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Abbott and Costello

Abbott and Costello were an American comedy duo composed of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, whose work on radio and in film and television made them the most popular comedy team of the 1940s and early 1950s. Their patter routine "Who's on First?" is one of the best-known comedy routines of all time, set the framework for many of their best-known comedy bits. While they had crossed paths a few times the two comedians first worked together in 1935 at the Eltinge Burlesque Theater on 42nd Street in New York City, now the lobby of an AMC Theatres movie complex, their first performance resulted from Costello's regular partner becoming ill. Decades when AMC moved the old theater 168 ft further west on 42nd Street to its current location, giant balloons of Abbott and Costello were rigged to appear to pull it. Other performers in the show, including Abbott's wife, encouraged a permanent pairing; the duo built an act by refining and reworking numerous burlesque sketches with Abbott as the devious straight man and Costello as the dimwitted comic.

The team's first known radio broadcast was on The Kate Smith Hour on February 3, 1938. At first, the similarities between their voices made it difficult for radio listeners to tell them apart during their rapid-fire repartee; as a result, Costello affected a childish voice. "Who's on First?" was first performed for a national radio audience the following month. They performed on the program as regulars for two years, while landing roles in a Broadway revue, The Streets of Paris, in 1939. After debuting their own program, The Abbott and Costello Show, as Fred Allen's summer replacement in 1940, Abbott and Costello joined Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy on The Chase and Sanborn Hour in 1941. Two of their films were adapted for Lux Radio Theater that year, their program returned in its own weekly time slot starting on October 8, 1942 and Camel cigarettes as sponsor. The Abbott and Costello Show mixed comedy with musical interludes. Regulars and semi-regulars on the show included Artie Auerbach, Elvia Allman, Iris Adrian, Mel Blanc, Wally Brown, Sharon Douglas, Verna Felton, Sidney Fields, Frank Nelson, Martha Wentworth and Benay Venuta.

Ken Niles was the show's longtime announcer, doubling as an exasperated foil to Costello, who insulted his on-air wife. Niles was succeeded by Michael Roy, alternating over the years with Jim Doyle; the show went through several orchestras, including those of Ennis, Charles Hoff, Matty Matlock, Matty Malneck, Jack Meakin, Will Osborne, Fred Rich, Leith Stevens and Peter van Steeden. The show's writers included Howard Harris, Hal Fimberg, Parke Levy, Don Prindle, Eddie Cherkose, Leonard B. Stern, Martin Ragaway, Paul Conlan and Eddie Forman, as well as producer Martin Gosch. Sound effects were handled by Floyd Caton. Guest stars included Frank Sinatra, The Andrews Sisters and Lucille Ball. In 1947 the show moved to ABC. During their time on ABC the duo hosted a 30-minute children's radio program on Saturday mornings; the program featured child announcer Johnny McGovern. It finished its run in 1949. In 1940, Universal Studios signed them for One Night in the Tropics. Cast in supporting roles, they stole the show with several classic routines, including the "Who's on First?" routine.

Universal signed them to a two-picture contract. Their second film, Buck Privates, directed by Arthur Lubin and co-starring The Andrews Sisters, was a massive hit, earning $4 million at the box office and launching Abbott and Costello as stars, their next film was a haunted house comedy, Oh, Charlie!. However Buck Privates was so successful that the studio decided to delay its release so the team could hastily make and release a second service comedy, In The Navy, co-starring crooner Dick Powell and the Andrews Sisters; this film out-grossed Buck Privates. Loew's Criterion in Manhattan was open until 5 a.m. to oblige over 49,000 customers during the film's first week. Oh, Charlie was put back into production to add music featuring the Andrews Ted Lewis; the film was released as Hold That Ghost. The duo next made Ride'Em Cowboy, with Dick Foran, but its release was delayed so they could appear in a third service comedy, Keep'Em Flying; this was their last film with Arthur Lubin. All of their 1941 films were big hits, Abbott and Costello were voted the third biggest box office attraction in the country in 1941.

Universal loaned the team to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for Rio Rita. During filming Abbott and Costello had their hand and foot prints set in concrete at what was "Grauman's Chinese Theatre". Back at Universal they made a spoof of South Sea Island movies. In 1942 exhibitors voted them the top box office stars in the country, their earnings for the fiscal year were $789,026; the team did a 35-day tour during the summer of 1942 to sell War Bonds. The Treasury Department credited them with $85 million in sales. After the tour the team made It Ain't Hay, from a story by Damon Runyon. Costello was stricken with rheumatic fever upon his return from a winter tour of army bases in March 1943 and was bedridden for six months. On November 4, 1943, the same day that Costello returned to radio after a one-year layoff due to his illness, his i

Lowell High School (Massachusetts)

Lowell High School is a single-campus public high school located in downtown Lowell, Massachusetts. The school is a part of Lowell Public Schools. Lowell, Massachusetts was incorporated as a town in 1826 and Lowell High School opened shortly after in 1831. One of its earliest homes was a small brick building on Middlesex Street owned by the Hamilton Manufacturing Company. Lowell's public schools were integrated and African American Caroline Van Vronker was a student at Lowell High School in 1843, at a time when every public high school in Massachusetts and the United States was segregated. In 1840, the high school moved into a new building located between Kirk Street and Anne Street along the Merrimack Canal. Over the next 100 years, the school campus expanded; the oldest extant building replaced the 1840s building in 1893. In 1922, a large new building was built along Kirk Street and in the 1980s another building was built on the opposite side of the Merrimack Canal with connecting walkways over the canal.

There are now three major buildings with one limited to the Freshman Academy. Current enrollment is over 3000 students; the mascot of Lowell High School is the Red Raider and the school colors are maroon & gray. Charles Herbert Allen - Politician: Congressman. Straw - Politician: Governor of New Hampshire Paul Tsongas - Politician: Democratic. Changing Times: A Century and a Half at Lowell High School. 1840-1990 located on Kirk Street, Massachusetts

California Coastal Comm'n v. Granite Rock Co.

California Coastal Comm'n v. Granite Rock Co. 480 U. S. 572, is a United States Supreme Court case addressing the question of whether United States Forest Service regulations, federal land use statutes and regulations, or the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, preempt the California Coastal Commission's imposition of a permit requirement on operation of an unpatented mining claim in a national forest. The court ruled that if federal land is not included in the Coastal Zone Management Act's interpretation of "coastal zone," the act does not automatically preempt all state regulation of activities on federal lands. Granite Rock Company of Watsonville, California purchased the property and mineral rights to a large deposit of white limestone on Mount Pico Blanco in the Los Padres National Forest on the Big Sur coast of California in 1963; the limestone deposit is made up of two large, pharmaceutical grade limestone bodies known as the Pico Blanco body and the Hayfield body. It is the only high-grade deposit on the Pacific Coast outside Alaska within three miles of potential marine transportation.

Reserves have been estimated to be from 600 million to a billion tons the largest in California, the largest west of the Rocky Mountains. In 1980, Granite Rock submitted to the Forest Service a five-year plan to remove substantial amounts of limestone from a quarry on the south face of Pico Blanco within the National Forest boundary; the Forest Service prepared an Environmental Assessment of the plan and recommended some modifications, which Granite Rock implemented. When Graniterock obtained the permit in 1983, it began to excavate a 5-acre open pit mine; the California Coastal Commission required Granite Rock to apply for a coastal development permit for any mining undertaken after the date of notification. The Coastal Commission did not seek to prohibit mining of the unpatented claim, only to regulate mining activity in accordance with the detailed requirements of the California Coastal Act. Granite Rock filed an action in U. S. District Court claiming that the Coastal Commission permit requirement was preempted by Forest Service regulations, by the Mining Act of 1872, by the Coastal Zone Management Act.

The District Court denied Granite Rock's motion for summary judgment, dismissed the action. The Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed the lower court's decision, holding that the Coastal Commission permit requirement was preempted by the Mining Act of 1872 and Forest Service regulations; the Coastal Commission appealed to the Supreme Court. Granite Rock suggested that the Property Clause not only vests unlimited power in Congress over the use of federally owned lands, but exempts federal lands from state regulation, whether or not those regulations conflict with federal law; the Supreme Court held that "the State is free to enforce its criminal and civil laws" on federal land so long as those laws do not conflict with federal law. The court held that because Congress disclaimed any intention to preempt preexisting state authority in the Coastal Zone Management Act if all federal lands are excluded from the Coastal Zone Management Act definition of "coastal zone", the act does not automatically preempt all state regulation of activities on federal lands.

They ruled in favor of the Coastal Commission. Although Granite Rock's five-year plan of operations had expired by the time the case reached the Supreme Court, it still had the right to reapply for a forest service permit and request review of the permit by the coastal commission, it has not indicated if it will. It still owns the land. Text of California Coastal Comm'n v. Granite Rock Co. 480 U. S. 572 is available from: Findlaw Justia Library of Congress Oyez

Donald Cameron of Lochiel

Donald Cameron of Lochiel, was hereditary chief of Clan Cameron, traditionally loyal to the exiled House of Stuart. His father John was permanently exiled after the 1715 Rising and when his grandfather Sir Ewen Cameron died in 1719, Donald assumed his duties as'Lochiel.' The Camerons held a strategic importance out of proportion to numbers due to the compact nature of their lands and ability to act as a cohesive unit. Despite considerable misgivings, Lochiel's support for Prince Charles proved pivotal in the early stages of the 1745 Jacobite Rising. Badly wounded at Culloden, Lochiel escaped to France in September 1746, in company with Charles and other senior Jacobites, he was appointed Colonel of the Régiment d'Albanie by Louis XV and a member of Order of Saint Michael. He died in Bergues, French Flanders on 23 October 1748, he is referred to as'Gentle Lochiel', an attribution that first appeared in a poem written after his death. The earliest surviving portrait of Lochiel dates from the 1760s and no confirmed contemporary likeness exists.

Donald Cameron was born around 1695, although some sources suggest 1700. His father John Cameron, 18th Lochiel participated in the 1708 attempt, as well as the 1715 and 1719 Risings; as a result, he spent the rest of his life in exile and when Sir Ewen Cameron died in 1719, Donald became acting clan chief and was thereafter known as Lochiel. Lochiel had four brothers. Alexander was a Jesuit priest, captured at Culloden and died of disease awaiting trial, his sister Margaret married Ranald MacDonald of another prominent Jacobite family. In 1729, Lochiel married Ann Campbell, who like his mother Isabel came from a Jacobite branch of the Campbell clan and they had three sons and four daughters. After 1745, his home Achnacarry was destroyed and property confiscated. In the decades following the failed 1719 Rising, Highland society and economy became more integrated with the outside world but remained one of the poorest areas of Europe. Poverty was marked in the Western Isles and Lochaber, made worse by fines imposed after the 1715 Rising.

Highland chiefs traditionally rented land to tacksmen relatives, who provided men for military service as part of their rent. However, the military aspects of clanship had been in decline for many years, the last significant inter-clan battle being Maol Ruadh in August 1688 which meant paying for a capacity, used. In 1737, the Duke of Argyll abolished the tacksman role, instead renting lands to the highest bidder. Lochiel wished to do the same but was prevented from doing so by James Stuart, the Old Pretender, who wished to retain this military capability. One lesson learned by the central government after the failed 1719 Rising was their continuing reliance on clan chiefs to control the Highlands. To offset this, between 1725 to 1738, George Wade built a network of military roads, connecting garrisons at Fort Augustus, Ruthven Barracks and Fort William, first built by Cromwell in 1654 to control Cameron lands in Lochaber; these reduced the power of Jacobite chiefs like Lochiel, Clanranald and Appin.

Lochiel and six colleagues, including his father-in-law Sir James Campbell, formed an association committing to support a Stuart restoration but only with French military backing. In late 1743, Louis XV proposed a landing in England to restore the Stuarts. Charles suggested an alternative landing in Scotland. After Murray shared this with the Jacobite Buck Club and others signed a declaration urging Charles not to do so, unless he brought 6,000 French troops and weapons; when Charles landed on Eriskay in July, Lochiel refused to meet him but was persuaded, although his brother John Cameron of Fassefern warned emotion would prevail over his judgement. This proved correct and Lochiel's commitment persuaded others, including his cousin Macpherson of Cluny, who deserted from Loudon's Highlanders before Prestonpans; the process took over three weeks and Lochiel did so only when Charles gave him a personal guarantee for "the full value of his estate should the rising prove abortive," and Glengarry provided a written undertaking to raise the Macdonalds.

Lochiel's decision was not a surprise to John Cameron or Duncan Forbes, senior government legal officer in Scotland. This suggests it was emotional, although his own account claims he did so'after fruitless attempts to persuade to go back where he came from.' It is claimed the government forced him into

IBM z13 (microprocessor)

The z13 is a microprocessor made by IBM for their z13 mainframe computers, announced on January 14, 2015. Manufactured at GlobalFoundries' East Fishkill, New York fabrication plant. IBM stated that it is the world's fastest microprocessor and is about 10% faster than its predecessor the zEC12 in general single-threaded computing, but more when doing specialized tasks; the IBM z13 is the last z Systems server to support running an operating system in ESA/390 architecture mode. However, all 24-bit and 31-bit problem-state application programs written to run on the ESA/390 architecture are unaffected by this change; the Processor Unit chip contains 3.99 billion transistors. It is fabricated using IBM's 22 nm CMOS silicon on insulator fabrication process, using 17 metal layers and supporting speeds of 5.0 GHz, less than its predecessor, the zEC12. The PU chip can have seven or eight cores enabled depending on configuration; the PU chip is packaged in a single-chip module, a departure from IBM's previous mainframe processors, which were mounted on large multi-chip modules.

A computer drawer consists of two Storage Controller chips. The cores implement the CISC z/Architecture with out-of-order pipeline, it has facilities related to transactional memory, new features such as two-way simultaneous multithreading, 139 new SIMD instructions, data compression, improved cryptography and logical partitioning. The cores have numerous other enhancements such as a new superscalar pipeline, on-chip cache design and error correction; the instruction pipeline has an instruction queue. Each core has a private 96 KB L1 instruction cache, a private 128 KB L1 data cache, a private 2 MB L2 cache instruction cache, a private 2 MB L2 data cache. In addition, there is a 64 MB shared L3 cache implemented in eDRAM; the z13 chip has on board multi-channel DDR3 RAM memory controller supporting a RAID-like configuration to recover from memory faults. The z13 includes two GX bus as well as two new Gen 3 PCIe controllers for accessing host channel adapters and peripherals; the z13 processor supports a new vector facility architecture.

It adds. The new architecture adds over 150 new instructions to operate on data in vector registers, including integer, floating-point, string data types; the z13 implementation includes two independent SIMD units to operate on vector data. A compute drawer consists of two sets of one Storage Controller chip. Though each PU chip has 64 MB L3 cache shared by the 8 cores and other on-die facilities the SC chip adds 480 MB off-die L4 cache shared by three PU chips; the two SC chips add a total of 960 MB L4 cache per drawer. The SC chips handle the communications between the sets of three PU chips and to other drawers; the SC chip is manufactured on the same 22 nm process as the z13 PU chips, has 15 metal layers, measures 28.4 × 23.9 mm, consists of 7.1 billion transistors and runs at half the clock frequency of the CP chip. Z/Architecture IBM System z Mainframe computer

Shefford (provincial electoral district)

Shefford is a former provincial electoral district in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada. As of its final election, it included the cities of Waterloo, it was created for the 1867 election. Its final election was in 2008, it disappeared in the 2012 election and the successor electoral districts were Granby and Brome-Missisquoi. Michel-Adrien Bessette, Conservative Party Maurice Laframboise, Liberal Joseph Lafontaine, Liberal Isidore Frégeau, Conservative Party Thomas Brassard, Liberal Tancrède Boucher de Grosbois, Liberal Adolphe-François Savaria, Conservative Party Tancrède Boucher de Grosbois, Liberal Auguste Mathieu, Liberal Ludger-Pierre Bernard, Conservative Party William Stephen Bullock, Liberal Robert-Raoul Bachand, Liberal Hector Choquette, Action liberale nationale - Union Nationale Charles Munson Bullock, Liberal Hector Choquette, Union Nationale Gaston Ledoux, Liberal Armand Russell, Union Nationale Richard Verreault, Liberal Roger Paré, Parti Québécois Bernard Brodeur, Liberal François Bonnardel, ADQ, CAQ Information Elections QuebecElection results Election results Election results Maps2001 map 2001–2011 changes 1992–2001 changes Electoral map of Montérégie region Quebec electoral map, 2001