Abbot is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various western religious traditions, including Christianity. The office may be given as an honorary title to a clergyman, not the head of a monastery; the female equivalent is abbess. The title had its origin in the monasteries of Egypt and Syria, spread through the eastern Mediterranean, soon became accepted in all languages as the designation of the head of a monastery; the word is derived from the Aramaic av meaning "father" or abba, meaning "my father". In the Septuagint, it was written as "abbas". At first it was employed as a respectful title for any monk, but it was soon restricted by canon law to certain priestly superiors. At times it was applied to various priests, e.g. at the court of the Frankish monarchy the Abbas palatinus and Abbas castrensis were chaplains to the Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns’ court and army respectively. The title of abbot came into general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests.

An abbot is the head and chief governor of a community of monks, called in the East hegumen or archimandrite. The English version for a female monastic head is abbess. In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, was but loosely defined. Sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well. Saint John Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid. By the Rule of St Benedict, until the Cluniac reforms, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community; the rule, as was inevitable, was subject to frequent violations. Monks, as a rule, at the outset was the abbot any exception. For the reception of the sacraments, for other religious offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest church; this rule proved inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at a distance from a city, necessity compelled the ordination of some monks. This innovation was not introduced without a struggle, ecclesiastical dignity being regarded as inconsistent with the higher spiritual life, before the close of the 5th century, at least in the East, abbots seem universally to have become deacons, if not priests.

The change spread more in the West, where the office of abbot was filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century. The ecclesiastical leadership exercised by abbots despite their frequent lay status is proved by their attendance and votes at ecclesiastical councils, thus at the first Council of Constantinople, AD 448, 23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops. The second Council of Nicaea, AD 787, recognized the right of abbots to ordain their monks to the inferior orders below the diaconate, a power reserved to bishops. Abbots used to be subject to episcopal jurisdiction, continued so, in fact, in the West till the 11th century; the Code of Justinian expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight. The first case recorded of the partial exemption of an abbot from episcopal control is that of Faustus, abbot of Lerins, at the council of Arles, AD 456; these exceptions, introduced with a good object, had grown into a widespread evil by the 12th century creating an imperium in imperio, depriving the bishop of all authority over the chief centres of influence in his diocese.

In the 12th century, the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne. Abbots more and more assumed episcopal state, in defiance of the prohibition of early councils and the protests of St Bernard and others, adopted the episcopal insignia of mitre, ring and sandals, it has been maintained that the right to wear mitres was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th century, but the documents on which this claim is based are not genuine. The first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury; the mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, St Alban's, Battle, Bury St Edmunds, St Augustine's Canterbury, Croyland, Glastonbury, Gloucester, St Benet's Hulme, Malmesbury, Ramsey, Selby, Tavistock, Westminster, St Mary's York. Of these the precedence was yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in AD 1154 Adrian IV granted it to the abbot of St Alban's, in which monastery he had been brought up.

Next after the abbot of St Alban's ranked the abbot of Westminster and Ramsey. Elsewhere, the mitred abbots that sat in the Estates of Scotland were of Arbroath, Coupar Angus, Holyrood, Kelso, Kinloss, Paisley, Scone, St Andrews Priory and Sweetheart. To distinguish abbots from bisho

Carol Lynley

Carol Lynley was an American actress and child model. She is known for her roles in the films The Poseidon Blue Denim. Lynley was born Carole Ann Jones in Manhattan, to New Englander mother, she began her career at the age of 15 as a child model appearing on the April 22, 1957, cover of Life. She started her acting career in 1958 with the Disney film The Light in the Forest followed by Holiday for Lovers and Blue Denim. In 1959, Lynley was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer – Female for the film The Light in the Forest, she won the Theatre World Award as "one of the most promising personalities for 1956-57" for her performance in Blue Denim. In 1960 she was again nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer - Female for the film Blue Denim. Lynley was born Carole Ann Jones in the daughter of Frances and Cyril Jones, her father was Irish and her mother, a native of New England, was of English, Scottish and German ancestry. She studied dance in her childhood.

Lynley's parents divorced when she was a child, her mother worked as a waitress until Lynley's income from modelling was enough to sustain the family. She had first appeared on a local television show and at the age of 14 she was signed as a child model, she appeared on live TV shows, the Goodyear Television Playhouse, Alfred Hitchcock Presents and Danger Route. She began her career as a child model under the name Carolyn Lee, she appeared on the April 22, 1957, cover of Life identified as "Carol Lynley, 15, Busy Career Girl." at age 15. When she started acting, she discovered that child actress Carolyn Lee had registered the name in the Actors' Equity union, she modified it by fusing it with Lee to make Lynley. In her teenage years Lynley appeared in several Clairol and Pepsodent advertisements that were publicized across the country. In 1955, she made her first stage appearance in Anniversary Waltz. At the age of 15, she played the role of Dame Sybil Thorndyke's granddaughter in the Broadway play The Potting Shed.

Early on, Lynley distinguished herself on both the Broadway stage and in Hollywood screen versions of the controversial drama Blue Denim, in which the teenaged characters played by Lynley and co-star Brandon deWilde had to deal with an unwanted pregnancy and abortion. She won the Theatre World Award as "one of the most promising personalities for 1956-57" for her performance in Blue Denim; this recognition helped. She started her film career in 1958 with the Disney's film The Light in the Forest followed by Holiday for Lovers. In 1959, Lynley was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer – Female. In 1960 she was again nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer – Female for the film Blue Denim, she acted in 20th Century Fox, Holiday for Lovers, Blue Denim, Hound-Dog Man, Return to Peyton Place and The Stripper. The Stripper was based on the play A Loss of Roses written by William Inge. Lynley appeared in many films portraying the blonde-girl-next-door gone bad.

Lynley is best known for her film roles in Return to Peyton Place, sex comedy Under the Yum Yum Tree, thriller Bunny Lake Is Missing, The Pleasure Seekers, drama The Cardinal, The Poseidon Adventure, in which she lip synced the Oscar-winning song "The Morning After". The Hollywood Reporter reported that she was on the peak of her career in the year 1965. Lynley posed nude at age 22 for the March 1965 edition of Playboy magazine, she played. Lynley took the role of the blonde bombshell Jean Harlow in the biopic titled Harlow, she appeared in the pilot television movies for Kolchak: Fantasy Island. Her many other series appearances include The Big Valley, Mannix, It Takes a Thief, Night Gallery, The Invaders, Hawaii Five-O, Hart to Hart, Charlie's Angels. Lynley appeared in the fourth season of The Man from U. N. C. L. E. in the two-part episode "The Prince of Darkness Affair". The decline in her career started in the late'70s, she did smaller roles, guest appearances and appeared in low-budget productions like The Maltese Bippy, The Four Deuces, The Washington Affair and Bad Georgia Road.

In 1992, she acted as a nun. She acted in Flypaper followed by the low-budget film Drowning on Dry Land. Many of the low-budget movies she acted in during the part of her career were direct-to-video. In 2000, in an interview with the San Francisco Chronicle, Lynley discussed the difficulty faced by middle-aged actresses in finding roles, she predicted she'd have a comeback in old age, stating, "I don't mean to sound conceited, but I am a talented actress, I have my head screwed on right." And she added "I'm not going to drug clinics, I look good, I've got all my marbles. So I believe I'll be back."In 2006, she appeared in a 30-minute film, Vic, co-written and directed by Sage Stallone, the late son of Sylvester Stallone. In 1960, she married publicist Michael Selsman; the marriage produced one child, Jill Selsman, ended in divorce in 1964. Lynley had an 18-year intermittent affair with English broadcaster and writer David Frost. Lynley died aged 77 of a heart attack on September 3, 2019, at her home in Pacific Palisades, California.

1983 Ivy "Paradise Island" Carol

Rules (album)

Rules is the second and final album by indie pop band The Whitest Boy Alive. It was recorded in Punta Burros Nayarit, where the band was staying to rest after a long tour. In early 2009, Australian radio station Triple J named Rules their feature album of the week; the track "1517" was featured in the video game by EA Sports. "Keep a Secret" "Intentions" "Courage" "Timebomb" "Rollercoaster Ride" "High on the Heels" "1517" "Gravity" "Promise Less or Do More" "Dead End" "Island" The vinyl edition of Rules has a different track listing order than the CD edition: "Courage" "Gravity" "Promise Less or Do More" "Island" "Rollercoaster Ride" "Dead End" "Keep a Secret" "High on the Heels" "Intentions" "Timebomb" "1517"