Sudan or the Sudan the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, Libya to the northwest, it has a population of 39 million people and occupies a total area of 1,886,068 square kilometres, making it the third-largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, its official languages are Arabic and English; the capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma, the subsequent rule of the Egyptian New Kingdom and the rise of the kingdom of Kush, which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century. After the fall of Kush the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500.
Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads. From the 16th–19th centuries and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north; this period saw Arabization. From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman; this state was destroyed in 1898 by the British, who would govern Sudan together with Egypt. The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on January 1, 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under Gaafar Nimeiry, Sudan instituted Islamic law in 1983; this exacerbated the rift between the Islamic north, the seat of the government and the animists and Christians in the south.
Differences in language and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces influenced by the National Islamic Front and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. In April 2019, following contentious protests that faced fierce resistance from the Omar al-Bashir regime, the Sudanese military, under the command of Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf, took control of the nation and established a Transitional Military Council; this move dissolved the constitution. The country's place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa; the name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or "the lands of the Blacks". The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants; the term "Sudanese" had a negative connotation in Sudan due to its association with black African slaves.
The idea of "Sudanese" nationalism goes back to the 1930s and 1940s, when it was popularized by young intellectuals. By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mudbrick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC, migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture; the population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed a social hierarchy over the next centuries which became the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, culturally nearly identical, thus evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC; the Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, the Atbarah River and the Nile River.
It was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. Pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II; the Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city. The war that took place between Pharaoh Taharqa and the Assyrian king Sennacherib was a decisive event in western history, with the Nubians being defeated in their attempts to gain a foothold in the Near East by Assyria.
Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further, invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa and driving the Nubians from Egypt entirely. Taharqa fled back to his homeland. Egypt became an Assyrian colony.
Abdeen Palace is a historic Cairo palace, one of the official residences and the principal workplace of the President of Egypt, located above Qasr el-Nil Street in eastern Downtown Cairo, Egypt. Built on the site of a small mansion owned by Abidin Bey, Abdeen Palace, named after him, is considered one of the most sumptuous palaces in the world in terms of its adornments and large number of clocks scattered in the parlors and wings, most of which are decorated with pure gold. Built by Khedive Ismail, to become the official government headquarters instead of the Citadel of Cairo, this palace was used as well for official events and ceremonies. Construction started in 1863 and continued for 10 years and the palace was inaugurated in 1874. Erected on an area of 24 feddans, the palace was designed by the French architect Léon Rousseau along with a large number of Egyptian, Italian and Turkish decorators. However, the palace’s garden was added in 1921 by Sultan Fuad I on an area of 20 feddans; the cost of building the palace reached 700,000 Egyptian pounds in addition to 2 million pounds for its furnishing.
Between four palaces, King Fuad spent more than 18 million French francs with just one Parisian furniture manufacturer Linke & Cie. More money was spent on the palace’s alteration and maintenance by consecutive rulers; the palace has 500 suites. The palace today is a museum, located in the Old Cairo district of Abdeen; the upper floors are reserved for visiting foreign dignitaries. The lower floors contain the Silver Museum, the Arms Museum, the Royal Family Museum, the Presidential Gifts Museum. A new museum, the Historical Documents Museum, was opened in January 2005. Among other documents, it contains the Imperial Ottoman firman, or decree, which established the rule of Muhammad Ali and his family, a certificate for the Order of the Iron Crown, from the short-lived South American Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia. Abdeen Palace Incident of 1942 Egypt's Royal Archives: 1922-52 historical Abdeen Palace: Archives housed in the palace
Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan
The Anglo-Egyptian conquest of Sudan in 1896–1899 was a reconquest of territory lost by the Khedives of Egypt in 1884 and 1885 during the Mahdist War. The British had failed to organise an orderly withdrawal of Egyptian forces from Sudan, the defeat at Khartoum left only Suakin and Equatoria under Egyptian control after 1885; the conquest of 1896-99 defeated and destroyed the Mahdist state and re-established Anglo-Egyptian rule, which remained until Sudan became independent in 1956. There was a considerable body of opinion in Britain in favour of retaking Sudan after 1885 to'avenge Gordon'; however Lord Cromer, the British Consul-General in Egypt, had been the architect of the British withdrawal after the Mahdist uprising. He remained sure that Egypt needed to recover its financial position before any invasion could be contemplated. "Sudan is worth a good deal to Egypt," he said, "but it is not worth bankruptcy and oppressive taxation." He felt it was necessary to avoid "being driven into premature action by the small but influential section of public opinion which persistently and strenuously advocated the cause of immediate reconquest."
As late as 15 November 1895 he had been assured by the British government that it had no plans to invade Sudan. By 1896 however it was clear to Prime Minister Salisbury that the interests of other powers in the Sudan could not be contained by diplomacy alone - France and Germany all had designs on the region that could only be contained by re-establishing Anglo-Egyptian rule; the catastrophic defeat of the Italians by Menelik II of Ethiopia at the Battle of Adwa in March 1896 raised the possibility of an anti-European alliance between Menelik and the Khalifa of Sudan. After Adwa the Italian government appealed to Britain to create some kind of military diversion to prevent Mahdist forces from attacking their isolated garrison at Kassala, on 12 March the British cabinet authorised an advance on Dongola for this purpose. Salisbury was at pains to reassure the French government that Britain intended to proceed no further than Dongola, so as to forestall any move by the French to advance some claim of their own on part of Sudan.
The French government had in fact just dispatched Jean-Baptiste Marchand up the Congo River with the stated aim of reaching Fashoda on the White Nile and claiming it for France. This encouraged the British to attempt the full-scale defeat of the Mahdist state and the restoration of Anglo-Egyptian rule, rather than just providing a military diversion as Italy had requested. Lord Salisbury ordered the Sirdar, Brigadier Herbert Kitchener to make preparations for an advance up the Nile; as Governor-General of Suakin from 1886 to 1888, Kitchener had held off the Mahdist forces under Osman Digna from the Red Sea coast, but he had never commanded a large army in battle. Kitchener took a unhurried approach to recovering Sudan. In the first year his objective was to recover Dongola; the Egyptian army mobilised and by 4 June 1896 Kitchener had assembled a force of 9,000 men, consisting of ten infantry battalions, fifteen cavalry and camel corps squadrons, three artillery batteries. All the soldiers were Sudanese or Egyptian, with the exception of a few hundred men from the North Staffordshire Regiment and some Maxim gunners.
The use of British troops was kept to a minimum and Sudanese troops were used wherever possible because they were cheaper, because they could survive the extreme conditions of campaigning in Sudan which Europeans could not. To maximise the number of Sudanese troops deployed for the invasion, the Sudanese garrison was withdrawn from Suakin on the Red Sea and replaced with Indian soldiers; the Indians arrived in Suakin on 30 May, releasing the Xth Egyptian and Sudanese battalions for the Dongola expedition. The Egyptian army in the 1880s was consciously trying to distance itself from the times of Muhammad Ali, when Sudanese men had been captured, shipped to Egypt and enlisted. On the eve of the 1896 invasion the manumission status and precise recruitment conditions of many Sudanese soldiers in the Egyptian army was unclear. Egyptian conscripts were required to serve six years in the army, whereas Sudanese soldiers enlisted before 1903 were signed up for life, or until medically unfit to serve.
While no official requirement existed for the practice, it is clear that it many instances at least, new Sudanese recruits into the Egyptian army were branded by their British officers, to help identify deserters and those discharged seeking to re-enlist. Kitchener placed great importance on transport and communications. Reliance on river transport, the vagaries of the Nile flooding, had reduced Garnet Wolseley's Nile Expedition to failure in 1885, Kitchener was determined not to let that happen again; this required the building of new railways to support his invasion forces. The first phase of railway building followed the initial campaign up the Nile to the supply base at Akasha and on southward towards Kerma; this bypassed the second cataract of the Nile and thereby ensured that supplies could reach Dongola all year round, whether the Nile was in flood or not. The railway extended as far as Akasha on 26 June and as far as Kosheh on 4 August 1896. A dockyard was constructed and three new gunboats, larger than the Egyptian river boats deployed, were brought in sections by rail, assembled on the river.
Each carried two 6-pounders midships and four Maxim guns. At the end of August 1896 storms washed away a 12-mile section of the railway as preparations were being made to advance on Dongola. Kitchener supervised 5,000 men who worked nigh
Marianna Török de Szendrő was a Hungarian noble, second spouse of the Khedive Abbas II of Egypt. Marianna was the daughter of Sofie, Countess Vetter von der Lilie, stepdaughter of Hungarian inventor Tivadar Puskás, she spent most of her youth at Wassen Castle, south of Austria. At age 12, she wrote short articles for various journals and played the piano, her elder brother Count József Török de Szendrő, following Austrian tradition, was enrolled at the Theresianum, where he befriended Abbas Bey, an Egyptian prince. Marianna and Abbas met at a ball given by the academy. Shortly thereafter, he was made ruler in Egypt, they met the second time in Paris in 1900, where they fell in love, Abbas invited her to Egypt. The visit developed into a long romance culminating into a secret marriage contracted in Alexandria's Montazah Palace, witnessed by two sheiks; the official marriage took place on February 1910, with the Grand Mufti of Egypt officiating. Marianna converted to Islam in the presence of the Grand Mufti.
She was called Princess Djavidan Hanem, wife of the Khedive of Egypt. Abbas was separated from Ikbal Hanem, a former slave in his mother's household. Khedive Ismail Pasha was the last ruler of Egypt to have a harem, upon his departure, the büyük, ortangı and küçük harems, as well as the aghas became out of use, the custom at the Egyptian court had become one consort, until now; the marriage was controversial. Marianna accompanied the khedive on his travels to Turkey and Europe as well as inside Egypt, something unknown before; as court protocol disapproved of women from participating in state events, with the complicity of her spouse, attended official receptions dressed up as a man. It was as a young palace official "dressed up in an irritating stuffy high collar and tarboosh that I accompanied the Khedive on 8 February 1909, at the laying of the final stone during the heightening of the Aswan Dam", she describes in her memoirs. On one of these occasions, forgetting she was supposed to be a man, the Khedive looked affectionately at her and asked: "Mon amour, est-ce que tu n'es pas fatiguée?", which shocked people standing close by.
In her own memoirs, "Harem" published in Berlin in 1930, attempts to describe the life of women in the confined environment of the Sultanic and Khedivial haramliks. She claimed to have an active role in the creation of Tchibukli Saray right from its drawing board and approved the landscaping of the palace gardens; as a member of the Red Cross she brought solace to victims of the first Balkan War of 1912. Marianna entertained wives of foreign dignitaries at Mostorod Palace playing the piano, she staged seances, which were however, stopped by Abbas. In an article published 3 March 1928 in the Nationalzeitung, Abbas Hilmi's former Hungarian Kelemen Árvay, describes Djavidan Hanem as: "a rare beauty and an intelligent warmhearted lady who had a soothing influence on the petulant Khedive.", continuing: She lived in splendor in Mostorod Palace near Matarieh. The fantastic property had a large garden and extensive agriculture domains whose revenue was assigned to her, she was the good spirit for Europeans at the Khedivial court.
Marianna and Abbas divorced in 1913. The reason was Abbas's new relationship with Georgette Mesny, a.k.a. Andrée de Lusange, whom he met at Maxim's in Paris the previous summer. According to Kelemen A'rvay, they returned to Egypt together. Lusange was described as "a 20 years old short, lean painted woman who distributed her favors for 20 francs and once in the khedive's entourage spied for the French government." She was blamed for Marianna's departure: "It was her intrigues that pushed Djavidan Hanem to leave the palace and return to Europe." She kept her Muslim name. She worked as an actress in Berlin in the 1920s, she wrote radio-plays, authored several works including "Back to Paradise", "The Great Seven", "Soul And Body" and "Gulzar", gave piano concerts. During World War II she lived in Vienna and during the end of the war, moved to Innsbrück where she worked as an interpreter for the French Military Government in July 1945. Raafat, Samir. "Queen for a Day". Al-Ahram Weekly. Notes Soszynski, Henry.
"Marianne Török de Szendrö". Ancestry.com, Inc. Retrieved March 6, 2010. "Marianne May, countess Török de Szendrő". GeneAll.net. Retrieved March 6, 2010
Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, played a central role in the early part of the First World War. Kitchener was credited in 1898 for winning the Battle of Omdurman and securing control of the Sudan for which he was made Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, becoming a qualifying peer and of mid-rank as an Earl; as Chief of Staff in the Second Boer War he played a key role in Lord Roberts' conquest of the Boer Republics succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief – by which time Boer forces had taken to guerrilla fighting and British forces imprisoned Boer civilians in concentration camps. His term as Commander-in-Chief of the Army in India saw him quarrel with another eminent proconsul, the Viceroy Lord Curzon, who resigned. Kitchener returned to Egypt as British Agent and Consul-General.
In 1914, at the start of the First World War, Kitchener became Secretary of State for War, a Cabinet Minister. One of the few to foresee a long war, lasting for at least three years, with the authority to act on that perception, he organised the largest volunteer army that Britain had seen, oversaw a significant expansion of materials production to fight on the Western Front. Despite having warned of the difficulty of provisioning for a long war, he was blamed for the shortage of shells in the spring of 1915 – one of the events leading to the formation of a coalition government – and stripped of his control over munitions and strategy. On 5 June 1916, Kitchener was making his way to Russia to attend negotiations, on HMS Hampshire, when it struck a German mine 1.5 miles west of the Orkney and sank. Kitchener was among 737. Kitchener was born in Ballylongford near Listowel, County Kerry, in Ireland, son of army officer Henry Horatio Kitchener and Frances Anne Chevallier, his father had only bought land in Ireland, under a scheme to encourage the purchase of land, after selling his commission.
They moved to Switzerland where the young Kitchener was educated at Montreux at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Pro-French and eager to see action, he joined a French field ambulance unit in the Franco-Prussian War, his father took him back to Britain after he caught pneumonia while ascending in a balloon to see the French Army of the Loire in action. Commissioned into the Royal Engineers on 4 January 1871, his service in France had violated British neutrality, he was reprimanded by the Duke of Cambridge, the commander-in-chief, he served in Palestine and Cyprus as a surveyor, learned Arabic, prepared detailed topographical maps of the areas. His brother, Lt. Gen. Sir Walter Kitchener, had entered the army, was Governor of Bermuda from 1908 to 1912. In 1874, aged 24, Kitchener was assigned by the Palestine Exploration Fund to a mapping-survey of the Holy Land, replacing Charles Tyrwhitt-Drake, who had died of malaria. By an officer in the Royal Engineers, Kitchener joined fellow officer Claude R. Conder.
Conder and Kitchener's expedition became known as the Survey of Western Palestine because it was confined to the area west of the Jordan River. The survey collected data on the topography and toponymy of the area, as well as local flora and fauna; the results of the survey were published in an eight-volume series, with Kitchener's contribution in the first three tomes. This survey has had a lasting effect on the Middle East for several reasons: It serves as the basis for the grid system used in the modern maps of Israel and Palestine. For example, the modern border between Israel and Lebanon is established at the point in upper Galilee where Conder and Kitchener's survey stopped. In 1878, having completed the survey of western Palestine, Kitchener was sent to Cyprus to undertake a survey of that newly acquired British protectorate, he became vice-consul in Anatolia in 1879. Kitchener was initiated into Freemasonry in 1883 in the Italian-speaking La Concordia Lodge No. 1226, which met in Cairo.
In November 1899 he was appointed the first District Grand Master of the District Grand Lodge of Egypt and the Sudan, under the United Grand Lodge of England. On 4 January 1883 Kitchener was promoted to captain, given the Turkish rank bimbashi, dispatched to Egypt where he took part in the reconstruction of the Egyptian Army. Egypt had become a British puppet state, its army led by British officers, although still nominally under the sovereignty of the Khedive and his nominal overlord the Sultan of Turkey. Kitchener became second-in-command of an Egyptian cavalry regiment in February 1883, took part in the failed expedition to relieve Charles George Gordon in the Sudan in late 1884. Fluent in Arabic, Kitchener preferred the company of the Egyptians over the British, the company of no-one over the Egyptians, writing in 1884 that: "I have become such a solitary bird that I think I were happier alone". Kitchener spoke Arabic so well that he was able to effortlessly adopt the dialects of the dif
Theresianum is a private boarding and day school governed by the laws for public schools in Vienna, Austria. It was founded in 1746 by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1614, the Habsburgs purchased Angerfeldhof, a farmstead located just outside Vienna, renovated it. Though the residence was burned down in the course of the Battle of Vienna in 1683, a bigger and more glamorous New Favorita was rebuilt over the following decades. Three Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire - Leopold I, Joseph I and Charles VI - resided in the castle; when in 1740 Emperor Charles VI died in New Favorita, his eldest daughter Maria Theresa decided not to enter the building again. In 1746, Maria Theresa sold the castle to the Jesuits for 30,000 guilders in order to transform it into an educational institution, preparing talented young men for civil service; as stipulated in two founding letters, the newly established “imperial academy” under the auspices of Maria Theresa was based on the principles of strict selection, highest pedagogic and scientific standards and instruction in “modern” foreign languages.
In 1773, after Maria Theresa’s son Joseph II had dissolved the religious order of the Society of Jesus, Theresianum was temporarily closed. More than 20 years in 1797, Emperor Francis II re-opened Theresianum under the direction of the Piarists, he completed the building’s present-day neo-classical façade and built ancillary facilities including a swim school. After the 1848 revolution in different parts of Europe, Franz’s successor, Franz Joseph I of Austria, decided to open admission to “sons of the bourgeoisie” and to put the school under public regulation. In 1883, the Consular Academy, the world’s oldest school of international relations, was relocated to New Favorita, it was housed in a separate wing of the building until 1905, when it was moved again to a house in Boltzmanngasse, which houses the U. S. embassy today. By the end of World War I, most of the school’s properties in Austria and other parts of the Habsburg monarchy were sold. In 1938, after the “Anschluss” to Nazi Germany, Theresianum was transformed into a National Political Institute of Education.
During World War II, the school was so destroyed that it could only be re-opened following extensive renovation work in 1957. In 1964, the Diplomatic Academy was re-opened as a successor of the Consular Academy in New Favorita, its graduates include former U. N. Secretary General and Austrian president Kurt Waldheim, as well as European ministers and senior public officials. At Theresianum, co-education was introduced at the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s – the first female instructors started teaching in 1988, while the first female students were admitted one year in 1989. Based on Maria Theresa’s founding letters, Theresianum today strives to educate students to become “self-confident Austrians as well as Europeans with a global outlook.” By embracing the principles of tolerance and humanity, the school endeavors to prepare its graduates to take on “responsible roles in society.” Theresianum’s principles include academic excellence, social responsibility and international achievement.
Before World War I, instruction in Hungarian was mandatory, while learning English, Italian, Bohemian, Serbo-Croatian and Romanian was optional. Today, the school’s curriculum requires students to learn three spoken foreign languages as well as Latin. Optional coursework includes Spanish, Portuguese, Polish and Chinese. Language exchange programs are offered to students in the 7th grades. International students from age 15 to 18 can apply for three, five or 10-month study programs at Theresianum. Theresianum sustains a network of 18 international partner schools, including: Belvedere College, Ireland Casterton School for Girls, England Colégio Campo de Flores, Portugal Collége Joffre, France Ecole Alsacienne, France Episcopal High School, USA Gymnasium Ottobrunn, Germany Gymnázium Jána Papánka, Slovakia Lancaster Royal Grammar School, England Lycée Sainte Agnès, France Musashi Junior & Senior High School, Japan Rugby School, England Tamagawa School, Japan Based on the Theresianum Enrichment Model, students are offered a set of extra-curricular activities that complement mandatory coursework.
These classes include special rhetoric and presentation seminars, community service and business projects, as well as tailored career advice services. Moreover, Theresianum participates in bi-annually organized Model European Parliament sessions that prepare students for leadership roles in the European Union. By 1910, a wealth of physical education classes, including swimming, dancing and fencing was offered to students to supplement their academic curriculum. Today, Theresianum offers weekly sports courses across 15 disciplines, organizes three dedicated sports weeks and operates a school-owned ski club. Theresianum operates as a Gymnasium.
Muhammad Abdel Moneim
Damat Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim Beyefendi was an Egyptian prince and former heir apparent to the throne of Egypt and Sudan from 1899 to 1914. Upon the abdication of King Farouk following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, he served as Regent for King Ahmed Fuad II until the declaration of the Republic of Egypt and abolition of the Egyptian and Sudanese monarchy in 1953. Prince Muhammad Abdul Moneim was born at the Montaza Palace, near Alexandria, his father Abbas II was the reigning Khedive and so Muhammad Abdul Moneim became heir apparent upon his birth and was given the title of Hereditary Prince. He was educated at Switzerland. Following the Ottoman Empire's entry into World War I, Muhammad Abdul Moneim's father Abbas II was deposed by Britain on 18 December 1914 for supporting the Ottomans in the War, his father was replaced on the throne by his uncle Hussein Kamel, bypassing Muhammad Abdul Moneim, now demoted in the line of succession. He was created His Highness in 1922, he served as President of the Egyptian Olympic Committee from 1934 until 1938.
In 1939 he was appointed President of the Arab delegation to the Palestine Conference in London in 1939. Following the abdication of King Farouk, Muhammad Abdul Moneim served as Chairman of the Council of Egyptian Regency from 26 July 1952 to 18 June 1953 for the infant King Fuad II, being created His Royal Highness in 1952; the regency came to an end when Major General Muhammad Naguib took power and declared Egypt a republic, ending the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty. He died in Ortaköy, was buried in Cairo. Muhammad Abdul Moneim married his third cousin Princess Fatma Neslişah Osmanoğlu Sultan at the Heliopolis Palace, Cairo, on September 26, 1940, she was a daughter of Prince Şehzade Omer Faruk and his first wife and cousin, Princess Rukiye Sabiha Sultan. Fatma Neslişah was paternal granddaughter of the last Ottoman Caliph Abdülmecid II by his first wife and maternal granddaughter of the last Ottoman Sultan and Caliph Mehmed VI by his first wife. Muhammad Abdul Moneim and Fatma Neslişah had two children: Prince Sultanzade Abbas Hilmi, married in Istanbul on 1 June 1969 to Mediha Momtaz, has one daughter and one son: Princess HGlory Nabila Sabiha Fatima Hilmi Hanım Prince HGlory Nabil Daoud Abdelmoneim Hilmi Bey Princess İkbal Hilmi Abdulmunim Hanımsultan and without issue Royal Ark