Abbey National plc was a bank based in the United Kingdom and former building society, which latterly traded under the Abbey brand name. As the former Abbey National Building Society, it was the first building society in the United Kingdom to demutualise, doing so in July 1989; the bank expanded through a number of acquisitions in the 1990s, including James Hay, Scottish Mutual, Scottish Provident and the rail leasing company Porterbrook. Abbey National launched an online bank, Cahoot, in June 2000. In September 2003, the bank rebranded as Abbey, in November 2004, it became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Spanish Santander Group, with a rebrand following in February 2005. In January 2010, the savings business of Bradford & Bingley was combined with the bank, Abbey National plc was renamed Santander UK plc. Prior to the takeover, Abbey National plc was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index; the National Freehold Land Society named the National Permanent Mutual Benefit Building Society to give it legal existence under the Building Societies Act 1836, was established by two Liberal members of parliament, Sir Joshua Walmsley and Richard Cobden, in 1849, joined a year by John Bright.
In 1856, it formed the British Land Company, which separated in 1878. Meanwhile, the Abbey Road & St. John's Wood Permanent Benefit Building Society was founded in 1874, based in a Baptist church on Abbey Road in Kilburn. In 1932, the society moved into new headquarters, Abbey House, at 219–229 Baker Street, which it occupied until 2002; the site was thought to include 221B Baker Street, the fictional home of Sherlock Holmes, for many years Abbey employed a secretary charged with answering mail sent to Holmes at that address. The Abbey National Building Society was formed following the merger in 1944 of what had become Abbey Road Building Society and National Building Society; the Swansea Thrift Permanent transferred engagements in 1949, followed by the Definite Permanent in 1968, The State Building Society in 1970, Highgate Building Society in 1974 and the Oak Co-operative in 1979. During the 1970s and 1980s, Abbey National gained a reputation for innovation and, sometimes disruptive, change.
It was an early user of computer systems, in the end of the 1970s, all branches became online to a real time system that maintained customer accounts. Under Chief general manager Clive Thornton, new types of savings accounts were introduced as well as a cheque account; the administration of the cheque account was restricted by building society rules and the need to find a partner that could clear Abbey's cheques. Abbey became a full member of the Bankers' Automated Clearing Services and the former Association for Payment Clearing Services. Thornton acted to break the building societies' interest rate consensus. In 1987, as a result financial deregulation in the mid-1980s which allowed financial institutions to own estate agencies, Abbey National launched its own estate agency chain; the Abbey National Building Society became the first of the United Kingdom building societies to demutualise, became a public limited company as Abbey National plc on 12 July 1989. It was floated on the London Stock Exchange at £1.30 per share, resulting in an unusually large number of small shareholders – 1.8 million initially.
The demutualisation process was marred by the discovery of a large number of undelivered share certificates awaiting destruction at a contractor's premises. Abbey National shares peaked at more than £ 14 in 2000. After losses of at least £243million, Abbey National decided to sell its estate agency business; the 347 strong chain employed 1,800 staff and was subject to a write down of £138million in March 1993 following annual losses since 1989 of at c.£20million. Having sold off around 280 branches in 1994, the remaining 70 branches of Cornerstone were put into receivership in October 1995. In July 1994, Abbey National purchased James Hay, one of the United Kingdom's foremost independent providers of self administered pensions. James Hay went on to grow in straight and launched Abbey Wrap, the first Wrap a service in which IFAs can keep the clients' ISAs, PEPs, offshore bonds, SIPP in one place. Abbey Wrap Managers was FSA approved in August 2003; this was relaunched as James Hay Wrap in June 2005.
In February 1995, Abbey National Baring Derivatives were taken down along with Barings Bank, due to failures in regulation and control in regards to Nick Leeson of Barings Bank. Two life assurance companies were demutualised and acquired, Scottish Mutual in 1992 and Scottish Provident in 2001, which enabled Abbey to pursue the bancassurance model. In August 1996, Abbey National took over the National & Provincial Building Society, itself the product of a 1982 merger between the Provincial Building Society and the Burnley Building Society; this merger increased Abbey National's branch network by two hundred branches and brought in three million more customers. In April 2000, Abbey bought Porterbrook from Stagecoach Group for £773 million. Porterbrook was one of the three railway rolling stock operating companies created from by the privatisation of British Rail, leasing rolling stock to the train operating companies in the United Kingdom; the bank launched its online bank, Cahoot, in June 2000.
The Bay Area Rapid Transit District, or BART, is a special-purpose district body that governs the Bay Area Rapid Transit system in the California counties of Alameda, Contra Costa and San Francisco. The system itself serves northern San Mateo County and is being extended to Santa Clara County; the Bay Area Rapid Transit District was created in 1957 to provide a transit alternative between suburbs in the East Bay and job centers in San Francisco's Financial District as well as those in Downtown Oakland and Downtown Berkeley. Of the six Bay Area counties envisioned as participants—San Francisco, Contra Costa, San Mateo, Santa Clara—only Santa Clara County refused to join when the district was first set up. San Mateo opted out in 1962. Marin left a month after San Mateo, fearing that it would be unable to absorb its share of operating costs with San Mateo's withdrawal. Marin was concerned by ongoing debate about the feasibility of running trains across a lower deck of the Golden Gate Bridge. BART is split into nine districts.
One board member acts as president. Board members appoint five officers: General Manager, Controller-Treasurer, Independent Police Auditor, General Counsel, District Secretary. Current board members, by district, include: Carole Ward Allen, Lynette Sweet, Dan Richards, James Fang, Margaret Pryor, Willie B. Kennedy Bob Franklin, Gail Murray, Dan C. Helix Zakhary Mallett, Tom Radulovich, Joel Keller, Thomas Blalock, Nick Josefowitz
Psychological resistance is the phenomenon encountered in clinical practice in which patients either directly or indirectly exhibit paradoxical opposing behaviors in a clinically initiated push and pull of a change process. It impedes the development of authentic, reciprocally nurturing experiences in a clinical setting, it is established that the common source of resistances and defenses is shame, further its pervasive nature in trans diagnostic roles are identified. Examples of psychological resistance may include perfectionism, contemptuous attitude, being self-critical, preoccupation with appearance, social withdrawal, need to be seen as independent and invulnerable, or an inability to accept compliments or constructive criticism; the discovery of resistance was central to Sigmund Freud's theory of psychoanalysis: for Freud, the theory of repression is the corner-stone on which the whole structure of psychoanalysis rests, all his accounts of its discovery "are alike in emphasizing the fact that the concept of repression was suggested by the clinical phenomenon of resistance".
Resistance is based on instinctively autonomous ways of reacting in which clients both reveal and keep hidden aspects of themselves from the therapist or another person. These behaviors occur during therapy, in interaction with the therapist, it is a way of avoiding and yet expressing unacceptable drives, feelings and behavior patterns. Examples of causes of resistance include: resistance to the recognition of feelings and motives. Examples of the expression of resistance are canceling or rescheduling appointments, avoiding consideration of identified themes, forgetting to complete homework assignments and the like; this will make it more difficult for the therapist to work with the client, but it will provide him with information about the client. Resistance is an unconscious process. According to Van Denburg and Kiesler, it can be either for a certain period of time but it can be a manifestation of more longstanding traits or character. In psychotherapy, state resistance can occur at a certain moment, when an anxiety provoking experience is triggered.
Trait resistance, on the other hand, occurs during sessions and interferes with the task of therapy. The client shows a pattern of off-task behaviors that makes the therapist experience some level of negative emotion and cognition against the client; therefore the maladaptive pattern of interpersonal behavior and the therapist's response interfere with the task or process of therapy. This ‘state resistance' is cumulative during sessions and its development can best be prevented by empathic interventions on the therapist's part. Outside therapy, trait resistance in a client is demonstrated by distinctive patterns of interpersonal behavior which are caused by typical patterns of communication with significant others, like family and partners. Nowadays many therapists work with resistance as a way to understand the client better, they emphasize the importance to work with the resistance and not against it. This is because working against the resistance of a client can result in a counterproductive relationship with the therapist.
Working with the resistance provides a positive working relationship and gives the therapist information about the unconscious of the client. A therapist can use countertransference as a tool to understand the client's resistance; the feelings the client evokes in the therapist with his/her resistance will give you a hint what the resistance is about. For example, a directive client can make the therapist feel passive; when the therapist pays attention to their passive feelings, it can make him/her understand this behavior of the client as resistance coming from fear of losing control. It can be useful to identify resistance with the client; this can not only work towards addressing the issue, but can allow the client to think about and discuss their resistance and the cognitive processes that underlie it. In this way, the client takes an active involvement in their therapy, which may reduce resistance in future, it helps the client's ability to identify their resistance in the future and respond to it.
Important to the question of treatment planning are research studies that have looked at resistance traits as indicators and contra-indicators for different types of interventions. Beutler and Talebi reviewed 20 studies that inspected the differential effects of therapist directiveness as moderated by client resistance and found that 80% of the studies demonstrated that directive interventions were most productive among clients who had low levels of state or trait-like resistance, while nondirective interventions worked best among clients who had high levels of resistance; these findings provide strong support for the value of resistance level as a predictor of treatment outcome, as well as treatment-planning. In these studies cognitive behavioral therapy has been used as a prototype for directive therapy and psychodynamic, self-directed, or other relation oriented therapy have been used as a prototype for non-directive therapy. Behavior analytic and social learning models of resistance focus on the setting events and consequences for resistant behavior with the goal to understand the function of the behavior.
At least five behavioral mod
King Crimson are an English progressive rock band from London. Formed in January 1969, the group included bassist and vocalist Greg Lake and keyboardist Robert Fripp and woodwind musician Ian McDonald, lyricist Peter Sinfield, drummer Michael Giles. After a number of personnel changes, the group disbanded in 1974 but have since reformed on a number of occasions; as of the latest lineup change in 2017, King Crimson consists of Fripp and flautist Mel Collins, bassist Tony Levin, drummers Pat Mastelotto and Gavin Harrison and vocalist Jakko Jakszyk, keyboardist Bill Rieflin, drummer and keyboardist Jeremy Stacey. After some initial rehearsals starting in late November 1968, King Crimson were formed on 13 January 1969 with a lineup of Greg Lake on bass and vocals, Robert Fripp on guitar, Ian McDonald on woodwind and keyboards, Peter Sinfield as a lyricist and occasional synthesizer player, Michael Giles on drums. After the recording of the band's debut album In the Court of the Crimson King, McDonald and Giles left King Crimson, playing their last show on 16 December.
Lake remained for the follow-up, In the Wake of Poseidon, before leaving to form Emerson, Lake & Palmer in April 1970. Fripp and Sinfield rebuilt the group after the album's release, finalising the new lineup by August with the addition of Gordon Haskell, Mel Collins and Andy McCulloch in place of Lake, McDonald and Giles, respectively. After recording Lizard, both Haskell and McCulloch departed. Ian Wallace replaced McCulloch in December 1970, Raymond "Boz" Burrell took over from Haskell the following February; the group released Islands and returned to regular touring over the next year, Burrell and Wallace all left to join Alexis Korner's new group Snape in April 1972. Sinfield had left the group a few months earlier. After the release of the Earthbound live album, Fripp rebuilt King Crimson again in July 1972 with the additions of former Family bassist and vocalist John Wetton and keyboardist David Cross, former Yes drummer Bill Bruford, percussionist Jamie Muir. After the first of two live shows scheduled upon completion of the group's new album Larks' Tongues in Aspic, Muir abruptly left King Crimson to pursue Buddhism.
The remaining four-piece issued Starless and Bible Black in March 1974. By the time the group began recording the follow-up Red in July 1974, King Crimson were a trio following Cross's departure at the end of the previous tour. On 25 September, Fripp announced that King Crimson had disbanded, claiming that the group were "completely over for and ever". After several years of side projects, Fripp formed a group called Discipline in April 1981 with former King Crimson drummer Bruford, as well as vocalist and guitarist Adrian Belew, bassist and Chapman stick player Tony Levin. By the time the band's debut album Discipline was released in October, they had adopted the King Crimson moniker; this lineup remained stable for three years, releasing follow-up albums Beat and Three of a Perfect Pair, before disbanding again upon the conclusion of a promotional touring cycle in July 1984. After a ten-year break, King Crimson reformed again in 1994, with Fripp, Belew and Bruford joined by second bassist/Chapman stick player Trey Gunn and second drummer Pat Mastelotto.
This lineup, dubbed the "Double Trio", began rehearsing in April 1994 and released its only studio effort Thrak the following year. After touring extensively, the group returned to the studio in May 1997 for the recording of their twelfth studio album, but faced difficulties making progress with the sessions. Instead of disbanding again, Fripp decided to initiate a process of "fraKctalisation", splitting the six band members into four "ProjeKcts" of various lineups; each ProjeKct performed several live shows and wrote together, serving as "research and development" units for the full King Crimson incarnation. The ProjeKcts spawned several studio and live recordings, which were issued in 1999 as part of The ProjeKcts box set. By this time the lineup of King Crimson was a "Double Duo" consisting of Belew, Fripp and Mastelotto, following the departures of Bruford and Levin; the band released two new studio albums, The Construkction of Light and The Power to Believe, before Gunn announced in November 2003 that he was leaving to explore new musical opportunities.
Levin returned to take his place. Rehearsals subsequently began for planned new material, with a string of rehearsal sessions taking place in September 2004, before the group disbanded for a third time. In June 2007, Fripp announced that a new lineup of King Crimson had been finalised for the band's 40th anniversary tour the following year. In addition to the members of the 2004 incarnation, Gavin Harrison of Porcupine Tree was added as a second drummer; the tour took place in August 2008. In September 2013, despite claiming the previous year that he was retiring, Fripp announced another reformation of King Crimson. In addition to Levin and Harrison, the eighth lineup was confirmed to include returning saxophonist and flautist Mel Collins, new guitarist and vocalist Jakko Jakszyk, third drummer Bill Rieflin. In March 2016, Jeremy Stacey replaced Rieflin for the year's touring remaining when Rieflin returned in January 2017. Rieflin was temporarily replaced again for an autumn 2017 tour by Chris Gibson.
For the band's 50th anniversary tour in 2019, it was announced that Rieflin would once more be temporarily replaced, this time by Theo Travis. However, after
Urocitellus is a genus of ground squirrels. They were believed to belong to the much larger genus Spermophilus, but DNA sequencing of the cytochrome b gene showed that this group was paraphyletic to the prairie dogs and marmots, could therefore no longer be retained as a single genus; as a result, Urocitellus is now considered as a genus in its own right. All but two species are native to the northern and western parts of North America, from California and Minnesota through the north-western United States and western Canada; the name of the genus is said to be derived from the Latin uro, meaning "tail" and citellus for "ground squirrel". The proper word for "tail" in classical Latin is cauda. Oura is the ancient Greek word for "tail". Twelve species are identified: Genus Urocitellus Uinta ground squirrel, Urocitellus armatus Belding's ground squirrel, Urocitellus beldingi Northern Idaho ground squirrel, Urocitellus brunneus Southern Idaho ground squirrel, Urocitellus endemicus Merriam's ground squirrel, Urocitellus canus Columbian ground squirrel, Urocitellus columbianus Wyoming ground squirrel, Urocitellus elegans Piute ground squirrel, Urocitellus mollis Arctic ground squirrel, Urocitellus parryii Richardson's ground squirrel, Urocitellus richardsonii Townsend's ground squirrel, Urocitellus townsendii Long-tailed ground squirrel, Urocitellus undulatus Washington ground squirrel, Urocitellus washingtoni
A home network or home area network is a type of computer network that facilitates communication among devices within the close vicinity of a home. Devices capable of participating in this network, for example, smart devices such as network printers and handheld mobile computers gain enhanced emergent capabilities through their ability to interact; these additional capabilities can be used to increase the quality of life inside the home in a variety of ways, such as automation of repetitive tasks, increased personal productivity, enhanced home security, easier access to entertainment. Establishing this kind of network is necessary for sharing residential Internet access to all networked devices. Based on techniques to mitigate IPv4 address exhaustion, most Internet service providers provide only a single wide area network-facing IP address for each residential customer. Therefore, such networks require network address translation in the network router. DHCP is used in a typical personal home local area network to assign IP addresses within the home subnet.
The DHCP server is a router. The router receives the configuration information through a modem from an internet service provider, which operates DHCP servers with this router as one of the clients; the clients request configuration settings using the DHCP protocol such as an IP address, a default route and one or more DNS server addresses. Once the client implements these settings, the host is able to communicate on that internet. A home network relies on one or more of the following equipment to establish physical layer, data link layer, network layer connectivity among internal devices known as the LAN, external devices outside the LAN networks or the WAN; the following are examples of typical LAN devices: A modem exposes an Ethernet interface to a service provider's native telecommunications infrastructure. In homes these come in the form of a DSL modem or cable modem. A router manages network layer connectivity between a WAN and the HAN, it performs the key function of network address translation enabling multiple devices to share the home's single WAN address.
Most home networks feature a particular class of small, passively cooled, table-top device with an integrated wireless access point and 4 port Ethernet switch. These devices aim to make the installation and management of a home network as automated, user friendly, "plug-and-play" as possible. A network switch is used to allow devices on the home network to talk to one another via Ethernet. While the needs of most home networks are satisfied with the built-in wireless and/or switching capabilities of their router, some situations require the addition of a separate switch with advanced capabilities. For example: A typical home router has 4 to 6 Ethernet LAN ports, so a router's switching capacity could be exceeded. A network device might require a non-standard port feature such as power over Ethernet. A wireless access point is required for connecting wireless devices to a network. Most home networks rely on a wireless router, which has a built in wireless access point, to fill this role. A home automation controller enables low-power wireless communications with simple, non-data-intensive devices such as smart light bulbs and smart locks.
A network bridge connects two networks in order to grant a wired-only device, e.g. Xbox, access to a wireless network medium. A service provider's triple play solution features a rented modem/wireless router combination device, such as an Arris SURFboard SBG6580, that only requires the setting of a password to complete the installation and configuration. In most situations, there is no longer a need to acquire additional infrastructure devices or for the user to possess advanced technical knowledge to distribute internet access throughout the home. Home networks can use either wireless technologies to connect endpoints. Wireless is the predominant option in homes due to the ease of installation, lack of unsightly cables, network performance characteristics sufficient for residential activities. One of the most common ways of creating a home network is by using wireless radio signal technology. Most wireless-capable residential devices operate at a frequency of 2.4 GHz under 802.11b and 802.11g or 5 GHz under 802.11a.
Some home networking devices operate in both radio-band signals and fall within the 802.11n or 802.11ac standards. Wi-Fi is a compliance certification for IEEE 802.11 technologies. The Wi-Fi Alliance has tested compliant products, certifies them for interoperability. Low power, close range communication based on IEEE 802.15 standards has a strong presence in homes. Bluetooth continues to be the technology of choice for most wireless accessories such as keyboards, mice and game controllers; these connections are established in a transient, ad-hoc manner and are not thought of as permanent residents of a home network. A "low-rate" version of the original WPAN protocol was used as the basis of ZigBee. Despite being conceived as a standard for low power machine-to-machine communication in industrial environments, the technology has been found to be well suited for integration into embedded "Smart Home" offerings that are expected to run on battery for extended periods of time. ZigBee utilizes mesh networking to overcome the distance limitations associated with traditional WPAN in order to establish a single network of addressable devices spread across the entire building.
Z-Wave is an additional standard built on 802.15.4, developed with the needs of hom