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An abatis, abattis, or abbattis is a field fortification consisting of an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the sharpened tops directed outwards, towards the enemy. The trees are interlaced or tied with wire. Abatis are used alone or in combination with other obstacles. There is evidence it was used as early as the Roman Imperial period, as as the American Civil War and the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879. A classic use of an abatis was at the Battle of Carillon during the Seven Years' War; the 3,600 French troops defeated a massive army of 16,000 British and Colonial troops by fronting their defensive positions with an dense abatis. The British found the defences impossible to breach and were forced to withdraw with some 2,600 casualties. Other uses of an abatis can be found at the Battle of the Chateauguay, 26 October 1813, when 1,300 Canadian Voltigeurs, under the command of Charles-Michel de Salaberry, defeated an American corps of 4,000 men, or at the Battle of Plattsburgh.

An important weakness of abatis, in contrast to barbed wire, is. If laced together with rope instead of wire, the rope can be quickly destroyed by such fires, after which the abatis can be pulled apart by grappling hooks thrown from a safe distance. An important advantage is that an improvised abatis can be formed in forested areas; this can be done by cutting down a row of trees so that they fall with their tops toward the enemy. An alternative is to place explosives so as to blow the trees down. Abatis are seen nowadays, having been replaced by wire obstacles. However, it may supplement when barbed wire is in short supply. A form of giant abatis, using whole trees instead of branches, can be used as an improvised anti-tank obstacle. Though used by modern conventional military units, abatises are still maintained in United States Army and Marine Corps training. Current US training instructs engineers or other constructors of such obstacles to fell trees, leaving a 1 or 2 yards stump, in such a manner as the trees fall interlocked pointing at a 45-degree angle towards the direction of approach of the enemy.

Furthermore, it is recommended that the trees remain connected to the stumps and the length of roadway covered be at least 80 yards. US military maps record an abatis by use of an inverted "V" with a short line extending from it to the right. Zasechnaya cherta Pamplin Historical Park & The National Museum of the Civil War Soldier includes large and authentic reproduction of abatis used in the U. S. Civil War

Maple Leaf (GTW train)

The Maple Leaf was a passenger train pool operated by the Canadian National and the Grand Trunk Western Railroad between Chicago and Toronto, Ontario. It operated from 1927 to 1971; the train took its name from the national symbol of Canada. The Maple Leaf was one of many trains discontinued when Amtrak began operations in 1971, is unrelated to the Maple Leaf which Amtrak now operates between Toronto and New York City; the train operated on Canadian National railroad territory through Ontario, but west of Lake Huron it operated via Grand Trunk Railroad. The Grand Trunk introduced the Maple Leaf on May 15, 1927; the train operated on an overnight schedule between Montreal, Quebec. In 1932 it began carrying a through sleeper for New York. In May 1937 the Grand Trunk renamed the westbound Maple Leaf the La Salle; the eastbound Maple Leaf was known as the New York Maple Leaf between 1938 and 1939. The name Toronto Maple Leaf was applied to a Chicago–Port Huron, Michigan train in 1938. In 1938 the New York Maple Leaf was one of several Grand Trunk trains to receive Class U-4-b 4-8-4 steam locomotives built by the Lima Locomotive Works.

The Maple Leaf operated on a daytime schedule between Toronto in the 1950s. It carried a Chicago–Montreal through sleeper, a Chicago–Detroit through coach, a Port Huron–Toronto cafe/parlor car, parlor cars, coaches. A dining car operated between Lansing, Michigan; the Montreal sleeper ended in 1958. By 1956 the main part of the route circumvented Detroit and went through Port Huron, served Detroit via a spur branch from London, Ontario. In 1966 the Grand Trunk renamed the westbound Inter-City Limited the Maple Leaf, thus making the Maple Leaf a daytime round-trip between Chicago and Toronto. After the truncation of the International Limited to Port Huron on June 23, 1970, the Maple Leaf was the Grand Trunk train on the Chicago–Toronto route. Amtrak discontinued all remaining Grand Trunk trains when it began operations in 1971. Service over the Grand Trunk resumed on September 15, 1974, with the introduction of the Blue Water Limited

Johnny Heartsman

John Leroy "Johnny" Heartsman was an American electric blues and soul blues musician and songwriter. He showed musical diversity, playing a number of musical instruments, including the electronic organ and flute, he contributed his distinctive guitar playing to a number of recordings made in the San Francisco Bay Area in the 1950s and 1960s. He continued playing until his death, his best-known recording, "Johnny's House Party", was an R&B hit in 1957. Other notable tracks recorded by Heartsman are "Paint My Mailbox Blue" and "Heartburn", he variously worked with Jimmy McCracklin, Sugar Pie DeSanto, Big Mama Thornton, Ray Agee, Jimmy Wilson, Johnny Fuller, Al King, Tiny Powell and Joe Simon. He is not to be confused with the American jazz singer Johnny Hartman. Heartsman was born Johnnie Eastman Jr. in Houston and moved at an early age to San Fernando, California. He was influenced by Lafayette Thomas. In his teenage years, Heartsman started working as a session musician, in the studio with a local record producer, Bob Geddins.

One of his earliest involvements was playing the bass guitar for the 1953 recording of "Tin Pan Alley", by Jimmy Wilson. His own efforts yielded the instrumental track "Johnny's House Party", released by the Music City label, which reached number 13 on the U. S. Billboard R&B chart in June 1957; the record billed the act as the Rhythm Rocker and the Gaylarks. His continued working as a session musician into the early 1960s, he played on Tiny Powell's "My Time After Awhile" and Al King's cover version of "Reconsider Baby". Heartman's guitar-playing technique involved imaginative use of the guitar's volume control, producing "an eerie moan", his work included playing in show bands, performing in cocktail lounges, playing as the touring organist for Joe Simon. He spent 1970 -- 1973 in Texas, as the leader of the house band at the Chateau Club, it was here that he hired singer-songwriter Jay Boy Adams. Adams credits Heartsman as one of his musical mentors. By the late 1980s, Heartsman had reverted to playing the blues.

His debut album, was released in 1987. It was described by one reviewer as "a great success", he had appeared at the San Francisco Blues Festival in 1985. The record producer Dick Shurman oversaw the recording of Heartsman's album The Touch, released by Alligator Records in 1991. Over the years, Heartsman wrote songs for Jesse James, Roy Buchanan, John Hammond, Jr. Amos Garrett, several more for Joe Simon, he continued his music career until he died of a stroke in Sacramento, California, in December 1996, at the age of 60. List of West Coast blues musicians Johnny Heartsman.

Elizabeth Borgwardt

Elizabeth Kopelman Borgwardt is an American historian, lawyer. She graduated from Cambridge University with a BA and M. Phil. From Harvard Law School, with a J. D. and from Stanford University with a Ph. D, she worked as a mediator and arbitrator, was a senior fellow at the Center for Conflict and Negotiation at Stanford University. On June 26, 1993, she married Kurt Borgwardt, she teaches at Washington University in St. Louis. Spring 2012 University of Chicago and Ann Pozen Professor of Human Rights 2010 Visiting Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University 2010 James E. McCleod Faculty Appreciation Award, Washington University in Saint Louis November 2010 Distinguished Graduate Award, Noble & Greenough School 2009 Stuart L. Bernath Lecture Prize, Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations 2009 Fulbright Visiting Professor, University of Heidelberg, Center for American Studies 2008 Gustavus Myers Center for the Study of Bigotry and Human Rights Outstanding Book Award Spring 2008, Fulbright Distinguished Lecturer, University of Heidelberg, Center for American Studies 2006 Murle Curti Book Award, the Organization of American Historians 2006 Stuart L. Bernath Book Prize, the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations 2006 Best Book Award, Any Historical Topic, Phi Alpha Theta History Honor Society 2006 Merle Curti Award 2006 Robert F. Kennedy Foundation Book Award Finalist 2006 Gustavus Myers Center Outstanding Book Award, Honorable Mention, for A New Deal for the World 2006 Nominee, Pulitzer Prize in History, for A New Deal for the World 2004-2012 Distinguished Lecturer, Organization of American Historians 2003-2004 Visiting Scholar, Center for the Study of Law & Society, University of California at Berkeley 2004 Elizabeth Spilman Rosenfield Dissertation Prize, Stanford University Department of History 2001-2002 Samuel Golieb Fellow in Legal History, New York University School of Law 1999 Stuart L. Bernath Dissertation Research Grant 1998 Littleton-Griswold Dissertation Research Award for Legal History, American Historical Association 1998 Ford Foundation "Human Rights" Fellow A New Deal for the World: America's Vision for Human Rights.

Harvard University Press. 2005. ISBN 978-0-674-01874-7. Andrea Kupfer Schneider, Brian Ganson, Elizabeth Borgwardt. Coping with International Conflict: A Systematic Approach to Influence in International Negotiation. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-591637-7. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter Elizabeth Kopelman, Roger Fisher and Andrea Kupfer Schneider. Beyond Machiavelli: Tools for Coping with Conflict. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-14-024522-6. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter The United States' vision of a proper world order after World War II was a distinctive blend of realism and liberalism and idealism; this book by a young historian provides a rich and original account of the architects of the postwar global system and their ideas. Borgwardt argues that Franklin Roosevelt's planners brought to their task notions of security and governance forged within the United States during the New Deal and, in doing so, launched the human rights revolution that has reshaped today's world. Borgwardt’s interpretation thus rests on a conventional reading of the intentions and accomplishments of the New Deal and on a more original interpretation of the intentions and accomplishments of American foreign policy during and after World War II.

By her lights, the New Deal was an effort by liberals led by FDR not only to save capitalism from itself and to provide Americans with relief from the devastating economic crisis of the Great Depression but and above all, to put into place a set of government regulatory institutions that would provide for long-term social and economic security

Marampudi Joji

Marampudi Joji was the third Archbishop of Hyderabad. He was born in Bhimavaram and died at the Bishop's House, Andhra Pradesh. Latin and English were the languages known to the Archbishop. Joji was educated at the Lutheran Boarding School in Peddapuram near Samalkot, managed by the Priests of the Andhra Evangelical Lutheran Church. Joji was ordained as a priest on 14 December 1971 in the diocese of Vijayawada. Joji was privileged to have received Blessed Mother Teresa when she went to Vijayawada to initiate the work of the Missionaries of Charity. On 21 December 1991, he was appointed as the Bishop of Khammam and consecrated on 19 March 1992, he served until 8 November 1996. Bishop Joji became the Bishop of Vijayawada on 8 November 1996. However, he took charge of the diocese only on 19 January 1997. On 29 January 2000, he was appointed as the Archbishop of Hyderabad, he was installed by Archbishop Giorgio Zur in the presence of his predecessor Archbishop S. Arulappa and of Bishop Joseph S. Thumma on 30 April 2000.

Joji inaugurated the Hyderabad session of the scholarly Church History Association of India incorporating Church Historians of the Pentecostal, Protestant and Catholic traditions. Archbishop Joji was known for his able administration, he seemed to have headed the Diocese of Vijayawada's Social Service Society before being elevated to the Bishopric of Khammam. The Archbishop has principally consecrated three Bishops of Andhra Pradesh: Bishop of Kurnool, Most Rev. P. Anthony Bishop of Cuddapah, Most Rev. G. Prasad Bishop of Nellore, Most Rev. D. M. Prakasam Telugu Christian B. P. Sugandhar, Bishop-in-Medak, Church of South India

Minmose (overseer of works)

Minmose was overseer of priests of Month, lord of Thebes and the overseer of works in all temples of Upper and Lower Egypt for the Egyptian pharaohs Thutmose III and Amenhotep II. He took part in expeditions to Syria, during Thutmose's eighth campaign, as well as Nubia and, as commander of the elite forces, in Takhsy—a territory located between Damascus and Canaan; the expedition into Takhsy was related to Amenhotep II's campaign. In addition to overseeing the construction of many temples, Minmose collected taxes in Retenu, in Nubia during Thutmose's Nubian campaign in the 49th year of the pharaoh's reign, he lived in the 15th century BC. He is known from several statues found all over Egypt. Alan Gardiner, Egypt of the Pharaohs. Pp. 197–199. Oxford University Press, 1964. Donald Bruce Redford, The Wars in Syria and Palestine of Thutmose III, Brill Academic Publishers 2003