode, King of Jutland, around 900. In the 900s an earth rampart for the defence of the early city was constructed, encircling the settlement, much like the defence structures found at Viking ring fortresses elsewhere.

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Women's education in Saudi Arabia

Women's education in Saudi Arabia is, as with many aspects of daily life, organized according to the principles of Islam, the official religion of the country, which puts emphasis on the importance of knowledge and understanding. The religion believes that obtaining knowledge is the only way to gain true understanding of life, as such encourage both males and females to study; the way of practicing Wahhabi Islam has therefore led to segregation in education in Saudi Arabia, in turn has created segregation in political and labor force environments. With the current struggle of social norms and laws, women have made great strides to obtain education in Saudi Arabia; however great these strides may be, there are consequences to the economy from not allowing women to have access to equal education, including potential economic struggle. The first school for girls in Saudi Arabia, called the Dar al-Hanan School, opened in 1956, until few girls had an opportunity to get an education of any kind; the first state-run school was opened in 1960/61.

The first women college in Saudi Arabia was established by the General Presidency for the Education of Girls in 1970. Until 2002 different departments regulated education for males and females, as women's education was controlled through the Department of Religious Guidance while men's education was overseen by the Ministry of Education; the reason the Department of Religious Guidance retained control of education for women was to ensure that the women were educated in accordance with the principles of Islam as interpreted in Saudi Arabia, which traditionally espoused that women take roles that would be considered gender appropriate such as motherhood, teaching, or nursing. According to Natana Delong-Bas, the apparent suppression of women's education by contemporary Wahhabi regimes is due to the adherence to the interpretation of Wahhabi Islam. Mona AlMunajjed explains how within the last 40 years the government has built an educational program, succeeding in increasing school and university enrollment for women.

Improvement in reducing illiteracy rates has been a success in building the educational infrastructure in Saudi Arabia. Over the years basic education has been offered for children, both male and female, has been of high quality. Over the history of women's education in Saudi Arabia, women have received basic literacy and numeracy skills, have completed primary school on time. Male guardians are responsible for making many decisions for women in Saudi Arabia. Women in Saudi Arabia need permission to study; the social norm of guardianship has eliminated many resources and materials that women cannot access for educational purposes. Many women have limited visiting times to public libraries, at which their male guardian would need to be present, and, if there are visiting hours at all to these types of public libraries. Most of the time women are only allowed into libraries specific to women; this causes a huge gap in educational materials women are allowed to obtain. Not much has been written about the Wahhabi Islamic religious establishment's position on women's education.

What is written about is the determined effort to keep the traditional religious values and norms of Saudi Arabian society. Some religious establishments battle against the modern state education system to ensure that traditional social norms are followed. Most of these educational norms root from Wahhabi Islam. In Saudi Arabia, officials may ask women for their male guardians' consent; this can happen when no law or guideline requires such consent. Current practices assume; this can have a huge impact on. One example of how women are checked for guardian consent is in many airports, officials ask women of all ages for written proof that their guardian has allowed them to travel. Many women have to receive consent to travel for educational reasons. Although the government has taken some steps to limit the power of guardians, there is little evidence showing that officials are backing down from guardian consent; the struggle for women's education is an ongoing battle in Saudi Arabia. There is no schooling that allows women to be in the same class.

Segregation of men and women's education has been part of Saudi Arabia's culture for much of the twentieth century. Abdul Aziz, the founder of the Saudi Kingdom and showed his support for women's education. However, though Abdul Aziz supported the cause of education for women, educational resources seem to have been dedicated to boys. Women have struggled to obtain equality at every level of education in Saudi Arabia. At the University level, women are allowed to view lectures given by a male professor through a monitor; these women can choose to ask questions over the telephone. There are, higher enrollment rates allowing for gender equality among school students. Statistics show an increase from 272,054 female enrollments in 1974-75 to 2,121,893 in 2004-05; that is a level increase of 33 percent to 48 percent *wrong percentage* in 30 years. Despite classes and entire schools being segregated, there is a movement in the right direction for enrollments. Women in Saudi Arabia continue to be marginalized to the point of total exclusion from the Saudi workforce.

Saudi Arabia has one of the lowest rates of working women in the world. Women account for 10.7 % of the labor force. In recent years there has been an issue that has intensified the need for a larger labor force, allowing women out of the home and into the economy. There has been integration of women in the workforce, but under religious customs, women continue to be secluded from

Kate Carnell

Anne Katherine Carnell is an Australian businesswoman and former Liberal Party politician, who served as the third Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory from 1995 to 2000. Carnell was born on 30 May 1955, in Queensland, her parents owned a small accounting business. As a teenager she was sent away to recover at Sydney Hospital, she battled the illness for four years. Heading back to Brisbane after her hospitalisation, Carnell returned to her studies and graduated from the University of Queensland in 1976 with a pharmacy degree, she married husband Ian Carnell in July 1977 and together they moved to Canberra, arriving August 1977. She bought her own pharmacy business in Red Hill in 1981, she owned and managed the pharmacy until 2000. She was the inaugural chair of the ACT Branch of the Australian Pharmacy Guild, serving in the position between 1988 and 1994. as well as National Vice-President of the guild between 1990 and 1994. Among other positions she was: Chairman of the Canberra and Southern District Pharmacists Company Ltd, Vice-President of the Retail Industry and Training Council, ACT, Councillor at the Australian Institute of Pharmacy Management, Member of the ACT Board of Health, a Member of the Pharmacy Restructuring Authority.

Carnell joined the Liberal Party in 1991 and was elected to the second ACT Legislative Assembly in 1992. She became Leader of the Opposition in 1993. After winning 7 of 17 seats in the 1995 ACT election, the Liberal Party formed a minority government with Carnell as Chief Minister; the government was re-elected in the 1998 election. She held the portfolios of Minister for Health and Community Care, Minister Responsible for Multicultural and International Affairs, Minister for Business and Employment and Minister for Business and the Arts; the Carnell Government was criticised following the death of twelve-year-old Katie Bender, when the de-commissioned Royal Canberra Hospital was imploded on 13 July 1997 to make way for the National Museum of Australia. Bender died when she was struck by a one kilogram fragment of steel, thrown about 430 metres across Lake Burley Griffin by the force of the explosion; the Coroner cleared Carnell as Chief Minister of any personal responsibility. The Coroner did find in his report that the Government had turned the implosion into a'public circus' and that this was with the approval of the Chief Minister.

The public was invited by the Government to attend and witness the event, resulting in the largest crowd in Canberra's history, in excess of 100,000. The Coroner found that the Government had been cavalier in its attitude to the warnings from a health union about the possible dangers of some aspects of the proposed implosion; the Coroner summarised that, "the evidence on this topic leads me to conclude that Carnell was poorly briefed and advised on this subject matter. The quality of the reply to the HSUA was sacrificed in the interests of speed and expediency". In October 2000, Carnell resigned, pre-empting a no-confidence motion in relation to cost over-runs in the Bruce Stadium redevelopment project; the project had a $27.3 million budget, of which $12.3 million was provided for by the ACT government and $15 million was to be sourced from the private sector. However, the project cost $82 million, was funded by the government. An ACT Auditor-General's review found that the project's $27.3 million cost estimate had not undergone proper assessment, review or analysis.

The review found that while private financing had been included in the project budget, no funds had been offered or provided by the private sector. Carnell resigned as Chief Minister on 17 October 2000, before the no-confidence motion was moved against her, she was replaced as Chief Minister by Gary Humphries. Reflecting on the end of her career in 2012, Carnell told media that she took ministerial responsibility for breaches of the Financial Management Act related to the Bruce Stadium redevelopment because it had occurred in her portfolio though the breaches happened without her knowledge. Carnell told reporters that interpretation of ministerial responsibility in the Legislative Assembly had become "really different", comparing her downfall to current events surrounding former Chief Minister Katy Gallagher, cleared of ministerial responsibility for data-tampering in her health portfolio. After resigning her post as the Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, Carnell has worked in a variety of positions.

She made a successful bid for election to the National Roads and Motorists' Association board in August 2001. Carnell resigned her role as NRMA director in 2002, she was appointed chairperson of General Practice Education and Training Ltd by the health minister Michael Wooldridge in 2001, re-appointed by Woolridge's successor Tony Abbott in 2004. She spent three years as executive director of the National Association of Forest Industries. Between 2006 and 2008 Carnell was the chief executive officer at the Australian General Practice Network. In 2008 Carnell was appointed as the CEO of the Australian Grocery Council, she was the CEO of the non-profit organisation, from 2012 to 2014. Since March, 2016, Carnell was the inaugural Australian Small Business and Family Enterprise Ombudsman, she was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia in the Australia Day Honours list of 2006, for her services and contributions to the Australian Capital Territory. On 29 July 2007, nearly a decade after her first marriage dissolved and her long-term partner, Ray Kiley, married at a ceremony conducted at Old