In Catholicism, an abbess is the female superior of a community of nuns, an abbey. In the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican abbeys, the mode of election, position and authority of an abbess correspond with those of an abbot, she must have been a nun for 10 years. The age requirement in the Catholic Church has evolved over time, ranging from 30 to 60; the requirement of 10 years as a nun is only 8 in Catholicism. In the rare case of there not being a nun with the qualifications, the requirements may be lowered to 30 years of age and 5 of those in an "upright manner", as determined by the superior. A woman, of illegitimate birth, is not a virgin, has undergone non-salutory public penance, is a widow, or is blind or deaf, is disqualified for the position, saving by permission of the Holy See; the office is the choice being by the secret votes of the nuns belonging to the community. Like an abbot, after being confirmed in her office by the Holy See, an abbess is solemnly admitted to her office by a formal blessing, conferred by the bishop in whose territory the monastery is located, or by an abbot or another bishop with appropriate permission.
Unlike the abbot, the abbess receives only the ring, the crosier, a copy of the rule of the order. She does not receive a mitre as part of the ceremony; the abbess traditionally adds a pectoral cross to the outside of her habit as a symbol of office, though she continues to wear a modified form of her religious habit or dress, as she is unordained—females cannot be ordained—and so does not vest or use choir dress in the liturgy. An abbess serves except in Italy and some adjacent islands. Abbesses are, like abbots, major superiors according to canon law, the equivalents of abbots or bishops, they receive the vows of the nuns of the abbey. They have full authority in its administration. However, there are significant limitations, they may not administer the sacraments, whose celebration is reserved to bishops, deacons, those in Holy Orders. They may make provision for an ordained cleric to help train and to admit some of their members, if needed, as altar servers, extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, or lectors—all ministries which are now open to the unordained.
They may not serve as a witness to a marriage except by special rescript. They may not administer Penance, Anointing of the Sick, or function as an ordained celebrant or concelebrant of the Mass, they may preside over the Liturgy of the Hours which they are obliged to say with their community, speak on Scripture to their community, give certain types of blessings not reserved to the clergy. On the other hand, they may not ordinarily preach a sermon or homily, nor read the Gospel during Mass; as they do not receive episcopal ordination in the Catholic and Oriental Churches, they do not possess the ability to ordain others, nor do they exercise the authority they do possess under canon law over any territories outside of their monastery and its territory. There are exigent circumstances, where due to Apostolical privilege, certain Abbesses have been granted rights and responsibilities above the normal, such as the Abbess of the Cistercian Monastery of the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas near Burgos, Spain.
Granted exceptional rights was the Abbess of the Cistercian order in Conversano Italy. She was granted the ability to appoint her own vicar-general and approve the confessors, along with the practice of receiving the public homage of her clergy; this practice continued until some of the duties were modified due to an appeal by the clergy to Rome. In 1750, the public homage was abolished. In some Celtic monasteries, abbesses presided over joint-houses of monks and nuns, the most famous example being Saint Brigid of Kildare's leadership in the founding of the monastery at Kildare in Ireland; this custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions to France, to Rome itself. In 1115, the founder of Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon and Saumur, committed the government of the whole order, men as well as women, to a female superior. In Lutheran churches, the title of abbess has in some cases survived to designate the heads of abbeys which since the Protestant Reformation have continued as monasteries or convents.
These positions continued changing from Catholic to Lutheran. The first to make this change was the Abbe
The XXXI Golden Grand Prix Ivan Yarygin 2020 known as Ivan Yarygin 2020 is a United World Wrestling rankings freestyle wrestling international tournament, held in Krasnoyarsk, Russia between the 23rd and 26th of January 2020. Golden Grand Prix Ivan Yarygin 2016 Golden Grand Prix Ivan Yarygin 2017 Golden Grand Prix Ivan Yarygin 2018 Golden Grand Prix Ivan Yarygin 2019 "Ярыгинский турнир-2020: более 300 артистов станут участниками церемонии открытия". Retrieved January 23, 2020. "Ivan Yarygin-2020 – World Champion David Baev reaches finals, take a look at the detailed results of the first day". Retrieved January 23, 2020
Grass skippers or banded skippers are butterflies of the subfamily Hesperiinae, part of the skipper family, Hesperiidae. The subfamily was established by Pierre André Latreille in 1809. With over 2,000 described species, this is the largest skipper butterfly subfamily and occurs worldwide except in New Zealand. About 50 percent of grass skippers live in the Neotropics. 137 species are native to North America. Around 38 species are native to Australia. Genera Ochlodes and Hesperia exist in the Holarctic, they are orange, rust, or brown in colour and have pointed forewings. Many species have black stigmas on their forewings. Most members of this subfamily have an oval antenna club with an apiculus on the tip, although Carterocephalus and Piruna do not; the antennae has a sharp bend. Hesperiinae larvae feed on many different types of grasses and sedges and palms, though some species are limited. Adults visit flowers and hold their wings together while feeding. Hesperiinae are unique in that they hold their wings open while resting, with the forewings and hindwings held at different angles.
This is known as the "jet-plane position". Most male grass skippers perch to await females. Adults are strong fliers; some of the species, however, do these species patrol for females rather than perch. These grass skipper genera have not yet been assigned to tribes: The following grass skippers are considered at risk. Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and some other life forms: Preliminary species list. Version of 6 April 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2007. Reference photographs: Skippers of North America Cirrus Digital Imaging TOL RMCA Images of types. Flickr