Abarth & C. S.p. A. is an Italian racing car and road car maker founded by Italo-Austrian Carlo Abarth in 1949. Its logo is a shield with a stylized scorpion on a red background. Abarth & C. S.p. A. is a owned subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p. A. the subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles controlling its European automotive production activities. Carlo Abarth was sporting director of the Cisitalia factory racing team starting in 1947. 1948 saw the financial downfall of Cisitalia, spurred by the investments needed to put the 202 coupé into production. The following year the manufacturer folded, founder Piero Dusio flew to Argentina. Carlo Abarth, funded by Armando Scagliarini, took over Cisitalia's assets and on 31 March 1949 Abarth & C. was founded in Bologna. Carlo's astrological sign, was chosen as the company logo. From the Cisitalia liquidation Abarth obtained five 204 sports cars, a D46 single seater and various spares; the 204s were rechristened Abarth 204 A. Abarth built and raced sports cars developed from the last Cisitalia cars.
In addition to Guido Scagliarini, the "Squadra Abarth" racing team lined up celebrated drivers including Tazio Nuvolari, Franco Cortese and Piero Taruffi. Notably Tazio Nuvolari made his last appearance in racing at the wheel of an Abarth 204 A, winning its class in the Palermo–Monte Pellegrino hillclimb on 10 April 1950. Alongside racing, the company's main activity was producing and selling accessories and performance parts for Fiat, Lancia and Simca cars, like inlet manifolds and silencers. On 9 April 1951 the company's headquarters were moved to Turin. In the 1960s, Abarth was successful in hillclimbing and sports car racing in classes from 850 cc to 2000 cc, competing with Porsche 904 and Ferrari Dino. Hans Herrmann was a factory driver from 1962 until 1965, winning the 500 km Nürburgring in 1963 with Teddy Pilette. Abarth promised Johann Abt. Abt succeeded: of the 30 races he entered, Abt won 29 and finished second once. Abt founded Abt Sportsline. Abarth produced high-performance exhaust pipes, diversifying into tuning kits for road vehicles for Fiat.
A racing exhaust was produced for the 1950s Lambretta models "D" and "LD". Original Abarth LD exhausts are now valuable collectors' items. Reproductions are available. Lambretta held several 125 cc motorcycle land speed records during the 1950s thanks to the exhaust that Abarth developed for them. Abarth helped build sports or racing cars with Porsche and Simca. Carlo sold Abarth to Fiat on 31 July 1971; the acquisition was not made public until 15 October. As Fiat was not interested in the Reparto Corse racing operations, these were taken over by Enzo Osella. Osella obtained cars, spares and drivers, continued the racing activity founding the Osella racing team, thus ended for Abarth the days of sport prototype and hill climb racing. Under Fiat ownership, Abarth became the Fiat Group's racing department, managed by engine designer Aurelio Lampredi. Abarth prepared Fiat's rally cars, including 131 Abarth. In December 1977, in advance of the 1978 racing season, the beforehand competing Abarth and Squadra Corse Lancia factory racing operations were merged by Fiat into a single entity named EASA.
Cesare Fiorio was appointed director. The combined racing department developed the Lancia Beta Montecarlo Turbo Group 5 racing car which won the 1980 World Championship for Makes and the 1981 World Endurance Championship of Makes, it created the Lancia Rally 037 Group B rally car which won for Lancia the 1983 World Manufacturers' Championship). On 1 October 1981, Abarth & C. ceased to exist and was replaced by Fiat Auto Gestione Sportiva, a division of the parent company specialized in the management of racing programmes that would remain in operation through to the end of 1999, when it changed to Fiat Auto Corse S.p. A; some commercial models built by Fiat or its subsidiaries Lancia and Autobianchi were co-branded Abarth, including the Autobianchi A112 Abarth, a lightweight and inexpensive "boy racer". A112 Abarth was introduced with a 58HP engine, soon followed by a 70HP one, a specific "A112 Abarth trophy" was run from 1977 to 1984. In the 1980s, Abarth name was used to mark performance cars, such as the Fiat Ritmo Abarth 125/130 TC.
In 2000s, Fiat used the Abarth brand to designate a trim/model level, as in the Fiat Stilo Abarth. On 1 February 2007 Abarth was re-established as an independent unit with the launch of the current company, Abarth & C. S.p.a. controlled 100% by Fiat Group Automobiles S.p. A. the subsidiary of Fiat S.p. A. dealing with the production and selling of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. The first models launched were the Abarth Grande Punto and the Abarth Grande Punto S2000; the brand is based in part of the old Mirafiori engineering plant. The CEO as of 2011 is Harald Wester. In 2015, Abarth’s parent company was renamed FCA Italy S.p. A. reflecting the incorporation of Fiat S.p. A. into Fiat Chrysler Automobiles that took place in the previous months. In 2007, Abarth collaborated with Yamaha to produce a limited-edition motorcycle, the "Sport Heritage café
Pambelé is a Colombian biographical television series created and developed by 11-11 Films, based on the book El oro y la oscuridad: la vida gloriosa y trágica de Kid Pambelé written by Alberto Salcedo Ramos. It stars Jarlin Martínez as the titular character, it started airing on Colombian broadcast channel RCN Televisión on July 10, 2017, concluded on November 3, 2017; the series follows the history of Colombian boxer Antonio Cervantes. Antonio Cervantes, better known as "The Kid Pambelé", was born on December 23, 1945 in San Basilio de Palenque, played on October 28, 1972 the world boxing title in the Welter Junior category against the champion and everyone's favorite, Alonzo Frizzo. At 27, Antonio was clear. Clinging to his convictions, he fought with all his might and connected an uppercut, knocking out Frizzo and giving Pambelé the title. Antonio Cervantes, played by Jarlin Martínez is a black man, thin, but with muscles marked by his constant training; as a child he had an immense burden on his shoulders and in his youth he was dazzled by his dreams of greatness.
Being the eldest of his brothers, Antonio decided to take care of his family with the money that he obtained by selling cigarettes and shuffling shoes. However, at the expense of his mother's repeated scoldings, it was easier for him to get money in the street fights of the Malecón, where Clemente Roballo, the best of Colombia at the time and discovers "The Kid Pambelé". Jarlin Martínez as Antonio Cervantes María Nela Sinisterra as Carolina Orozco Reyes Laura Vieira as Aurora Valencia Juan Alfonso Baptista as Ezequiel Mercado Iván López as Cristóbal Román Indhira Serrano as Ceferina Reyes Pedro Palacios Mauricio Castillo Mauricio Mejía - Cachao Omar Murillo - Clemente Roballo Juan Carlos Arango - Legata Jorge Monterrosa - Pete Karina Guerra - Noreya Luis Tamayo - Don Pancra Jaisson Jeack - Frizzo Iris Oyola - Yamile Roberto Fernandez Rizo - Diego Monagas Daniella Donado - Freda Javier De Zuani - Nicolas Roche Franártur Duque - Rafito Veleño Angely Gaviria - Julia Cervantes The series premiered as the least seen in Colombia in the evening with a total of 4.5 million viewers.
Rapid onset gender dysphoria is a controversial neologism which describes an alleged mediated subtype of gender dysphoria. Brown University School of Public Health assistant professor Lisa Littman created the term to describe surveyed parents' accounts of their teenage children manifesting symptoms of gender dysphoria and self-identifying as transgender with other children in their peer group. Littman speculated that rapid onset of gender dysphoria could be a "social coping mechanism" for other disorders. ROGD is not recognized by any major professional association, with Littman noting that it is "not a formal mental health diagnosis at this time". Littman published a descriptive study in PLOS One in August 2018. Criticism was voiced by transgender activists, two weeks after publication, PLOS One responded by announcing a post-publication review of the paper. In March 2019, the journal concluded its review and republished Littman's revised and corrected version. On the same day as PLOS One announced its post-publication review, Brown University retracted its press release promoting the study.
The controversy grew as articles and opinion pieces, both critical and supportive, were published in mainstream media discussing concerns about the study's methodology and the validity of its hypotheses, as well as issues of academic freedom. Lisa Littman, an American physician and researcher, coined the term "rapid-onset gender dysphoria" at the outset of her research for a descriptive study titled "Rapid-onset gender dysphoria in adolescents and young adults: A study of parental reports". Littman's medical specialties are in preventive medicine and public health, as well as obstetrics and gynecology, her research interests relate to reproductive health, gender dysphoria and maternal and child health including prematurity and the use of substances in pregnancy. Littman joined the faculty of the Brown University School of Public Health in 2018 as Assistant Professor of the Practice in Behavioral and Social Sciences. Littman became interested in the possible role of "social contagion" in gender dysphoria among young people, conducted a study by surveying around 250 parents recruited from three websites where she had seen parents describe sudden gender transitions in their adolescents.
She presented preliminary results at a 2017 conference, a descriptive study was published in PLOS One in August 2018. Littman's study described cases of a rapid onset of gender dysphoria based on reports by the surveyed parents, along with information, collected about the children's peer group dynamics, social media use, prior mental health issues. Littman speculated that rapid onset of gender dysphoria could be a "social coping mechanism" for other disorders, such as depression and anxiety caused by adolescent trauma. According to coverage in the news section of Science, the study found that "among the young people reported on—83% of whom were designated female at birth—more than one-third had friendship groups in which 50% or more of the youths began to identify as transgender in a similar time frame", which the Science coverage described as "the most explosive of Littman's findings"; the paper was met with a negative reaction from transgender activists who stated that it had been politicized, that there was self-selection bias of the subjects that Littman surveyed, as she only surveyed the parents and not the young people themselves nor the health professionals caring for them.
A critique of the original study's methodology was published in the journal Archives of Sexual Behavior. Responding to negative comments, PLOS One announced two weeks after publication that it would open a post-publication review of the study's methodologies and analyses. In March 2019, PLOS One completed its post-publication review, Littman's corrected version of the paper was published on March 19, 2019. In the journal's blog, PLOS One editor Joerg Heber apologized "to the trans and gender variant community" for the previous review and publication, saying "the study, including its goals and conclusions, were not adequately framed in the published version, that these needed to be corrected." Heber noted that the hypothesized condition of ROGD had "not yet been clinically validated." In a notice of correction prefacing her updated version of the study, Littman stated: he post-publication review identified issues that needed to be addressed to ensure the article meets PLOS ONE's publication criteria.
Given the nature of the issues in this case, the PLOS ONE Editors decided to republish the article, replacing the original version of record with a revised version in which the author has updated the Title, Introduction and Conclusion sections, to address the concerns raised in the editorial reassessment. The Materials and methods section was updated to include new information and more detailed descriptions about recruitment sites and to remove two figures due to copyright restrictions. Other than the addition of a few missing values in Table 13, the Results section is unchanged in the updated version of the article. PLOS One's editor wrote that "the corrected article now provides a better context of the work, as a report of parental observations, but not a clinically validated phenomenon or a diagnostic guideline". On behalf of the journal, Heber wrote, "Correcting the scientific record in this manner and in such circumstances is a sign of responsible publishing", where further scrutiny was called for to "clarify whether the conclusions presented are indeed backed up by the analysis and data of that original study."
Heber stated, "At its core, the survey of the parents stands as it is... We let the original results stand." The term "rapid onset gender dysphoria", co