Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Urkiola is a mountain range of the Basque mountains in Biscay near Durango, in the western Basque Country, Spain. The highest mountain in the range is Anboto; the range runs from west to east and forms the water divide between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean basins. It was declared natural park on 29 December 1989 prompted by the Basque government's determination to protect the diversity of wildlife and flora it harbours. In the center of this natural park is a church called Santuario de Urkiola; this is the church of both Saint Antonio Saint Anthony of Padua. It visited Basque churches. Basque mythology is present in this natural park. Tradition holds that a cave perched on eastern side of the Anboto mountain holds the abode of Basque goddess Mari, it is formed by several limestone massifs, from west to east: Sierra de Aramotz Ezkubaratz Mugarra At this point of the range the Urkiolamendi pass breaks through it at a height of 711 m, where a sanctuary was built. Untxillaitz Aitz Txiki Alluitz Anboto To the south of the limestone peaks are two round shaped mounts, called Saibigain and Urkiolamendi.
The entire area is enclosed in the Urkiola Natural Park, created by the Basque government to preserve this rich natural area known as Little Switzerland. The closeness to Bilbao and easy access through Urkiolamendi pass attract many tourists and hikers all year round. There is evidence; some archaeologists found pieces of ceramic in the coast, near the ruins of a Roman village. Above these ruins now exists a Basque village called Forua, a name that comes from "foro". In Mañaria archaeologist have found a lot of evidence that Visigoths used to live in that part of the mountain range; this could happen due to the fights. Some tablets have been found in proof of Christian presence in the valleys. In the Middle Ages pastoral activity was common in the mountains and there were a lot of villages in the valleys. There were no people living on the top of the mountains, but there was a military base on the "Aitz txiki" mountain. There were a lot of churches in Urkiola in the 10th century. One of the most important pieces of evidence of, a letter from the king of Pamplona Nájera Gárcia Sánchez who says that the churches of Durango are allowed.
There are more letters of some abbots of churches like the one, in Abadiano. Urkiola Natural Park Urkiola Natural Park at wikineos
Barakaldo is a municipality located in the Biscay province in the Basque Country. Located on the Left Bank of the Estuary of Bilbao, the city is part of Greater Bilbao with a population as of the 2011 census at 100,061. Barakaldo has an industrial river-port heritage and has undergone significant redevelopment with new commercial and residential areas replacing the once active industrial zones; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica original entry on the town stated: "Pop.: 15,013. Few Spanish towns have developed more than Baracaldo, which nearly doubled its population between 1880 and 1900. During this period many immigrant labourers settled here; the low flat country round Baracaldo is covered with maize, pod fruit and vines". Iron mining formed a large part of Barakaldo's industry; the steel industry, led by Altos Hornos de Vizcaya, had an important presence during the 20th century, until the industrial recession hit the region's economy in the 1980s. In recent decades, the industrial zones surrounding Barakaldo have become less prominent, which can be owed to the shuttering of large companies such as Babcock & Wilcox.
Although several factories remain, areas that were once industrial have been redeveloped into residential properties such as malls and parks. A large exhibition centre; the Bilbao Exhibition Centre has been built on the outskirts of the town. Barakaldo is connected to the rest of the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area by Line 2 of the Metro Bilbao. Four stations are in the city: Gurutzeta/Cruces, Ansio and Bagatza); the Cercanías Bilbao train line has two stations in Barakaldo. BizkaiBus company provides a bus service, with connections to the rest of Biscay. Locally, an urban bus system named. A tram line has been proposed to connect local districts; the main motorway is the A-8 motorway, which goes between Bilbao. It serves as the rest of Spain. A boat ferry service connects Barakaldo to the other side of the Estuary of Bilbao in Erandio. Barakaldo is located 15 kilometres from Bilbao Airport. Population peaked in the 1990s to over 100,300; the decline of local industry decreased the population, in 2002, 95,000 people lived in Barakaldo.
However, a recent increase has sent the population to 100,502 residents. Tourists visit sites in Barakaldo such as the Botanic Garden, the Bilbao Exhibition Centre, the medieval Bridge of Castrexana, some of the city's street sculptures. In July, the town celebrates "Las Fiestas del Carmen," which includes open-air concerts and large fairs. Barakaldo is represented by the Barakaldo Club de Fútbol in Spain's Segunda División B, they play home games at the Estadio Nuevo Lasesarre. A second team, SD Retuerto Sport, plays in Tercera División. Local league teams include Gurutzeta KFT, UD Burtzeña, Pauldarrak FKT, Zuazo C. F. and S. C. D. Dosa-Salesianos. Handball has played a part in Barakaldo's tradition. Now, two teams are present in competitions: Club Balonmano Zuazo Femenino, playing in División de Honor Femenina de Balonmano, Club Balonmano Barakaldo who plays in the Liga ASOBAL. Bizkaia Arena is an indoor arena with a capacity of 18,640, it hosted some games of the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. Asier del Horno, footballer Carlos Sobera, actor David López, cyclist Iñaki Lafuente, footballer Javier Clemente, football manager Javier González Gómez, footballer Javier Otxoa, cyclist Josep Lluís Núñez, president of FC Barcelona between 1978 and 2000 Unai Expósito, footballer Antonio Iturmendi Bañales, politician Barakaldo D.
F. A Mägo de Oz concert DVD filmed in Barakaldo Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baracaldo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 379. Www.i-barakaldo.com La comunidad virtual de Barakaldo Official website BARAKALDO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Ermua is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. In 2014, Ermua had 16,194 inhabitants. Ermua is a town in the Durangaldea comarca of the province of Biscay in northern Spain, it is situated in a steep-sided valley beside a tributary of the Deba River. Because of the steep, irregular terrain, building space is limited, Ermua is one of the most densely populated towns in the Basque country. To the north of Ermua lies the municipality of Mallabia, to the east lies Eibar and to the south lies Zaldibar. Eibar is a larger town which lies just across the provincial border, in the province of Gipuzkoa, the two towns forming a single urban area. Ermua has grown in size during the 1960s and 1970s and acts as a dormitory town to Eibar, both of them being industrial towns. Ermua and Eibar are linked by the N-634 and share a common exit from the Autopista AP-8, the toll road that crosses the Basque Country, connects Bilbao with the French Border.
Ermua and Eibar are connected by the narrow gauge railway that runs from Bilbao to San Sebastián. Historic buildings in Ermua include the Church of Santiago Apóstol, an unusual Renaissance building with a fine bell tower, the Baroque Valdespina Palace, now the Town Hall, the sixteenth century Lobiano Palace. On 10 July 1997, Miguel Ángel Blanco, a town councillor in Ermua, was kidnapped by ETA, the Basque separatist organization. ETA demanded that the Spanish government transfer members of the organization imprisoned outside the Basque Country to prisons in the Basque Country, when the Spanish government did not accede to their demands, their hostage was executed, his kidnapping and death had a great impact on both Spanish and Basque society and sparked the formation of an anti-terrorism organisation, a peace movement known as "Foro de Ermua". It aimed to promote political and civil liberties but was limited in popular appeal, being handicapped by being supported by the Basque elite and Spanish nationalists.
ERMUA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia ERMUA. Football championship – Ermua Libertario
Erandio is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. In 1415, during the War of the Bands, the corregidor, the royally-appointed governor of the Biscayan hermandad, acting on royal orders, siphoned off Biscayan wheat to the Asturias, inciting a rebellion; the Biscayans were defeated at Erandio with the loss of sixty men and the wheat transfers continued. Several annual festivals are celebrated in Erandio. Most of them are fiestas patronales; the local public holiday of the municipality rotates yearly on August 10, August 28 and the corpus Christi day. June 11, Saint Barnabas in Fano / Faoeta. June 13, Saint Anthony of Padua in Martiartu, Goierri. June 29, Saint Peter in Kukularra. July 3, Saint Tryphon in Arriaga. July 10, Saint Christopher in Goierri. Second half of July in Asua. August 10, Saint Lawrence in Astrabudua. August 15, Andra Maria in Erandio Goikoa. August 17 and 18: Saint Mammes in Santimami. August 29, Saint Augustine in Altzaga.
First week of September in Enekuri. Third week of September in Lutxana. Erandio has celebrated a street music festival called Musikale, with music bands marching and playing in the neighbourhoods of Altzaga and Astrabudua. Musikale was conceived in the neighbouring municipality of Leioa. For some years it was held in Leioa, Erandio and Sestao, but the other municipalities dropped it, in 2013 only Erandio organised it. Erandio is connected to other municipalities of Biscay by Bizkaibus bus services and by Line 1 of Metro Bilbao, which has three stations in Erandio, it is connected to Barakaldo by regular fluvial transport over the Estuary of Bilbao. Ramon Rubial, politician. Rafael Eguzkiza, footballer Telmo Zarraonaindia, footballer Luis María Echeberría, footballer Alex Angulo, actor Sendoa Agirre, footballer ERANDIO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Athletic Club commonly known as Athletic, is a professional football club, based in Bilbao, in the Basque Country. They are known as Los Leones. Mammes was an early Christian thrown to the lions by the Romans. Mammes pacified the lions and was made a saint; the club is one of three founding members of the Primera División that have never been relegated from the top division since its inception in 1929, the others being Real Madrid and Barcelona. Athletic have won La Liga on eight occasions, fourth most in the history of the league. In the table of Copa del Rey titles, Athletic is second only to Barcelona; the club has one of the most successful women's teams in Spain, which has won five championships in the Primera División Femenina. The club is known for its cantera policy of bringing young Basque players through the ranks, as well as recruiting players from other Basque clubs like Joseba Etxeberria and Javi Martínez. Athletic's official policy is signing professional players native to or trained in football in the greater Basque Country, which includes Biscay, Gipuzkoa, Álava and Navarre.
Since 1912, Athletic has played with players meeting its own criteria to be deemed as Basque, has been one of the most successful teams in La Liga. This can be seen as a unique case in European football; the club has been praised for promoting home grown players and club loyalty. The Basque rule does not apply to coaching staff however, with several examples of non-Basque coaches both from Spain and abroad having coached the first team. Athletic's main rivals are Real Sociedad, against whom it contests the Basque derby, Real Madrid, due to sporting and political rivalry. At various points in the club's history, further Basque league derbies have been contested against Alavés, Eibar and Osasuna. Athletic is one of only four professional clubs in Spain, not a sports corporation. Football was introduced to Bilbao by two distinct groups with British connections. In the late 19th century, Bilbao was a leading industrial town and attracted many migrant workers, including miners from the north-east of England, shipyard workers from Southampton and Sunderland.
They brought with them the game of football, came together to form Bilbao Football Club. Meanwhile, sons of the Basque educated classes went to Britain to complete their studies, developed an interest in football and on their return began to arrange games with British workers. In 1898, students founded the Athletic Club. In 1901, a meeting held in the Café García established more formal regulations. In 1902, the two clubs formed a combined team, known as Bizcaya, in the first Copa del Rey and won the competition; this led to the eventual merger of the two clubs as Athletic Club in 1903. In the same year, Basque students formed Athletic Club Madrid which evolved into Atlético Madrid; the club itself declares 1898 as its foundation date. The club featured prominently in early Copas del Rey. Following the inaugural win by Club Bizcaya, the newly formed Athletic Bilbao won it again in 1903. In 1904, they were declared winners. In 1907, they revived the name Club Vizcaya after entering a combined team with Union Vizcaino.
After a brief lull, they won again in 1911 and three times in a row between 1914 and 1916. The star was Pichichi, who scored the first goal at the San Mamés stadium in 1913 and a hat-trick in the 1915 cup final; the La Liga top scorer award is named in his honour. Other Basque clubs such as Real Unión, Arenas Club de Getxo and Real Sociedad were founding members of La Liga in 1928 and by 1930 they were joined by CD Alavés; the saying "Con cantera y afición, no hace falta importación", translated as "With home-grown teams and support, there is no need for import", made sense during these early days. In 1921, a new British coach, Fred Pentland, arrived, he revolutionised the way. In 1927, Pentland left Athletic but returned in 1929 and led the club to La Liga/Copa del Rey doubles in 1930 and 1931; the club won the Copa del Rey four times in a row between 1930 and 1933 and they were La Liga runners-up in 1932 and 1933. In 1931, Athletic defeated Barcelona 12 -- the latter's worst-ever defeat. Athletic's success under British coaches continued with William Garbutt.
His first season in Spain was a massive success. He had inherited a talented squad which included strikers Guillermo Bata. Garbutt promoted the young Ángel Zubieta to the first team, a player who at 17 years of age went on to become the youngest to play for the Spanish national team at the time. In the final game of the season, the title was decided when Athletic defeated Oviedo 2–0 at home on 19 April 1936, winning the title just two points clear of Real Madrid. In July 1936, football halted due to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War; the league did not restart until the 1939–40 season. Athletic Club did not win the title again by that time Garbutt had been exiled. In 1941, the club changed its name following a decree issued by Franco; the same year Telmo Zarra made his debut. He
Leioa is a municipality in Biscay, Basque Country, in northern Spain. It is located south of Getxo and Berango delimitating south with Erandio. Today it is part of the Bilbao conurbation, its population stands at 30,400. Leioa has an area of 8.36 square kilometres. The Udondo river constitutes the eastern limit of the municipality. Leioa has its origins in 1526, before which it was part of the "anteiglesia de Erandio", it was a village with no more than 8000 people until the 1960s, when development came its way, as Bilbao expanded. Its population experienced a rapid increase in the 1970s, a more moderate growth afterwards, it has become a part of metropolitan Bilbao. Peruri, Sarriena and Lertutxe. Tellería, Artatzagane and Aldekoane. Artaza, Ikea Mendi, Udondo and Santimami. Pinueta, Txopoeta, Txorierri and Ibaiondo; the municipality of Leioa still retains much of its agricultural past and out of the urban centre many traditional Basque houses can still be seen on little family farms, though rapid development puts their long-term future in question.
The University of the Basque Country has most faculties within this municipality. May 29: “Lamiako maskarada” festivity in Lamiako. June 24: “San Joan Bataiatzailea” festivity in Elexalde. August 24: “San Bartolomé” festivity in Basaez. September 8: “Ntra. Sra. De los Remedios” festivity in Ondiz. May 15: “San Isidro” festivity. August 17: Santi Mami jaiak. September 10: Udondoko jaiak. September 29: San Miguel Txopoetako jaiak. Two consecutive stations of Line 1 of the Metro Bilbao rapid transit system are located in Leioa: Leioa and Lamiako. LEIOA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia http://www.leioa.eu/ Tourism.euskadi.eus Leioa