Abacá, binomial name Musa textilis, is a species of banana native to the Philippines, grown as a commercial crop in the Philippines and Costa Rica. The plant known as Manila hemp, has great economic importance, being harvested for its fiber called Manila hemp, extracted from the leaf-stems. Abacá is the traditional source of lustrous fiber hand-loomed into various indigenous textiles in the Philippines like t'nalak, as well as colonial-era sheer luxury fabrics known as nipis, they are the source of fibers for sinamay, a loosely woven stiff material used for textiles as well as in traditional Philippine millinery. The plant grows to 13–22 feet, averages about 12 feet; the fiber was used for making twines and ropes. It is classified as a hard fiber, along with coir and sisal; the abacá plant is stoloniferous, meaning that the plant produces runners or shoots along the ground that root at each segment. Cutting and transplanting rooted runners is the primary technique for creating new plants, since seed growth is slower.
Abacá has pseudostem about 6 -- 15 inches in diameter. The leaf stalks are expanded at the base to form sheaths that are wrapped together to form the pseudostem. There are from 12 to 25 leaves, dark green on the top and pale green on the underside, sometimes with large brown patches, they are oblong in shape with a deltoid base. They grow in succession; the petioles grow to at least 1 foot in length. When the plant is mature, the flower stalk grows up inside the pseudostem; the male flower has each about 1.5 inches long. The leaf sheaths contain the valuable fiber. After harvesting, the coarse fibers range in length from 6–12 feet long, they are composed of cellulose and pectin. The fruit, inedible and is seen as harvesting occurs before the plant fruits, grows to about 2–3 inches in length and 1 inch in diameter, it has black turbinate seeds. The abacá plant belongs to Musaceae, its scientific name is Musa textilis. Within the genus Musa, it is placed in section Callimusa, members of which have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.
Before synthetic textiles came into use, M. textilis was a major source of high quality fiber: soft and fine. Ancestors of the modern abacá are thought to have originated from the Eastern Philippines where there is significant rainfall throughout the year. Wild varieties of abacá can still be found in the interior forests of Catanduanes Island, away from cultivated areas. Today, Catanduanes has many other modern kinds of abacá. For many years, breeders from various research institutions have made the cultivated varieties of Catanduanes Island more competitive in local and international markets; this results in the optimum production of the island which had a consistent highest production throughout the archipelago. Europeans first came into contact with Abacá fibre when Magellan made land in the Philippines in 1521, as the natives were cultivating it and utilizing it in bulk for textiles already. By 1897, the Philippines were exporting 100,000 tons of abacá, it was one of the three biggest cash crops, along with tobacco and sugar.
In fact, from 1850 through the end of the 19th century, sugar or abacá alternated with each other as the biggest export crop of the Philippines. This 19th-century trade was predominantly with the United States and the making of ropes was done in New England, although in time the rope-making was moved back to the Philippines. Excluding the Philippines, abacá was first cultivated on a large scale in Sumatra in 1925 under the Dutch, who had observed its cultivation in the Philippines for cordage since the nineteenth century, followed up by plantings in Central America in 1929 sponsored by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, it was transplanted into India and Guam. Commercial planting began in 1930 in British North Borneo. In the early 1900s, a train running from Danao to Argao would transport Philippine abacá from the plantations to Cebu city for export; the train and tracks were destroyed during the Second world war, however the Abaca plantations continue and are now transported to Cebu by road.
After the war, the U. S. Department of Agriculture started production in Panama, Costa Rica and Guatemala. Today, abacá is produced in the Philippines and Ecuador; the Philippines produces between 85% and 95% of the world's abacá, the production employs 1.5 million people. Production has declined because of virus diseases. Due to its strength, it is the strongest of the natural fibers, it is used by the paper industry for such specialty uses such as tea bags and decorative papers. It can be used to make handcrafts such as bags, carpets and furniture. Abacá rope is durable and resistant to salt water damage, allowing its use in hawsers, ship's lines and fishing nets. A 1 inch rope can require 4 metric tons to break. Abacá fiber was once used for rope, but this application is now of minor significance. Lupis is the finest quality of abacá. Sinamay is woven chiefly from abacá; the inner fibers are used in the making of hats, including the "Manila hats," hammock
Georg Holzer is an Austrian Slavist and Indo-Europeanist. After graduating in Slavic Studies and Indo-European Studies at the University of Vienna, he earned his doctorate in 1982. Thereafter he started a three-year appointment as a lecturer for German language at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Zagreb. Since 1997 he has been an associate professor at the Institute for Slavic Studies at the University of Vienna, he occasionally teaches at the universities of Zagreb and Zadar. Holzer is the author of over 50 scientific articles. In 1995, Holzer devised a new theory about the state of the Proto-Slavic language around 600 AD. After initial skepticism, the far-reaching statements on a narrow empirical basis have been recognized in comparative Slavistics. Holzer is the author of the article Urslawisch published in the Lexikon der Sprachen des europäischen Ostens; this is part of the plan of the Austrian Ministry of Science since 2000. The Encyclopedia of the European East has been published, in Klagenfurt.
Holzer directs the ongoing research project started in January 2001: The language of the medieval Slavs in Austria, conducted by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, with research assistant Angela Bergermayer. As a result of this project a dictionary of medieval Slavic words and glosses will be published, based on toponomastic material covering the territory of Austria. Entlehnungen aus einer bisher unbekannten indogermanischen Sprache im Urslavischen und Urbaltischen. Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1989, ISBN 3-7001-1552-0 Das Erschließen unbelegter Sprachen. Zu den theoretischen Grundlagen der genetischen Linguistik. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main u.a. 1996, ISBN 3-631-49372-X Die Slaven im Erlaftal. Eine Namenlandschaft in Niederösterreich. Editor Anton Eggendorfer and Willibald Rosner, NÖ Inst. für Landeskunde, Sankt Pölten 2001 ISBN 3-85006-135-3 Rekonstruowanie języków niepoświadczonych. Pod redakcją Wacława Waleckiego. Przekład Jolanta Krzysztoforska-Doschek. Collegium Columbinum, Cracow 2001, ISBN 83-87553-37-9 Historische Grammatik des Kroatischen.
Einleitung und Lautgeschichte der Standardsprache, Peter Lang 2007, Frankfurt am main, ISBN 978-3-631-56119-5 Georg Holzer in the German National Library catalogue Georg Holzer at the Vienna University Urslawisch - Georg Holzer's article on Proto-Slavic in the Enzyklopädie des Europäischen Ostens, Klagenfurt 2002 Complete bibliography
Walter Horace Kofi-Sackey was a Ghanaian lawyer and a politician. He was a solicitor and ministerial secretary for Works in the Busia government. Walter was born on 2 September 1932, he was educated at the Accra Academy from 1947 to 1950. He proceeded to Achimota College from 1950 to 1952 for his sixth form education, he continued at the London School of Economics, a constituent college of the University of London from 1954 to 1957. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 24 June 1958 and the Ghana bar on 24 July 1958, he entered private lagal practice that same year. He practised in Kumasi, he was a member of the Ashanti Bar Association and became president of the association. In 1969, he was elected as a member of parliament for Bantama a constituency in the Ashanti Region of Ghana on the ticket of the Progress Party, he contested with Bonsu Osei-Tutu of the National Alliance of Liberals and Samuel Kwabena Danso of the United Nationalist Party. That same year he was appointed deputy minister for Works.
He served in that position until 1972. As was the norm of every military government that inherited power through a coup d'état, he and other top officials of the erstwhile Progress Party were arrested without trial and detained for fifteen months. A ban was formally placed on all political parties and political activities on 16 January 1972, three days after the coup d'état. A committee was set up to investigate the assets of top officials of the party of which he was included on 9 February 1972; the adverse findings levelled against him and other party members by the committee were revoked by a review tribunal in 1979. He and some members of the party namely, he married Mrs. Valerie Sackey in 1957, she was head of the Castle Information Bureau during the PNDC era. Valerie Sackey was a teacher at Opoku Ware School. Together they had three children. List of MPs elected in the 1969 Ghanaian parliamentary election Busia government
Tyler Perry Studios is an American film production studio in Atlanta, Georgia founded by actor and playwright Tyler Perry in 2006. In 2019, Perry celebrated the grand opening of his newest Atlanta studio location. Tyler Perry Studios is the largest film production studio in the United States, established Perry as the first African-American to outright own a major film production studio. Through 34th Street Films, a production arm of Tyler Perry Studios, Perry guides the work of other filmmakers. In 2018, Perry sold; the previous studio location occupied two former Delta Air Lines affiliated buildings in the Greenbriar area of southwest Atlanta, included 200,000 square feet of sets and office space. Tyler Perry Studios is a strong resource for Atlanta's robust economy; the company advertises for film and crew positions at its southwest Atlanta location. Perry has full ownership of his movies, Lions Gate Entertainment serves as his distributor for all of his films, his first movie, Diary of a Mad Black Woman, produced on a budget of $5.5 million, became an unexpected commercial success prompting widespread discussion among industry watchers about whether middle-class African-Americans were not being addressed by mainstream Hollywood movies.
Its final gross box office receipts were $50.6 million, although it was critically panned scoring only 16 percent approval rating on the website Rotten Tomatoes. On its opening weekend, February 24, 2006, Perry's film version of Madea's Family Reunion opened at #1 with $30.3 million. The film grossed $65 million and, like Diary all of it in the United States; the film was jump-started by an hour-long appearance by Perry and his co-stars on The Oprah Winfrey Show. His next project for Lions Gate, Daddy's Little Girls, starring Gabrielle Union and Idris Elba was released in the U. S. on February 14, 2007. It grossed over $31 million. Perry wrote, directed and starred in his next movie, Why Did I Get Married?, released on October 12, 2007. It opened as the top-grossing movie in its first weekend, it is loosely based on the play which Perry wrote in 2004. Filming began March 5, 2007, in Whistler, British Columbia, Vancouver Atlanta, where Perry opened his own studio. Janet Jackson, Sharon Leal, Jill Scott, Tasha Smith appear in the film.
Perry's 2008 film, Meet the Browns, released on March 21, opened at #2 with a $20,082,809 weekend gross. The Family That Preys opened on September 12, 2008, grossed over $35.1 million as of October. Madea Goes to Jail opened at #1 on February 20, 2009, grossing $41 million and becoming his largest opening to date; this was Perry's seventh film with Lions Gate Entertainment. On May 1, 2012, a four-alarm fire engulfed portions of the studio complex, causing the partial collapse of one building. Less than three months another fire broke out on the roof of another building on the morning of August 27, 2012. On November 20, 2019, it hosted the MSNBC and Washington Post 2020 Democratic Party presidential debate on the Oprah Winfrey sound stage, it hosted Miss Universe 2019 on December 8. Before moving to its first southwest Atlanta location in 2008, the studios used the former studio space at 99 Krog Street in Inman Park on the BeltLine in central Atlanta. Perry had purchased the land from Atlanta Stage Works in 2006 for a reported $7 million.
The studios were converted into the Krog Street Market. In 2019, Tyler Perry Studios moved into 330 acres of the former Fort McPherson complex in southwest Atlanta; the 330-acre studio has 50,000 square feet of the site dedicated to standing permanent sets, including a replica of a luxury hotel lobby, a White House replica, a 16,000-square-foot mansion, a mock cheap hotel, a trailer park set, a real 1950s-style diner, relocated from a town 100 miles away. Official website
IKVM. NET is an implementation of Java for the Microsoft. NET Framework. IKVM is free software, distributed under a permissive free software licence; the original developer, Jeroen Frijters discontinued work on IKVM in 2015. In 2018, Windward Studios forked IKVM. Net to continue development on the open-sourced IKVM. IKVM. NET includes the following components: A Java Virtual Machine implemented in. NET A. NET implementation of the Java class libraries A tool. NET IL. Tools that enable Java and. NET interoperabilityWith IKVM. NET you can run compiled Java code directly on Microsoft. NET or Mono; the bytecode is executed. This is in contrast to J#. J# is a Java syntax on the. NET framework, whereas IKVM. NET is a Java framework running on top of. NET's framework. Jeroen Frijters was the main contributor to IKVM. NET, he is Technical Director of Sumatra Software, based in the Netherlands. The "IKVM" portion of the name is a play on "JVM" in which the author "just took the two letters adjacent to the J"; as of June 2007, the machine supports Java 1.6.
AWT and Swing are supported. IKVM uses OpenJDK as its class library. IKVM has limited support for Abstract Window Toolkit. For this reason, it cannot run ImageJ and other apps that depend on AWT. Implementing AWT in IKVM. NET is a low priority. IKVM 8 Implements Java 8. Free Java implementations J# Official website IKVM. NET weblog IKVM. NET wiki
Inside is a Québécois film directed by Michel Jetté and released in 2002, about a young man's time in a penitentiary. It is based on Léo Lévesque's collection of prison stories Contes en coup de poing; the film was classified 13+ in Québec and 18+ in the United Kingdom, features Emmanuel Auger, Karyne Lemieux and David Boutin. 19-year-old Claude begins a 10-year sentence at a penitentiary. Rousseau, a member of Tarzan's gang, attempts to rape him soon after his entry, but Claude is not a novice at fighting and dissuades him from further attempts. Tarzan puts out a contract to assassinate him; the leader of a rival gang, Zizi Grenier, reveals the contract to Claude and offers his protection if Claude will fight for him. The two gangs hold public boxing events to avoid all-out war, with disputed territories put on the line. Claude accepts, but over the course of these duels learns of the power games playing out in the background. Claude becomes friends with Jacques, he tells them about his love for a girl named Karine and their misadventures which led to his imprisonment, including petty theft, car theft, drug use, an attempted armed robbery gone wrong, involuntary manslaughter during their escape.
Lucia is found dead in her cell. Claude quits the fights, befriends a man known as "the Phantom". After Claude is raped with the secret backing of the prison administration, the Phantom helps him escape by illicitly getting him into the prison workshop, hiding him in a locker shipped out of the prison. Claude rejoins Karine in her drug business, but on a delivery comes across one of the gang members who aided in his rape, arranges a meeting, murders him, he is returned to the penitentiary, to learn of Jacques' suicide. Soon after he is subdued when he learns that he has AIDS, at the Phantom's request is transferred to a minimum-security prison; the movie ends with a letter from the Phantom to Karine informing her of his transfer. Emmanuel Auger as Claude Karyne Lemieux as Karine David Boutin as Jacques le Schizo Paul Dion as L'Fantôme Dominic Darceuil as Lucia Sylvain Beauchamps as Tarzan Louis-David Morasse as Rousseau Jean-Robert Bourdage as Voix du trou Gabriel Bélanger as La Comete Blonde Deano Clavet as Piston Christopher Dyson as Claude Stéphane Ouellet as Boxeur Jean-Sébastien Poirier as Zizi Grenier Michèle Péloquin as Agente Correctionnel - CO Inside has received mixed reviews from critics and audiences.
Scott Foundas of Variety on 16 October 2002 stated a "by-the-numbers prison drama", with a "litany of prison-movie cliches" and it "won’t travel far outside its native borders". Efilmcritic.com said a "gritty, uncompromising prison drama", "it's hard to watch, but it rings so true that it can't be dismissed" and "not a feel-good picture, but it is well made". Charles-Henri Ramond from filmsquebec.com stated it was a "dark and violent social drama". It won an award at the Nickel Independent Film Festival in Newfoundland. Histoire de pen on IMDb Synopsis at Radio-Canada