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Aaron

Aaron was a prophet, high priest, the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions. Knowledge of Aaron, along with his brother Moses, comes from religious texts, such as the Bible and Quran; the Hebrew Bible relates that, unlike Moses, who grew up in the Egyptian royal court and his elder sister Miriam remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt. When Moses first confronted the Egyptian king about the Israelites, Aaron served as his brother's spokesman to the Pharaoh. Part of the Law that Moses received from God at Sinai granted Aaron the priesthood for himself and his male descendants, he became the first High Priest of the Israelites. Aaron died before the Israelites crossed the North Jordan river and he was buried on Mount Hor. Aaron is mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible. According to the Book of Exodus, Aaron first functioned as Moses' assistant; because Moses complained that he could not speak well, God appointed Aaron as Moses' "prophet". At the command of Moses, he let his rod turn into a snake.

He stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first three plagues. After that, Moses tended to speak for himself. During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron was not always active. At the battle with Amalek, he was chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the "rod of God"; when the revelation was given to Moses at biblical Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses on the way to the summit. While Joshua went with Moses to the top, however and Hur remained below to look after the people. From here on in Exodus and Numbers, Joshua appears in the role of Moses' assistant while Aaron functions instead as the first high priest; the books of Exodus and Numbers maintain that Aaron received from God a monopoly over the priesthood for himself and his male descendants. The family of Aaron had the exclusive right and responsibility to make offerings on the altar to Yahweh; the rest of his tribe, the Levites, were given subordinate responsibilities within the sanctuary.

Moses anointed and consecrated Aaron and his sons to the priesthood, arrayed them in the robes of office. He related to them God's detailed instructions for performing their duties while the rest of the Israelites listened. Aaron and his successors as high priest were given control over the Urim and Thummim by which the will of God could be determined. God commissioned the Aaronide priests to distinguish the holy from the common and the clean from the unclean, to teach the divine laws to the Israelites; the priests were commissioned to bless the people. When Aaron completed the altar offerings for the first time and, with Moses, "blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people: And there came a fire out from before the LORD, consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat when all the people saw, they shouted, fell on their faces". In this way, the institution of the Aaronide priesthood was established. In books of the Hebrew Bible and his kin are not mentioned often except in literature dating to the Babylonian captivity and later.

The books of Judges and Kings mention priests and Levites, but do not mention the Aaronides in particular. The Book of Ezekiel, which devotes much attention to priestly matters, calls the priestly upper class the Zadokites after one of King David's priests, it does reflect a two-tier priesthood with the Levites in subordinate position. A two-tier hierarchy of Aaronides and Levites appears in Ezra and Chronicles; as a result, many historians think that Aaronide families did not control the priesthood in pre-exilic Israel. What is clear is that high priests claiming Aaronide descent dominated the Second Temple period. Most scholars think the Torah reached its final form early in this period, which may account for Aaron's prominence in Exodus and Numbers. Aaron plays a leading role in several stories of conflicts during Israel's wilderness wanderings. During the prolonged absence of Moses on Mount Sinai, the people provoked Aaron to make a golden calf.. This incident nearly caused God to destroy the Israelites.

Moses intervened, but led the loyal Levites in executing many of the culprits. Aaron, escaped punishment for his role in the affair, because of the intercession of Moses according to Deuteronomy 9:20. Retellings of this story always excuse Aaron for his role. For example, in rabbinic sources and in the Quran, Aaron was not the idol-maker and upon Moses' return begged his pardon because he felt mortally threatened by the Israelites. On the day of Aaron's consecration, his oldest sons and Abihu, were burned up by divine fire because they offered "strange" incense. Most interpreters think this story reflects a conflict between priestly families some time in Israel's past. Others argue that the story shows what can happen if the priests do not follow God's instructions given through Moses; the Torah depicts the siblings, Moses and Miriam, as the leaders of Israel after the Exodus, a view reflected in the biblical Book of Micah. Numbers 12, reports that on one occasion and Miriam complained about Moses' exclusive claim to be the LORD's prophet.

Their presumption was rebuffed by God who affirmed Moses' uniqueness as t

Melchior Lotter

Lotter was the last name of a family of German printers, intimately connected with the Reformation. The founder of the family was Melchior Lotter, the elder, born at Aue, well-known at Leipzig as early as 1491, he published missals, breviaries, a Persius, Horatii Epistolæ, Luther Tessaradecos Consolatoria pro Laborantibus. His relations with the Reformation are not clear, but he seems to have been a sympathizer. An innovation by the elder Lotter was his use of Roman letters for Latin, reserving the Gothic types for German, his son was named Melchior, which has resulted in some bibliographical confusion. Melchior, the younger, is best known for printing Martin Luther's Bible, Das Neue Testament, the impressions of 1523 and 1524 of the Old Testament, transferred afterward to Hans Lufft, he published many other German writings of Luther. Only a little less important was his bringing a Greek font to Wittenberg, thus giving Melanchthon the means to carry on classes in Greek; when he returned to Leipzig, about 1525, Lotter carried on his father's business.

J. Franck, in Allegemeine deutsche Biographie, v. xix This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead

Siege of Rome (537–538)

The First Siege of Rome during the Gothic War lasted for a year and nine days, from 2 March 537 to 12 March 538. The city was besieged by the Ostrogothic army under their king Vitiges; the siege was the first major encounter between the forces of the two opponents, played a decisive role in the subsequent development of the war. With northern Africa back in Roman hands after the successful Vandalic War, Emperor Justinian I turned his sights on Italy, with the old capital, the city of Rome. In the late 5th century, the peninsula had come under the control of the Ostrogoths, although they continued to acknowledge the Empire's suzerainty, had established a independent kingdom. However, after the death of its founder, the able Theodoric the Great, in 526, Italy descended into turmoil. Justinian took advantage of this to intervene in the affairs of the Ostrogoth state. In 535, the Roman general Mundus invaded Dalmatia, Belisarius, with an army of 7,500 men, captured Sicily with ease. From there, in June next year, he crossed over to Italy at Rhegium.

After a twenty-day siege, the Romans sacked Naples in early November. After the fall of Naples, the Goths, who were enraged with the inactivity of their king, gathered in council and elected Vitiges as their new king. Theodahad, who fled from Rome to Ravenna, was murdered by an agent of Vitiges on the way. In the meantime, Vitiges held a council at Rome, where it was decided not to seek immediate confrontation with Belisarius, but to wait until the main army, stationed in the north, was assembled. Vitiges departed Rome for Ravenna, leaving a 4,000 strong garrison to secure the city; the citizens of Rome decisively supported Belisarius, and, in the light of the brutal sack of Naples, were unwilling to support the risks of a siege. So, a delegation on behalf of Pope Silverius and eminent citizens was sent to Belisarius; the Ostrogoth garrison realized that, with the population hostile, their position was untenable. Thus, on December 9, 536 AD, Belisarius entered Rome through the Asinarian Gate at the head of 5,000 troops, while the Ostrogoth garrison was leaving the city through the Flaminian Gate and headed north towards Ravenna.

After 60 years, Rome was once again in Roman hands. Belisarius, with his small force, was unable to continue his march northwards towards Ravenna, since the Ostrogoth forces vastly outnumbered his own. Instead, he settled in Rome, he set up his headquarters on the Pincian Hill, in the north of the city, started repairing the walls of the city. A ditch was dug out on the outer side, the fort of the Mausoleum of Hadrian strengthened, a chain was drawn across the Tiber, a number of citizens conscripted and stores of supplies set up; the populace of the city, aware that the siege they were trying to escape was becoming inevitable, started showing signs of discontent. The Ostrogoth army marched on Rome, gained passage over the River Anio at the Salarian Bridge, where the defending Romans abandoned their fortifications and fled; the next day, the Romans were saved from disaster when Belisarius, unaware of his forces' flight, proceeded towards the bridge with a detachment of his bucellarii. Finding the Goths in possession of the fortified bridge and his escort became engaged in a fierce fight, suffered great casualties before extricating themselves.

Rome was too large for the Goths to encircle. So they set up seven camps, overlooking the main gates and access routes to the city, in order to starve it out. Six of them were east of the river, one on the western side, on the Campus Neronis, near the Vatican; this left the southern side of the city open. The Goths proceeded to block the aqueducts that were supplying the city with its water, necessary both for drinking and for operating the gristmills; the mills were those situated on the Janiculum, provided most of the bread for the city. Although Belisarius was able to counter the latter problem by building floating mills on the stream of the Tiber, the hardships for the citizenry grew daily. Perceiving this discontent, Vitiges tried to achieve the surrender of the city by promising the Roman army free passage, but Belisarius refused the offer, telling his foe: Soon after the rejection of his proposals, Vitiges unleashed a massive assault on the city, his engineers had constructed four great siege towers, which now began to be moved towards the city's northern walls, near the Salarian Gate, by teams of oxen.

Procopius describes what happened next: The reason for Belisarius' outburst was at first unclear, but as the Goths approached the moat, he drew forth his bow and shot, one after another, three Ostrogoth riders. The soldiers on the walls started to shout in celebration. Belisarius revealed his thought, as he ordered his archers to concentrate their fire on the exposed oxen, which the Goths had so thoughtlessly brought within bowshot distance from the walls; the oxen were dispatched and the four towers were left there, before the walls. Vitiges left a large force to keep the defenders occupied, attacked the walls to the southeast, in the area of the Praenestine Gate, known as the Vivarium, where the fortifications were lower. A simultaneous attack was carried out in the western side, at the Mausoleum of Hadrian and the Cornelian Gate. There the fighting was fierce. After a hard fight, the Goths were driven off, but the situation at the Vivarium was grave; the defenders, under Bessas and Peranius, were being hard pressed, sent to Belisarius for help.

Belisarius came. As so

5th Parachute Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 5th Parachute Brigade was an airborne forces formation of brigade strength, raised by the British Army during the Second World War. Created during 1943, the brigade was assigned to the 6th Airborne Division, serving alongside the 3rd Parachute Brigade and the 6th Airlanding Brigade; the brigade first saw action in the British airborne landings on D-Day Operation Tonga, where it was responsible for capturing bridges over the Caen Canal and the River Orne in Operation Deadstick. The brigade remained in Normandy until September 1944, by which time it had advanced to the mouth of the River Seine, its next engagement was in reaction to the surprise German offensive in the Ardennes, the Battle of the Bulge. This was followed by the last Allied airborne mission of the war. After this, the brigade advanced across Germany, reaching the Baltic Sea by the end of fighting in the European theatre; the brigade was sent to India as the division's advance party, but the war ended before it could begin operations.

Instead the brigade became involved in disarming the Japanese forces in Malaya and Singapore, to restore British sovereignty. Its last operation was in Java; the brigade rejoined the 6th Airborne Division, serving in Palestine, but was disbanded immediately afterwards. Impressed by the success of German airborne operations during the Battle of France in May–June 1940, the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, directed the War Office to investigate the possibility of creating a force of 5,000 parachute troops; as a result, on 22 June 1940, No. 2 Commando assumed parachute duties, on 21 November was re-designated the 11th Special Air Service Battalion, with a parachute and glider wing. This became the 1st Parachute Battalion. On 21 June 1940 the Central Landing Establishment was formed at Ringway airfield near Manchester. Although tasked with training parachute troops, it was directed to investigate the use of gliders to transport troops into battle. At the same time, the Ministry of Aircraft Production contracted General Aircraft Ltd to design and produce a glider for this purpose.

The result was the General Aircraft Hotspur, an aircraft capable of transporting eight soldiers, used for both assault and training purposes. The success of the first British airborne raid, Operation Colossus, prompted the War Office to expand the airborne force through the creation of the Parachute Regiment, to develop plans to convert several infantry battalions into parachute and glider battalions. On 31 May 1941, a joint Army and RAF memorandum was approved by the Chiefs-of-Staff and Winston Churchill. On 23 April 1943 the War Office authorised the formation of a second airborne division, which would be numbered the 6th Airborne Division. Under its command the division would have the existing 3rd Parachute Brigade, along with two airlanding battalions transferred from the 1st Airborne Division to form the nucleus of the new 6th Airlanding Brigade. To fill out the division, a new parachute brigade was raised on 1 July by the redesignation of the 72nd Independent Infantry Brigade. Numbered the 5th Parachute Brigade, it was commanded by Brigadier Edwin Flavell, but on 5 July he was given command of the Airborne Forces Depot, Brigadier Nigel Poett took over the brigade.

In 1945, while the brigade was serving in the Far East, the brigade's last commander, Brigadier Kenneth Darling, took over from Poett. The parachute battalions in the brigade were the experienced 7th, transferred from the 3rd Parachute Brigade, two new parachute battalions, the 12th Parachute Battalion and the 13th; these were standard line infantry converted to parachute duties, had to undergo airborne forces selection and training at the Airborne Forces Deport. On formation, each battalion had an establishment of 556 men in three rifle companies; each platoon had one of each per section. The only heavy weapons in the battalions were a 3 inch mortar platoon and a Vickers machine gun platoon. By 1944 a headquarters or support company was added to the battalion, comprising five platoons: motor transport, mortar, machine-gun and anti-tank; this company had eight 3 inch mortars, four Vickers machine guns, ten PIAT anti-tank projectors. The brigade was supported by the 4th Airlanding Anti-Tank Battery from the Royal Artillery.

This battery had three troops, equipped with four Ordnance QF 6 pounders each, provided the brigade's only anti-tank guns. In the war, the battery was increased to five troops, three of them retaining the 6 pounder, while the other two had four Ordnance QF 17 pounders each. While the 6 pounder could fit inside the Horsa glider, the size and weight of the 17 pounder and its Morris C8 tractor unit required the larger Hamilcar glider; the 591st Parachute Squadron, Royal Engineers. And the 225th Field Ambulance of the Royal Army Medical Corps completed the brigade formation.'D' Company, commanded by Major John Howard, from the 2nd Battalion of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, of 6th Airlanding Brigade served with the brigade for a one off mission in Normandy. At the end of the war, while serving in the Far East, the pathfinders of the 22nd Independent Parachute Company, the Parachute Platoon from the Light Composite Company, Royal Army Service Corps, were attached to the brigade.

From June to December 1943, the brigade

Barra

Barra is an island in the Outer Hebrides and the second southernmost inhabited island there, after the adjacent island of Vatersay to which it is connected by a short causeway. The island is named for Saint Finbarr of Cork. In 2011, the population was 1,174. Gaelic is spoken, at the 2011 Census, there were 761 Gaelic speakers. In common with the rest of the Western Isles, Barra is formed from the oldest rocks in Britain, the Lewisian gneiss which dates from the Archaean eon; some of the gneiss in the east of the island is noted as being pyroxene-bearing. Layered textures or foliation in this metamorphic rock is around 30° to the east or northeast. Palaeoproterozoic age metadiorites and metatonalites forming a part of the East Barra Meta-igneous Complex occur around Castlebay as they do on the neighbouring islands of Vatersay and Flodday. A few metabasic dykes intrude the gneiss in the east; the island is traversed by a handful of normal faults running WNW-ESE and by west-facing thrust faults bringing nappes of gneiss from the east.

Blown sand masks the bedrock around Allisdale as it does west of Barra airport. Peat deposits are mapped across Beinn Sgurabhal in the north of the island; the Isle of Barra is 60 km2 in area, 11 miles long and 6 miles wide. A single-track road, the A888, runs around the coast of the southern part of the island following the flattest land and serving the many coastal settlements; the interior of the island here is uninhabited. The west and north of the island has white sandy beaches consisting of sand created from marine shells adjoining the grassed machair, while the south east side has numerous rocky inlets. To the north a sandy peninsula runs to Eoligarry; the main village is Castlebay in a sheltered bay, where Kisimul Castle sits on a small islet not far from shore. This is the main harbour. A smaller medieval tower house, Dun Mhic Leoid, is in the middle of Loch St Clare on the west side of the island at Tangasdale; the highest elevation on the island is Heaval, near the top of, a prominent white marble statue of the Madonna and Child, called "Our Lady of the Sea", erected during the Marian year of 1954.

The predominant faith on the island is Catholicism and the Catholic church dedicated to Our Lady of the Sea is apparent to those arriving at Castlebay. Other places of interest on the island include a ruined church and museum at Cille Bharra, a number of Iron Age brochs such as those at Dùn Chuidhir and An Dùn Bàn, a range of other Iron Age and structures which have been excavated and recorded. Barra is connected by a modern causeway to the smaller island of Vatersay, population 90. During the construction of a road in the 1990s, the discovery of a near-complete pottery beaker dating from 2500BC established that there has been a human presence on Barra since the neolithic era; as well as pottery, a number of stone remains were found, including a neolithic "work platform", which complement the several standing stones scattered around the island. In the hills to the north of Borve, there is a large chambered cairn, sited in a prominent position. Beyond the main island, a Bronze Age cemetery can be found on Vatersay, as well as an Iron Age broch.

Remains of Bronze Age burials and Iron Age roundhouses were discovered in sand dunes, near the hamlet of Allasdale, following storms in 2007. Occupation of Barra continued during the Iron Age, as evidenced by the discovery of a wheelhouse from the end of the period, re-occupied between the 3rd and 4th centuries, again in the 7th and 8th centuries. Whoever the occupants were, they were followed in the 9th century by viking settlers, who gave the island at least part of its name; the latter is derived from two elements: Barr and Old Norse ey. Barr may represent the Gaelic personal name Finnbarr. Or it could represent the Old Norse elements berr or barr, or the Celtic element *barr. According to the ancient Grettis saga, the first viking to arrive was named Omund the Wooden-Leg; the Vikings established the Kingdom of the Isles including Barra. Following Norwegian unification, the Kingdom of the Isles became a crown dependency of the Norwegian king. Malcolm III of Scotland acknowledged in writing that they were not Scottish, king Edgar quitclaimed any residual doubts.

In the north of Barra, from this period survived a gravestone, on which a Celtic cross is present on one side, runic inscriptions on the other. However, in the mid 12th century, Somerled, a Norse-Gael of uncertain origin, launched a coup, which made Suðreyjar independent. Following his death, Norwegian authority was nominally restored, but in practice the kingdom was divided between Somerled's heirs, the dynasty that Somerled had deposed. Clann Ruaidhrí, a branch of Somerled's heirs, ruled Barra, as well as Uist, Eigg, Rùm, the Rough Bounds, Bute and northern Jura. In the 13th century, despite Edgar's quitclaim, Scottish forces attempted to conquer parts of Suðreyjar, culminating in the indecisive Battle of Largs. In 1266, the matter was settled by the Treaty of Perth, which transferred the whole of Suðreyjar to Scotland, in exchange for a large sum of money; the Treaty expressly preserved the status of the rulers of Suðreyjar.

Trippy

Trippy is a social and mobile friend-sourced tool launched in September 2011 founded by technology entrepreneur J. R. Johnson. Who founded Lunch.com, OneTime.com and VirtualTourist, acquired by Expedia in 2008. Trippy aims to simplify and improve travel planning through what they call "friend-sourcing." The app ties into users' social networks, such as Facebook, to discover which friends and contacts have visited the considered destination—whether it be that they’ve checked-in, worked, or studied there. Through one-click recommendations and Facebook-style commenting, Trippy lets friends suggest what hotels and destinations would be a good fit; the startup offers an auto-complete tool to pull up what you’re looking for — from a database of locations. Users can add places they’re considering so that friends can comment on the itinerary, offering feedback in Facebook-style comment feeds. After debuting a private beta in September 2011 as a Battlefield Finalist at TechCrunch Disrupt, Trippy launched the open beta of its friend-sourced solution for travel content in October 2011.

On November 15, 2011, Trippy announced its first round of seed funding, equaling $1.75M, co-led by Sequoia Capital and True Ventures. SV Angel participated, along with individuals including Rob Solomon, Tim Ferriss, Brian Lee, Gil Ebaz, Brandee Barker, Chase Jarvis, Randi Zuckerberg, Jason Mraz, Rachel Zoe, as well as others; the company announced. Official website