Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle (foot)
The Flexor digiti minimi brevis lies under the metatarsal bone on the little toe, resembles one of the Interossei. It arises from the base of the fifth metatarsal bone, from the sheath of the Fibularis longus. A few of the deeper fibers are inserted into the lateral part of the distal half of the fifth metatarsal bone; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 494 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Flexor digitorum brevis muscle
The flexor digitorum brevis lies in the middle of the sole of the foot above the central part of the plantar aponeurosis, with which it is united. Its deep surface is separated from the lateral nerves by a thin layer of fascia, it arises by a narrow tendon, from the medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, from the central part of the plantar aponeurosis, from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles. It passes forward, divides into four tendons, one for each of the four lesser toes. Opposite the bases of the first phalanges, each tendon divides into two slips, to allow of the passage of the corresponding tendon of the flexor digitorum longus, it divides a second time, is inserted into the sides of the second phalanx about its middle. The mode of division of the tendons of the flexor digitorum brevis, of their insertion into the phalanges, is analogous to that of the tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis in the hand. Innervation is by the medial plantar nerve.
Slip to the little toe may be absent, where it may be replaced by a small fusiform muscle arising from the long flexor tendon or from the quadratus plantæ. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 491 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:16:st-0411 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Foot: Muscles" PTCentral
Anatomical terms of location
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates have the same basic body plan – they are bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood; that is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the middle. For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines. For example, differences in terminology remain a problem that, to some extent, still separates the terminology of human anatomy from that used in the study of various other zoological categories. Standardized anatomical and zoological terms of location have been developed based on Latin and Greek words, to enable all biological and medical scientists to delineate and communicate information about animal bodies and their component organs though the meaning of some of the terms is context-sensitive.
The vertebrates and Craniata share a substantial heritage and common structure, so many of the same terms are used for location. To avoid ambiguities this terminology is based on the anatomy of each animal in a standard way. For humans, one type of vertebrate, anatomical terms may differ from other forms of vertebrates. For one reason, this is because humans have a different neuraxis and, unlike animals that rest on four limbs, humans are considered when describing anatomy as being in the standard anatomical position, thus what is on "top" of a human is the head, whereas the "top" of a dog may be its back, the "top" of a flounder could refer to either its left or its right side. For invertebrates, standard application of locational terminology becomes difficult or debatable at best when the differences in morphology are so radical that common concepts are not homologous and do not refer to common concepts. For example, many species are not bilaterally symmetrical. In these species, terminology depends on their type of symmetry.
Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, because appendages like limbs and tentacles can change position with respect to the main body, positional descriptive terms need to refer to the animal as in its standard anatomical position. All descriptions are with respect to the organism in its standard anatomical position when the organism in question has appendages in another position; this helps avoid confusion in terminology. In humans, this refers to the body in a standing position with arms at the side and palms facing forward. While the universal vertebrate terminology used in veterinary medicine would work in human medicine, the human terms are thought to be too well established to be worth changing. Many anatomical terms can be combined, either to indicate a position in two axes or to indicate the direction of a movement relative to the body. For example, "anterolateral" indicates a position, both anterior and lateral to the body axis. In radiology, an X-ray image may be said to be "anteroposterior", indicating that the beam of X-rays pass from their source to patient's anterior body wall through the body to exit through posterior body wall.
There is no definite limit to the contexts in which terms may be modified to qualify each other in such combinations. The modifier term is truncated and an "o" or an "i" is added in prefixing it to the qualified term. For example, a view of an animal from an aspect at once dorsal and lateral might be called a "dorsolateral" view. Again, in describing the morphology of an organ or habitus of an animal such as many of the Platyhelminthes, one might speak of it as "dorsiventrally" flattened as opposed to bilaterally flattened animals such as ocean sunfish. Where desirable three or more terms may be agglutinated or concatenated, as in "anteriodorsolateral"; such terms sometimes used to be hyphenated. There is however little basis for any strict rule to interfere with choice of convenience in such usage. Three basic reference planes are used to describe location; the sagittal plane is a plane parallel to the sagittal suture. All other sagittal planes are parallel to it, it is known as a "longitudinal plane".
The plane is perpendicular to the ground. The median plane or midsagittal plane is in the midline of the body, divides the body into left and right portions; this passes through the head, spinal cord, and, in many animals, the tail. The term "median plane" can refer to the midsagittal plane of other structures, such as a digit; the frontal plane or coronal plane divides the body into ventral portions. For post-embryonic humans a coronal plane is vertical and a transverse plane is horizontal, but for embryos and quadrupeds a coronal plane is horizontal and a transverse plane is vertical. A longitudinal plane is any plane perpendicular to the transverse plane; the coronal plane and the sagittal plane are examples of longitudinal planes. A transverse plane known as a cross-section, divides the body into cranial and caudal portions. In human anatomy: A transverse plane is an X-Z plane, parallel to the ground, which s
Abductor digiti minimi muscle of hand
In human anatomy, the abductor digiti minimi is a skeletal muscle situated on the ulnar border of the palm of the hand. It forms the ulnar border of the palm and its spindle-like shape defines the hypothenar eminence of the palm together with the skin, connective tissue, fat surrounding it, its main function is to pull the little finger away from the other fingers. The abductor digiti minimi arises from the pisiform bone, the pisohamate ligament, the flexor retinaculum, its distal tendon ends in three slips that are inserted into the ulnopalmar margin of the proximal phalanx, the palmar plate of the metacarpophalangeal joint, the sesamoid bone when present. Some fibers insert into the finger's dorsal aponeurosis, why the muscle acts similar to a dorsal interosseus muscle. Additionally, the ulnar-most portion of the tendon inserts into the little finger's digital cord, the muscle thus forms part of a structure that flexes the metacarpophalangeal joint and extends the interphalangeal joints, it is innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve.
The abductor digit minimi develops at an early stage from an ulnar muscle primordium of the superficial layer of the original undifferentiated mesenchyme of the hand, together with the flexor digitorum superficialis and the abductor pollicis brevis. In contrast, the remaining hypothenar muscles are derived from the deep layer at a stage. In rare cases accessory fascicles of the abductor digiti minimi have been found arising from the antebrachial fascia, the radius, the ulna; the abductor digiti minimi is the most variable hypothenar muscle, might be joined by accessory slips from the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris, the flexor retinaculum, the fascia of the distal forearm, or the tendon of the palmaris longus. The muscle is inserted onto the fifth metacarpal bone. In case of polydactyly it may insert to the sixth finger instead, it is an abductor of the little finger at the metacarpophalangeal joint. It is possible that the muscle contributes to extension of the middle phalanx of the little finger through its connection to finger's extensor mechanism.
It plays an important role. The name is derived from the Latin -ab "away from". Abductor digiti minimi muscle of foot
An aponeurosis is a type or a variant of the deep fascia, in the form of a sheet of pearly-white fibrous tissue that attaches sheet-like muscles needing a wide area of attachment. Their primary function is to join muscles and the body parts they act upon, whether it be bone or other muscles, they have a shiny, whitish-silvery color, are histologically similar to tendons, are sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves. When dissected, aponeuroses are peel off by sections; the primary regions with thick aponeuroses are in the ventral abdominal region, the dorsal lumbar region, the ventriculus in birds, the palmar and plantar regions. The anterior abdominal aponeuroses are located just superficial to the rectus abdominis muscle, it has for its borders the external oblique, pectoralis muscles, the latissimus dorsi. The posterior lumbar aponeuroses are situated just on top of the epaxial muscles of the thorax, which are multifidus spinae and sacrospinalis; the palmar aponeuroses occur on the palms of the hands.
The extensor hoods are aponeuroses at the back of the fingers. The plantar aponeuroses occur on the plantar aspect of the foot, they extend from the calcaneal tuberosity diverge to connect to the bones and the dermis of the skin around the distal part of the metatarsal bones. The anterior and posterior intercostal membranes are aponeuroses located between the ribs and are continuations of the external and internal intercostal muscles, respectively; the epicranial aponeurosis, or galea aponeurotica, is a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which runs from the frontalis muscle anteriorly to the occipitalis posteriorly. Pennate muscles, in which the muscle fibers are oriented at an angle to the line of action have two aponeuroses. Muscle fibers connect one to the other, each aponeurosis thins into a tendon which attaches to bone at the origin or insertion site. Like tendons, aponeuroses attached to pennate muscles can be stretched by the forces of muscular contraction, absorbing energy like a spring and returning it when they recoil to unloaded conditions.
Serving as an origin or insertion site for certain muscles e.g latissimus dorsi. Aponeurosis of the obliquus externus abdominis Aponeurosis of the serratus posterior superior muscle Plantar aponeurosis Inguinal aponeurotic falx Bicipital aponeurosis Palatine aponeurosis Fascia Gray's s104 - Aponeuroses
Medial intermuscular septum of thigh
The medial intermuscular septum of thigh is a fold of deep fascia in the thigh. It is between the vastus medialis, the adductors and pectineus, it separates the anterior compartment of the thigh from the medial compartment of the thigh. Lateral intermuscular septum of thigh Anterior compartment of thigh Medial compartment of thigh http://anatomy.uams.edu/AnatomyHTML/topogr_lowerlimb.html https://web.archive.org/web/20080123084323/http://anatomy.med.umich.edu/limbs/thigh_tables.html