Abbas ibn Ali
|al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Alī |
العباس بن علي
Sha'ban 4, 26 AH:39–40|
≈ May 15, 647
Medina, Hejaz (now in Saudi Arabia):39–40
Muharram 10, 61 AH|
≈ October 10, 680 (aged 33)
Karbala, Umayyad Empire (now in Iraq)
|Cause of death||Martyrdom during the Battle of Karbala by Yazid I's men while bringing some water from Euphrates river for the family of Muhammad|
|Resting place||Shrine of Abbas, Karbalā, Iraq|
|Residence||Medina, Hejaz (now in Saudi Arabia)|
|Known for||Battle of Karbala|
(Arabic: Father of Virtue)
*قمر بني هاشم:45–47
(Arabic: Moon of the Hashimites)
(Arabic: The provider of water)
(Persian: Flag/Standard bearer)
(Persian: King of Loyalty)
(Arabic: Door to Hussein)
(Arabic: The door to fulfilling needs)
(Arabic: Most superior martyr)
(Arabic: The owner of the skin of water)
(Arabic: Strength of Hussein)
|Spouse(s)||Lubaba bint Ubaydillah|
Ubaydullah ibn Abbas (died in the Battle of Karbala|
Fadl ibn Abbas
Mohammad ibn Abbas (died in the Battle of Karbala)
Ummul Banin (known as the mother of the sons)
Hasan ibn Ali (paternal half-brother)|
Husayn ibn Ali (paternal half-brother)
Zaynab bint Ali (paternal half-sister)
Umm Kulthum bint Ali (paternal half-sister)
Muhsin ibn Ali (paternal half-brother)
|Shia Islam portal|
Al-Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي, Persian: عباس فرزند علی), also known as Qamar Banī Hāshim (the moon of Banu Hashim) (born 4th Sha‘bān 26 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH; approximately May 15, 647 – October 10, 680), was a son of Imam Ali, the first Imam of Shia Muslims and the fourth Caliph of Sunni Muslims, and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Mother of the Sons (Arabic: 'أم البنين').
Abbas, also known as Abbas Alamdar, is highly revered by Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims for his loyalty to his half-brother Husain, his respect for the Household of Muhammad, and his role in the Battle of Karbala. Abbas is buried in the Shrine of Abbas in Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Iraq, where he was martyred during the Battle of Karbala on the day of Ashura. He was praised for his "handsome looks" and was also well known in the Arab community for his courage, bravery, strength and ferocity as a warrior. Ibn Manzur narrates in his al-Ayn that Al-Abbas was the "lion that other lions feared" as a testament to his accolades as a warrior. Sheikh at-Turaihi describes Abbas's appearance as resembling an unshakable mountain, with his heart firmly rooted, due to his qualities as a "unique horseman" and a fearless "hero".
Abbas was a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Ummul Banin. Abbas had three full brothers – Abdullah ibn Ali, Jafar ibn Ali, and Usman ibn Ali. Abbas married a distant cousin, Lubaba. They had three sons – Fadl ibn Abbas, Mohammad ibn Abbas, and Ubaydullah ibn Abbas. His mother would recite famous lines of poetry in supplication to ward off the evil of those who envied him.
Battle of Siffin
Abbas debuted as a soldier in the Battle of Siffin, one of the main conflicts of the struggle between Abbas's father Ali and Muawiyah I, the governor of Syria, in 657 CE. Wearing the clothes of his father, who was known to be a great warrior, Abbas killed many enemy soldiers. Muawiya's forces actually mistook him for Ali. Therefore, when Ali himself appeared on the battlefield, Muawiya's soldiers were astonished to see him and confused about the identity of the other soldier. Ali then introduced Abbas by saying:
Abbas was trained by his father in the art of battle, which may be one reason he resembled his father on the battlefield. When describing his fighting on the battlefield, many historians have likened him to an angry lion because of his courage, fearlessness, and strength as an attacker.
Battle of Karbala
Yazid is a drunkard, an adulterer who is unfit for leadership.
As these behaviors were (and still are) prohibited in Islam, if Hussein had pledged allegiance to Yazid, his act would have ruined the basics of Islam. Hussein's elder brother Hassan had made a pact, that they (i.e. Ahl al-Bayt) would be responsible for religious (i.e., Islamic) decisions and would not interfere in other matters. Hussein wanted to do what had been agreed upon, but Yazid I wanted to take total control[clarification needed] . With the help of Ubayd Allah, Yazid I conspired to kill Hussein by sending a letter to him in the name of people of Kufa (Iraq), inviting him to come to Kufa and guide them on the right path, an invitation that was accepted by Hussein; though most historians state that the letters were actually sent by the people of Kufa who later betrayed him when the body of Muslim ibn Aqeel (Hussein's messenger to Kufa) was thrown from a building in the center of Kufa by Yazid's army while the people of Kufa stood silent. In 60 AH (680 AD), Hussein left Medina for Mecca with a small group of companions and family members to travel to Kufa. He sent his cousin, Muslim, on ahead to make his decision after the advice of his cousin. But, by the time Hussein arrived near Kufa, his cousin had been killed. On the way[clarification needed] , Hussein and his group were intercepted. They were forced into a detour and arrived in Karbala on the 2nd of Muharram, 61 AH. Hussein's camp was surrounded and cut off from the Euphrates river. The camp ran out of water on the 7th of Muharram.
The Euphrates river was occupied by Yazid I's army to prevent the camp of Hussein from getting water. Because of his skill and bravery, Abbas could have attacked Yazid I's army, occupied the river, and retrieved water for the camp alone. However, Abbas was only allowed to be defensive because his brother Hussain didn't want him to fight, because his rage would consume him.[clarification needed] to fight. He was only allowed to get water. Thus, he went to the river to get water for the children in Hussein's camp. Sakinah was very attached to Abbas, who was her uncle. To her, Abbas was their only hope for getting water. Abbas could not stand to see her thirsty and crying, Thy thirst!. When Abbas entered the battlefield, he only had a spear, and a bag for water in his hands. He was also given the authority to hold the standard in the battle, therefore he came to be known as Abbas Alamdar.[clarification needed] Once he had made it to the river, he started filling the bag with water. Abbas's loyalty to Hussein was so great that, although he was very thirsty, Abbas drank no water because he could not bear the thought that Sakinah was thirsty. This story illustrates how Abbas conquered the Euphrates river, held it with his mighty hands, yet still did not drink. After gathering the water, Abbas rode back towards the camp. On his way back, he was struck from behind, and one of his arms was amputated. Then he was struck from behind again; the attack amputated his other arm. Abbas continued, carrying the water-bag in his mouth. Yazid's soldiers started shooting arrows at him. One arrow hit the bag, and water poured out of it. Immediately after the bag of water was hit, the enemy shot an arrow at Abbas that hit his eye. One of Yazid's men hit Abbas' head with a mace, and, lacking the support of his arms, Abbas fell off his horse. As he was falling, he called, "Oh brother!", calling for Hussein]. Abbas fell on his face before he let the standard fall.
He was martyred on Friday, the 10th of Muharram, 61 AH, near the bank of the river Euphrates. Hence, he is called the "Hero of the Euphrates." His death is generally commemorated by the Shiite Muslims on the eighth night of Muharram. Muslims, particularly Shiites, mourn the death of all the martyrs who fell at the Battle of Karbala with Hussein in the Islamic month of Muharram, mainly in the first ten days of the month. Fadl ibn Abbas and Qasim ibn Abbas also laid down their lives in Karbala. Ubaydullah ibn Abbas lived to continue the lineage of Abbas[clarification needed] with five sons of his own.
Abbas was buried at the spot where he fell from his horse in Karbala, Iraq. The Shrine of Abbas was built around his grave, at which millions of pilgrims pay homage every year. The Albanian Bektashi community also maintain a shrine to Abbas on the summit of Mount Tomorr, where an annual pilgrimage is held every August.
Al-Abbas had three sons – Ubaidullah, Fadhl and Muhammad – and two daughters. Ibn Shahrashub, the famous historian, recorded that Muhammad was martyred in Karbala with his father. The mother of Ubaidullah and Fadhl was Lubaba. Genealogists have agreed unanimously that the progeny of Al-Abbas came from his son Ubaidullah. Sheikh al-Futouni, however, added that Hassan ibn Abbas had sons and descendants, too. Ubaidullah ibn Abbas, who died in 155 AH, was a celebrated scholar known for his handsomeness, perfect morality, and fine personality. He had three wives.
Ali (son of Hussein), had great respect for his uncle Abbas. He often wept when his eyes fell on Ubaidullah, explaining that he reminded him of his father's heroic and tragic exploit on that day in Karbala.
Al-Hassan, son of Ubaidullah, lived to age 67 and had five sons – Fadhl, Hamza, Ibrahim, Abbas, and Ubaidullah, all of whom became honorable, virtuous authors.
Al-Fadhl was such an eloquent, religious, and courageous personality that even caliphs respected him. He was named 'Ibn al-Hashimiyya – son of the Hashemite woman . He had three sons – Ja'far, al-Abbas al-Akbar, and Mohammad.
Abu'l-Abbas al-Fadhl ibn Mohammed ibn al-Fadhl ibn al-Hasan ibn Ubaidullah ibn al-Abbas was a famous orator and poet. He composed several poetic verses eulogizing his ancestor, al-Abbas. Hamza ibn al-Hasan ibn Ubaidullah ibn al-Abbas copied his ancestor, Amir ul-Mu'minin.[clarification needed] His grandson[clarification needed] Mohammed ibn Ali, a famous poet, resided in Basra and died in AH 286.97[clarification needed]
Ibrahim Jardaqa was another descendant of al-Abbas. He was a jurist and a man of letters, and was well known for his ascetics[clarification needed]. Abdullah ibn Ali ibn Ibrahim wrote several books, including one titled al-Ja'fariyya. He died in Egypt in AH 312. Al-Abbas ibn al-Hasan ibn Ubaidullah ibn al-Abbas was a great celebrity among the Hashemites; he visited Baghdad during the reign of Harun ar-Rashid. He was one of the most celebrated poets. 98[clarification needed]
Abdullah ibn al-Abbas, another son of al-Abbas, was also famous for his virtue and celebrity. When he was informed about Abdullah's death, the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'moun said, "All people are the same after your departure, son of al-Abbas!"[clarification needed] 99[clarification needed] Abu't-Tayyib Mohammed ibn Hamza had a good personality.[clarification needed] He was also well known for his regard for his relatives and his virtue. He left a large fortune in Jordan where he was killed in AH 291.[clarification needed] His descendants were called "sons of the martyr".
Ubaidullah ibn al-Hasan was the governor and qadi of Mecca and Medina during the reign of al-Ma'moun. Abu-Ya'la al-Hamza ibn al-Qasim ibn Ali ibn Hamza ibn al-Hasan ibn Ubaidullah ibn al-Abbas ibn Ali was one of the most celebrated men of knowledge.[clarification needed] He was great hadithist who instructed many famed scholars and wrote many books, such as Kitab ut-Tawhid, Kitab uz-Ziyaraatu wel-Menasik, and many others in various fields of knowledge, especially in Ilm ur-Rijal and Ilm ul-Hadith. Many scholars described him with remarkable words of praise. In a village called al-Hamza in al-Jazira, central Iraq, between the Euphrates and the Tigris, 102 is a handsome shrine built over the tomb of al-Hamza that continues to be visited by many people.
Ghazi (غازی), meaning "soldier who returns successfully from the battle". Although Abbas was killed at Karbala, he is known as Ghazi because, when he carried out the first strike against Yazid's army, his mission was to rescue the horse which was seized by Shimr during the battle of Siffin. This horse belonged to his other brother Hasan ibn Ali. Abbas retained control over the horse and presented it to Husayn.[clarification needed] He is also known as Abu Fazl (ابوالفضل), meaning the father of heavenly graces and/or the father of the graceful manner. Abbas was the king of chivalry and the most loyal companion to his half brother Hussain. Abbas ibn Ali is also known as-Qamar Banu Hashim, meaning the moon of the Hashim clan.
Horse of Abbas
Abbas was given a horse named "Uqab" (Eagle). Shia sources say that this horse was used by Muhammad and Ali and that this horse was presented to Muhammad by the King of Yemen, Saif ibn Zee Yazni, through Abdul Muttalib. The king considered the horse to be very important, and its superiority over other horses was evident by the fact that its genealogical tree was also maintained. It was initially named "Murtajiz", which comes from the Arabic name "Rijiz" meaning thunder (lightning).
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