Abbey of Saint Gall

The Abbey of Saint Gall is a dissolved abbey in a Catholic religious complex in the city of St. Gallen in Switzerland; the Carolingian-era monastery has existed since 719 and became an independent principality between 9th and 13th centuries, was for many centuries one of the chief Benedictine abbeys in Europe. It was founded by Saint Othmar on the spot; the library of the Abbey is one of the richest medieval libraries in the world. The city of St. Gallen originated as an adjoining settlement of the abbey. Following the secularization of the abbey around 1800 the former Abbey church became a Cathedral in 1848. Since 1983 the whole remaining abbey precinct has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Around 613 Gallus, according to tradition an Irish monk and disciple and companion of Saint Columbanus, established a hermitage on the site that would become the monastery, he lived in his cell until his death in 646, was buried there in Arbon. Afterwards, the people venerated him as a saint and prayed at his tomb for his intercession in times of danger.

Following Gallus' death, Charles Martel appointed Otmar as custodian of St Gall's relics. Several different dates are given for the foundation of the monastery, including 719, 720, 747 and the middle of the 8th century. During the reign of Pepin the Short, in the 8th century, Othmar founded the Carolingian style Abbey of St Gall, where arts and sciences flourished; the abbey grew many Alemannic noblemen became monks. At the end of abbot Otmar's reign, the Professbuch mentions 53 names. Two monks of the Abbey of St Gall, Magnus von Füssen and Theodor, founded the monasteries in Kempten and Füssen in the Allgäu. With the increase in the number of monks the abbey grew stronger economically. Much land in Thurgau, Zürichgau and in the rest of Alemannia as far as the Neckar was transferred to the abbey due to Stiftungen. Under abbot Waldo of Reichenau copying of manuscripts was undertaken and a famous library was gathered. Numerous Anglo-Saxon and Irish monks came to copy manuscripts. At Charlemagne's request Pope Adrian I sent distinguished chanters from Rome, who propagated the use of the Gregorian chant.

In 744, the Alemannic nobleman Beata sells several properties to the abbey in order to finance his journey to Rome. In the subsequent century, St Gall came into conflict with the nearby Bishopric of Constance which had acquired jurisdiction over the Abbey of Reichenau on Lake Constance, it was not until Emperor Louis the Pious confirmed in 813 the imperial immediacy of the abbey, that this conflict ceased. The abbey became an Imperial Abbey. King Louis the German confirmed in 833 the immunity of the abbey and allowed the monks the free choice of their abbot. In 854 the Abbey of St Gall reached its full autonomy by King Louis the German releasing the abbey from the obligation to pay tithes to the Bishop of Constance. From this time until the 10th century, the abbey flourished, it was home to several famous scholars, including Notker of Liège, Notker the Stammerer, Notker Labeo and Hartker. During the 9th century a new, larger church was built and the library was expanded. Manuscripts on a wide variety of topics were purchased by the abbey and copies were made.

Over 400 manuscripts from this time are still in the library today. Between 924 and 933 the Magyars threatened the abbey and the books had to be removed to Reichenau for safety. Not all the books were returned. On 26 April 937 a fire broke out and destroyed much of the abbey and the adjoining settlement, though the library was undamaged. About 954 they started to protect the monastery and buildings by a surrounding wall. Around 971/974 abbot Notker finalized the walling and the adjoining settlements started to become the town of St Gall. In 1006, the abbey was the northernmost place; the death of abbot Ulrich II on 9 December 1076 terminated the cultural silver age of the monastery. In 1207, abbot Ulrich von Sax becomes a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire by King Philip of Swabia; the abbey became a Princely Abbey. As the abbey became more involved in local politics, it entered a period of decline; the city of St. Gallen proper progressively freed itself from the rule of the abbot, acquiring Imperial immediacy, by the late 15th century was recognized as a Free imperial city.

By about 1353 the guilds, headed by the cloth-weavers guild, gained control of the civic government. In 1415 the city bought its liberty from the German king King Sigismund. During the 14th century Humanists were allowed to carry off some of the rare texts from the abbey library. In the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the farmers of the abbot's personal estates began seeking independence. In 1401, the first of the Appenzell Wars broke out, following the Appenzell victory at Stoss in 1405 they became allies of the Swiss Confederation in 1411. During the Appenzell Wars, the town of St. Gallen sided with Appenzell against the abbey. So when Appenzell allied with the Swiss, the town of St. Gallen followed just a few months later; the abbot became an ally of several members of the Swiss Confederation in 1451. While Appenzell and St. Gallen became full members of the Swiss Confederation in 1454. In 1457 the town of St. Gallen became free from the abbot. In 1468 the abbot, Ulrich Rösch, bought the County of Toggenburg from the representatives of it

List of Digimon video games

Digimon is a series of role-playing video games and other genres published by Bandai Namco Entertainment. Most of the games have been developed by Namco Bandai Games, with other companies such as Griptonite Games and Dimps developing some titles; the games have been released for a variety of home and handheld game consoles such as the PlayStation, the Nintendo DS and Bandai's own WonderSwan. The series started in 1999 with the game Digimon World for the PlayStation, but released in 1998, there was a Japan-exclusive Digital Monster Ver. S: Digimon Tamers which started the Digimon video game line as a whole; the most released console games are 2016's Digimon World: Next Order and 2017's Digimon Story: Cyber Sleuth – Hacker's Memory, which are both for the PlayStation Vita in the East, PlayStation 4 in the west. The series revolves around the eponymous Digimon creatures and their human "Tamers", who both serve as player and non-player characters depending on the game. Gameplay focuses with Tamers present or otherwise.

The creatures can "Digivolve" forth between several evolutionary forms. Due to similar features and mechanics, Digimon has experienced a rivalry with the Pokémon series. However, it has maintained a dedicated fanbase. Despite being localized as Digimon World games, Digimon World DS and Digimon World Dawn and Dusk are not part of the Digimon World series and are instead the first two entries in the Digimon Story series. Despite being localized as Digimon World games, Digimon World Championship and Digimon World Data Squad are not part of the Digimon World series and are instead standalone games. Digimon card games Digimon virtual pet Digimon at GiantBomb

Charlie Hamilton James

Charlie Hamilton James is an English photographer, television cameraman and presenter, specialising in wildlife subjects. He started his career at 16, his work has since been commissioned by National Geographic Magazine, the BBC's Springwatch/Autumnwatch shows and The Natural World and he now works with his wife, Philippa Forrester. Their first collaboration, made when he was just 26, was My Halcyon River. Following its success, in 2003 they set up a production company, Halcyon Media, which specialises in wildlife productions. In 2007, they co-produced An Otter in the Family, a short documentary series about the adoption of an otter cub called Grace and their attempts to raise her as a wild animal to be released into the wild, they produced the four-part Halcyon River Diaries, the first episode of, broadcast on 16 May 2010 on BBC One. The series follows the wildlife found near their home. An additional episode was shown at Christmas 2010; the couple have three sons. All three have appeared in the couple's television programmes.

The couple's meeting, the arrival of their first son, Fred, in 2000, is described in her book The River. During the week of 30 May – 3 June 2011, Hamilton James presented a segment, comprising pre-recorded video and live commentary to camera, on the reintroduction of beavers to the United Kingdom, as part of the BBC's Springwatch. In June 2014 the TV series I Bought a Rainforest, about his £6,000 purchase of 100 acres of Peruvian rain forest, was screened by the BBC, he was Wildlife Cameraman of the Year's'Young Wildlife Photographer of the Year 91/92' and was nominated in three categories for Wildlife Cameraman of the Year in 2007. He is a Royal Television Society medal winner for cinematography. Kingfishers, Colin Baxter Photography,1995, ISBN 978-1-900455-25-1 The Matewix, Harper Collins, 2005 ISBN 978-0-00-717690-8 Kingfisher: Tales from the Halcyon River, Evans Mitchell Books, 2009, ISBN 978-1-901268-38-6 Halcyon River Diaries, Preface Publishing, 2010 ISBN 978-1-84809-225-9 Some of Hamilton James' programmes are available commercially: Natural World – On the Trail of Tarka, BBC Halcyon River Diaries Official website Charlie Hamilton James on Twitter Charlie Hamilton James on IMDb Charlie Hamilton James at Hilary Knight Management Halcyon River Diaries Digital Splash Event