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The Hebrew term Abaddon, its Greek equivalent Apollyon appear in the Bible as both a place of destruction and an angel of the abyss. In the Hebrew Bible, abaddon is used with reference to a bottomless pit appearing alongside the place שְׁאוֹל, meaning the realm of the dead. In the New Testament Book of Revelation, an angel called Abaddon is described as the king of an army of locusts; the Latin Vulgate and the Douay Rheims Bible have additional notes, "in Latin Exterminans", exterminans being the Latin word for "destroyer". According to the Brown Driver Briggs lexicon, the Hebrew abaddon is an intensive form of the Semitic root and verb stem ’ăḇāḏ "perish", which occurs 184 times in the Hebrew Bible; the Septuagint, an early Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, renders "Abaddon" as "ἀ απώλεια", while the Greek Apollyon is the active participle of apollymi, "to destroy". The term abaddon appears six times in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible. Job 26:6: the grave is naked before Him, destruction has no covering.

Job 28:22: destruction and death say. Job 31:12: it is a fire that consumes to destruction. Psalm 88:11: Shall thy loving kindness be declared in the grave or thy faithfulness in destruction? Proverbs 15:11: Hell and Destruction are before the LORD, how much more the hearts of the children of men? Proverbs 27:20: Hell and Destruction are never full; the text of the Thanksgiving Hymns—which was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls—tells of "the Sheol of Abaddon" and of the "torrents of Belial burst into Abaddon". The Biblical Antiquities mentions Abaddon as a place rather than an individual. Abaddon is one of the compartments of Gehenna. By extension, it can mean Gehenna. In some legends, Abaddon is identified as a realm where the damned lie in fire and snow, one of the places in Gehenna that Moses visited; the Christian scriptures contain the first known depiction of Abaddon as an individual entity instead of a place. A king, the angel of the bottomless pit. In Revelation 9:11, Abaddon is described as "Destroyer", the angel of the abyss, as the king of a plague of locusts resembling horses with crowned human faces, women's hair, lions' teeth, iron breast-plates, a tail with a scorpion's stinger that torments for five months anyone who does not have the seal of God on their foreheads.

The symbolism of Revelation 9:11 leaves the identity of Abaddon open to interpretation. Protestant commentator Matthew Henry believed Abaddon to be the Antichrist, whereas the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary and Henry H. Halley identified the angel as Satan. In contrast, the Methodist publication The Interpreter's Bible states: "Abaddon, however, is an angel not of Satan but of God, performing his work of destruction at God's bidding", citing the context at Revelation chapter 20, verses 1 through 3. Jehovah's Witnesses cite Revelation 20:1-3 where the angel having "the key of the abyss" is shown to be a representative of God, concluding that "Abaddon" is another name for Jesus after his resurrection. In the 3rd century Acts of Thomas, Abaddon is the name of a demon. Abaddon is given important roles in two sources, a homily entitled "The Enthronement of Abbaton" by pseudo-Timothy of Alexandria, the Apocalypse of Bartholomew. In the homily by Timothy, Abaddon was first named Muriel, had been given the task by God of collecting the earth that would be used in the creation of Adam.

Upon completion of this task, the angel was appointed as a guardian. Everyone, including the angels and corporeal entities feared him. Abbaton was promised. Abaddon is said to have a prominent role in the Last Judgement, as the one who will take the souls to the Valley of Josaphat, he is described in the Apocalypse of Bartholomew as being present in the Tomb of Jesus at the moment of his resurrection. Abaddon in popular culture Hades Metzeger, Bruce M.. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504645-5. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Halley, Henry H.. Halley's Bible Handbook. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House. ISBN 0-310-22479-9. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list MacDonald, William. Believer's Bible Commentary. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers. ISBN 0-8407-1972-8. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list

Loughton and Great Holm

The civil parish of Loughton and Great Holm includes Loughton, Great Holm, the National Bowl and Elfield Park, West Rooksley, Loughton Lodge, Knowlhill. It is bordered by H4 Dansteed Way to the north, V4 Watling Street to the west, a tiny stretch of H8 Standing Way to the south, the West Coast Main Line to the east, it was renamed from Loughton to Loughton and Great Holm in 2013 Loughton is an ancient village and modern district. The village spreads between the modern A5 road, it is to the west of, about 1 mile from, Central Milton Keynes, with pedestrian access to Milton Keynes Central railway station. The original village has now been incorporated into the modern'grid square' of Loughton; however much of the character of the old village remains. To the south-west of Bradwell Road, around The Green there is a cluster of several sixteenth century buildings which constitute the remains of the original parish of Little Loughton. Today Loughton is a residential area but is home to a large Equestrian Centre, in the grounds of which the medieval field pattern and fish pond can still be seen.

The district is bounded by the A5 to the east, H5 Portway to the north, V4 Watling Street to the west and H6 Childs Way to the south. Great Holm is a residential district and contains a high point overlooking much of the central area of Milton Keynes; the MacIntyre Charity which provides support for people with learning disabilities has a care home in Great Holm and a large centre providing a variety of day time activities. They run a popular coffee shop and bakery, open to the public but provides supported employment for people with learning disabilities. Loughton Lodge is a small area of Great Holm next to Loughton'grid square' linked to Loughton by an underpass under which runs the old Bradwell Road and separated from the bulk of Great Holm by Lodge Lake. Loughton Lodge is home to the National Badminton Centre, health club, Girl Guides site and a small gated development of luxury apartments; this district is bordered by H4 Dansteed Way to the north, V4 Watling Street to the west, H5 Portway to the south and the A5 to the east.

Knowlhill is an employment area with a large parkland alongside the A5. Much of this area is a flood plain of the Shenley Brook, contains the "Teardrop Lakes" — small balancing lakes. In the late 1980s, Knowlhill was designated by Milton Keynes Development Corporation as being the industrial part of the "Energy Park" – with the residential part across Watling Street, home to the 1986 Energy World exhibition. All buildings were expected to meet higher standards of energy efficiency than were normal at the time, five exemplar offices were built before 1990 including the headquarters of Royal Mail Parcelforce. In 1990 the rest of the area was unsuccessfully marketed as a single large-scale development opportunity, intended to fund a National Energy Centre through development gain. Although this plan failed, the area retains a strong link with sustainable energy and hosts the main offices for the National Energy Foundation, the Zero Carbon Hub, United Sustainable Energy Agency and the National Home Energy Rating Scheme.

The area contains the head office of the National House Building Council and a testing laboratory set up by the Consumers' Association but subsequently owned by Intertek, as well as lawyers, graphic design companies and warehousing. This district is bordered by H6 Childs Way to the north, V4 Watling Street to the west, H7 Chaffron Way to the south and the A5 to the east; the National Bowl and its associated land is triangular, bordered by H7 Chaffron Way to the north, V4 Watling Street to the west, a tiny stretch of H8 Standing Way to the south, the A5 to the east. The adjacent Elfield Park is a narrow strip of land between the A5 and the railway line, in part a nature studies reserve and in part a general utility space. Official parish council website Official MacIntyre charity website

Gold Dust (Tori Amos album)

Gold Dust is the thirteenth solo studio album by American singer-songwriter Tori Amos, released on October 1, 2012 by Deutsche Grammophon and Mercury Classics. The album is produced by Amos with arrangements by long-time collaborator John Philip Shenale. Inspired by and following in a similar vein as Amos's previous effort, the classical music album Night of Hunters, Gold Dust features some of her released alternative rock and baroque pop songs re-worked in an orchestral setting; the material for Gold Dust, consisting of songs selected by Amos spanning her entire catalogue from Little Earthquakes through Midwinter Graces, was recorded with the Metropole Orchestra, conducted by Jules Buckley. The stimulus to Gold Dust was a concert where Amos performed with the Metropole Orchestra as part of a "Week of the Metropole" series; the concert, performed at the Heineken Music Hall in Amsterdam on October 8, 2010, was the first orchestral concert of Amos's career, set the stage for recording the tracks that would comprise Gold Dust.

The project commemorates the 20th anniversary of the release of her debut solo album Little Earthquakes, as well as the music released since then. The collection has autobiographical leanings, with Amos opting for songs that represent a personal narrative instead of including a string of singles. Of the songs included in the project, Amos said, " a collection of new studio recordings of where they are now and who they have become". Gold Dust consists of songs culled from the 2010 Metropole Orchestra concert. While the original set list from the concert focused on Amos's then-recent holiday album, Midwinter Graces, the focus for Gold Dust shifts with four of the album's 14 tracks from the Little Earthquakes era. In addition, three songs which were not performed during the concert were reworked for orchestra and added to extend the span of the collection over Amos's music catalogue. American Songwriter gave a glowing review of Gold Dust, stating that Amos improves upon original versions of the songs and praising her skills as a musician and tunesmith.

All tracks are written by Tori Amos. Notes Music performed by The Metropole Orkest, conducted by Jules Buckley Arrangements for the Orchestra by John Philip Shenale; each of Amos's solo studio albums is represented on Gold Dust, with the exceptions of To Venus and Back and The Beekeeper. Other albums not represented on Gold Dust are the covers album Strange Little Girls, the classical album Night of Hunters, as well as the pre-fame Y Kant Tori Read album; the chart below lists the peak positions for Gold Dust on various music charts around the world. Tori Amos official website Tori Amos official Facebook page

2013 Fuji GT 300km

The 2013 Fuji GT 300km was the sixth round of the 2013 Super GT season. It took place on September 8, 2013 at the Fuji Speedway in Oyama, Japan. NISMO drivers Ronnie Quintarelli and Masataka Yanagida led the GT500 championship standings by one point over Impul's João Paulo de Oliveira and Tsugio Matsuda, while Team Mugen led the GT300 championship over R&D Sport's Subaru BRZ. A total of 40 cars were entered for the race, all 38 cars that raced at Suzuka were in the Fuji race with their normal 2-driver lineups, while the Tomei Sports Nissan GT-R GT3 returned to the series after missing Suzuka, as did the Dijon Racing Callaway Corvette Z06. R GT3; the #1 MOLA Nissan GT-R was the fastest car in the GT500 class, while the #6 Team LeMans Lexus SC430 was 2nd fastest. In GT300 the #30 apr Nissan GT-R GT3 was fastest from two other Nissan GT-R's, the #3 NDDP Racing in 2nd and the #5 Team Mach in 3rd; the #50 Arnage Aston Martin V12 Vantage GT3 had suspension trouble during the session and only managed 23rd fastest.

Qualifying was held on September 7, 2013. Daiki Sasaki was the fastest driver in the first session for the GT300 cars from Yuhki Nakayama and Katsumasa Chiyo; the team ranked 4th in points, the #52 with Takeshi Tsuchiya driving only managed 16th fastest in the session. In the first session for GT500 cars Kohei Hirate was fastest from Yuji Kunimoto. Neither the NISMO team or the Impul teams, ranked 1st and 2nd in the championship made the second session for the top 8 cars, Yanagida put in a laptime good enough for only 9th place, Oliveira was 14th fastest for Impul. In the second GT300 qualifying session Shinichi Takagi was fastest with a 1:38.773, giving the #55 ARTA Honda CR-Z its second pole position of the season and the third for the Honda CR-Z. Kazuki Hoshino was 2nd fastest in the #3 NDDP Racing Nissan GT-R GT3, 0.425 seconds slower than Takagi's laptime. Hideki Mutoh qualified the championship leading car in 3rd place despite carrying 114 kg of weight ballast from the team's results during the season.

The team that won the 500km race earlier in the season, the #31 apr Toyota Prius was 9th fastest. In the second session for GT500 cars the #38 Team ZENT Cerumo Lexus SC430 with Yuji Tachikawa driving was again fastest in Q2 and gave Tachikawa his 18th pole position in Super GT, his 8th at Fuji Speedway. Tachikawa's lap of a 1:32.548 was 0.272 seconds faster than Andrea Caldarelli in 2nd. Kazuki Nakajima was 6th fastest in the team; the race was held on September 2013, starting at 2:00 pm local time. Kohei Hirate led the field from pole position in GT500 while in GT300 Daiki Sasaki passed Shinichi Takagi for the race lead, the polesitting car having to change its engine before the race. Takagi would drop to fourth place but contact with Björn Wirdheim caused bodywork on the CR-Z to rub on the rear wheels, forcing the team to make a pitstop. On lap 19 Ryo Michigami driving the #32 Nakajima Racing Honda HSV-010 GT had a left-rear tyre puncture while travelling down the main straight and crashed into the guardrail.

With debris scattered over the circuit the safety car was brought out on lap 21. During the safety car all the GT500 teams with the exception of the #24 Kondo Racing Nissan GT-R decided to make their pitstops; the #1 MOLA GT-R managed to get Yuhi Sekiguchi into the lead in the pitstops, from the #17 HSV-010 with Koudai Tsukakoshi driving and Daisuke Ito in the #37 SC430 in 4th, however Sekiguchi was deemed to have been in violation of the restart procedure and were given a drive-through penalty. The #4 GSR Hatsune Miku BMW started 5th in GT300 but were able to take the lead of the cars that had made their pitstop under the safety car; the #100 Team Kunimitsu HSV-010 retired following the restart due to radiator damage, while the #19 Bandoh SC430 retired from steering rod damage due to contact with a GT300 car. Juichi Wakisaka in the #39 SARD SC430 was given a drive-through penalty for a collision with Kazuki Nakajima in the #36 TOM'S SC430. On lap 43 Yuji Tachikawa managed to get the #38 back into the race lead after passing Tsukakoshi and the lead #24 GT-R with Hironobu Yasuda, slowing to make his pitstop.

Tachikawa would hold off Tsukakoshi in the slippery conditions for the remaining 22 laps and win his 15th GT500 race. Nobuteru Taniguchi in the #4 BMW was unchallenged following the safety car, once the cars ahead pitted he was in the lead, won by a margin of over 47 seconds over the #31 apr Toyota Prius. Race result is. GT500 Fastest Lap – Kohei Hirate, #38 Lexus Team Zent Cerumo Lexus SC430 – 1:34.633 GT300 Fastest Lap – Nobuteru Taniguchi, #4 GSR Hatsune Miku BMW Z4 GT3 – 1:41.666 Note: Only the top five positions are included for both GT500 and GT300 classes. Super GT official website

The Dawn of Understanding

The Dawn of Understanding is a lost 1918 American silent Western comedy film produced by The Vitagraph Company of America and directed by David Smith. It stars Bessie Love in the first film of her nine-film contract with Vitagraph, it is based on the short story "The Judgement of Bolinas Plain" by 19th-century Western writer Bret Harte. In 1849, the Silas Prescott and his family travel west to the California gold fields by prairie schooner. Along the difficult journey, his wife dies, they bury her near Ira Beasley's ranch. Beasley becomes enamored of Prescott's daughter Sue, she stays behind to be Beasley's wife, their marriage is one of mutual indifference, Sue grows to resent Beasley. When the circus comes to town, Sue falls for acrobat Jim Wynd. Jim shoots a man in a brawl, hides in the Beasley's barn. Sue discovers him there, they get acquainted, to the point of planning to elope. Sue empties her husband's gun. A mob discovers. Ira, not knowing, shoots at the sheriff at the same time that Jim does.

When Ira is arrested and put on trial for shooting the sheriff, Sue confesses that her husband could not have killed him because his gun was not loaded. Jim is convicted of his crimes. Bessie Love as Sue Prescott George A. Williams as Silas Prescott John Gilbert as Ira Beasley J. Frank Glendon as Jim Wynd George Kunkel as Sheriff Jack Scott Jacob Abrams as Parson Davies Dorothea Wolbert as Mrs. Prescott Exteriors were filmed at the ranch Sunland and in Riverside. Reviews were positive, it was commercially successful; the popularity of the film was seen as a rise in the stardom of Bessie Love. Upon its release, it was shown in some theaters with The Enchanted Barn, which starred Love, as "Bessie Love Day." The Dawn of Understanding on IMDb The Dawn of Understanding at AllMovie The Dawn of Understanding at the British Film Institute The Dawn of Understanding at the American Film Institute Catalog The Dawn of Understanding at the TCM Movie Database

Ultracold atom

Ultracold atoms are atoms that are maintained at temperatures close to 0 kelvin below several tens of microkelvin. At these temperatures the atom's quantum-mechanical properties become important. To reach such low temperatures, a combination of several techniques has to be used. First, atoms are trapped and pre-cooled via laser cooling in a magneto-optical trap. To reach the lowest possible temperature, further cooling is performed using evaporative cooling in a magnetic or optical trap. Several Nobel prizes in physics are related to the development of the techniques to manipulate quantum properties of individual atoms. Experiments with ultracold atoms study a variety of phenomena, including quantum phase transitions, Bose–Einstein condensation, bosonic superfluidity, quantum magnetism, many-body spin dynamics, Efimov states, Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superfluidity and the BEC-BCS crossover; some of these research directions utilize ultracold atom systems as quantum simulators to study the physics of other systems, including the unitary Fermi gas and the Ising and Hubbard models.

Samples of ultracold atoms are prepared through the interactions of a dilute gas with a laser field. Evidence for radiation pressure, force due to light on atoms, was demonstrated independently by Lebedev, Nichols and Hull in 1901. In 1933, Otto Frisch demonstrated the deflection of individual sodium particles by light generated from a sodium lamp; the invention of the laser spurred the development of additional techniques to manipulate atoms with light. Using laser light to cool atoms was first proposed in 1975 by taking advantage of the Doppler effect to make the radiation force on an atom dependent on its velocity, a technique known as Doppler cooling. Similar ideas were proposed to cool samples of trapped ions. Applying Doppler cooling in three dimensions will slow atoms to velocities that are a few cm/s and produce what is known as an optical molasses; the source of neutral atoms for these experiments were thermal ovens which produced atoms at temperatures of a few hundred kelvins. The atoms from these oven sources are moving at hundred of meters per second.

One of the major technical challenges in Doppler cooling was increasing the amount of time an atom can interact with the laser light. This challenge was overcome by the introduction of a Zeeman Slower. A Zeeman Slower uses a spatially varying magnetic field to maintain the relative energy spacing of the atomic transitions involved in Doppler cooling; this increases the amount of time. The development of the first magneto-optical trap by Raab et al. in 1987 was an important step towards the creation of samples of ultracold atoms. Typical temperatures achieved with a MOT are tens to hundreds of microkelvins. In essence, a magneto optical trap confines atoms in space by applying a magnetic field so that lasers not only provide a velocity dependent force but a spatially varying force; the 1997 Nobel prize in physics was awarded for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light and was shared by Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips. Evaporative cooling was used in experimental efforts to reach lower temperatures in an effort to discover a new state of matter predicted by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein known as a Bose–Einstein condensate.

In evaporative cooling, the hottest atoms in a sample are allowed to escape which reduces the average temperature of the sample. The Nobel Prize in 2001 was awarded to Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman for the achievement of Bose–Einstein condensate in dilute gases of alkali atoms, for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates. Ultracold atoms have a variety of applications owing to their unique quantum properties and the great experimental control available in such systems. For instance, ultracold atoms have been proposed as a platform for quantum computation and quantum simulation, accompanied by active experimental research to achieve these goals. Quantum simulation is of great interest in the context of condensed matter physics, where it may provide valuable insights into the properties of interacting quantum systems; the ultracold atoms are used to implement an analogue of the condensed matter system of interest, which can be explored using the tools available in the particular implementation.

Since these tools may differ from those available in the actual condensed matter system, one can thus experimentally probe otherwise inaccessible quantities. Furthermore, ultracold atoms may allow to create exotic states of matter, which cannot otherwise be observed in nature. Ultracold atoms are used in experiments for precision measurements enabled by the low thermal noise and, in some cases, by exploiting quantum mechanics to exceed the standard quantum limit. In addition to potential technical applications, such precision measurements may serve as tests of our current understanding of physics. Bose–Einstein condensate Cold Atom Laboratory Quantum simulator Bloch, Immanuel. "Quantum Gases". Science. 319: 1202–1203. Bibcode:2008Sci...319.1202B. Doi:10.1126/science.1152501. PMID 18309072. Rousseau, Valery. "Pure Mott Phases in Confined Ultracold Atomic Systems". Phys. Rev. Lett. 104: 167201. ArXiv:0909.3543. Bibcode:2010PhRvL.104p7201R. Doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.167201. PMID 20482076