United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania
King of Prussia is a census-designated place in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 19,936; the community took its name in the 18th century from a local tavern named the King of Prussia Inn, named after King Frederick the Great of Prussia. Like the rest of Montgomery County, King of Prussia continues to experience rapid development; the largest shopping mall in the United States, King of Prussia, is located here. Located here is the headquarters of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Region I. King of Prussia is considered to be an edge city of Philadelphia, consisting of large amounts of retail and office space situated at the convergence of four highways; the eponymous King of Prussia Inn was constructed as a cottage in 1719 by the Welsh Quakers William and Janet Rees, founders of Reesville. The cottage was converted to an inn in 1769 and did a steady business in colonial times as it was a day's travel by horse from Philadelphia. Settlers headed west to Ohio would sleep at the inn on their first night on the road.
In 1774 the Rees family hired James Berry to manage the inn, which henceforth became known as "Berry's Tavern". General George Washington first visited the tavern on Thanksgiving Day in 1777 while the Continental Army was encamped at Whitemarsh. Parker's spy map, created by a Tory sympathizer of the Kingdom of Great Britain, listed the inn as "Berry's" in 1777, but a local petition in 1786 identified it as the "King of Prussia", it was renamed in honor of Benjamin Franklin's pro-American satirical essay "An Edict by the King of Prussia". At some point a wooden signboard of the inn depicted King Frederick II of Prussia; the inn is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The inn was forced to move with the expansion of U. S. Route 202. U. S. 202 is a major north-south highway. Its construction as a modern expressway would have caused the destruction of the King of Prussia Inn. For more than a quarter century the inn was marooned on a median island, with motor traffic whizzing past on both sides.
It was sealed up for years, surrounded by a high fence. The inn was relocated in 2000 and opened to the public in October 2002; the extensive suburban development that has taken place since the 1960s in King of Prussia has led urban planning scholars like Joel Garreau to label the area as an epitome of the edge city phenomenon, a situation where the most vibrant economic growth and prosperity in a metropolitan area no longer occurs in the urban center, but rather at its periphery. Before 1960, the Greater King of Prussia area was known for little more than being the place of Washington's winter respite in 1777-8; the growth in King of Prussia developed around the convergence of four highways with the construction of the King of Prussia mall, a large business park, housing developments. Daniel Berrigan and his brother Philip Berrigan began their Plowshares Movement at the General Electric Weapons Plant in King of Prussia in 1980; that event and the subsequent court proceedings surrounding the'Plowshares Eight' were depicted by Emile de Antonio in the 1983 motion picture In the King of Prussia.
In the late 1980s, developer Dennis Maloomian acquired a golf course near the King of Prussia mall and planned a mixed-use residential and retail development that would include a town center for King of Prussia. The proposed development needed to be rezoned but Upper Merion Township officials and local residents were opposed to the plans. After several court battles, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court ruled in Maloomian's favor in 2003; the planned development became known as the Village at Valley Forge and would include a suburban downtown, apartments and offices. The retail area would be known as the King of Prussia Town Center; the first part of the town center was completed in 2014 with the opening of a Wegmans grocery store. This was followed by the construction of the downtown area with several restaurants. Offices are being constructed and residential areas are in development. By the 2000s, the business park in King of Prussia was losing tenants. By 2009, several office building owners pushed for Upper Merion Township to improve the business park.
Improvements were made to King of Prussia including landscaping the median of US 202, installing King of Prussia signs at the borders to the community, creating a shuttle service connecting the business park to nearby train stations, changing the zoning laws to allow for apartments and townhouses to be constructed in the business park. The vacancy rates at the business park have since dropped. In 2016, the two sections of the King of Prussia mall, The Plaza and The Court, were joined to create one large shopping mall. There is no incorporated city of King of Prussia, although the United States Postal Service office there has carried that name since 1837, its ZIP code is 19406. King of Prussia's boundaries, as defined by the Census Bureau, are the Schuylkill River to the north, U. S. Route 422 to the west, Bridgeport to the east, I-76 to the south. However, the Greater King of Prussia Area is cited to include Bridgeport, parts of Wayne and Radnor Township, King Manor, as well as most of Gulph Mills.
The local fire department carries the King of Prussia name, whereas the police department and the school district car
Reuters is an international news organization. It has nearly 200 locations around the world; until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, the Reuters news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division. Reuters transmits news in English, German, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Japanese and Chinese, it was established in 1851. The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in Britain at the London Royal Exchange. Paul Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848; these publications brought much attention to Reuter, who in 1850 developed a prototype news service in Aachen using homing pigeons and electric telegraphy from 1851 on in order to transmit messages between Brussels and Aachen, in what today is Aachen's Reuters House.
Upon moving to England, he founded Reuter's Telegram Company in 1851. Headquartered in London, the company covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, business firms; the first newspaper client to subscribe was the London Morning Advertiser in 1858. Afterwards more newspapers signed up, with Britannica Encyclopedia writing that "the value of Reuters to newspapers lay not only in the financial news it provided but in its ability to be the first to report on stories of international importance." Reuter's agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad. Reuters was the first to report Abraham Lincoln's assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1865. In 1872, Reuters expanded into the far east, followed by South America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1883, Reuters began transmitting messages electrically to London newspapers. In 1923, Reuters began using radio to transmit a pioneering act.
In 1925, The Press Association of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, full ownership some years later. During the world wars, The Guardian reported that Reuters "came under pressure from the British government to serve national interests. In 1941 Reuters deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners formed the Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters to the Newspaper Proprietors' Association, co-ownership was expanded in 1947 to associations that represented daily newspapers in New Zealand and Australia; the Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the company's independence. At that point, Reuters had become "one of the world's major news agencies, supplying both text and images to newspapers, other news agencies, radio and television broadcasters." At that point, it directly or through national news agencies provided service "to most countries, reaching all the world's leading newspapers and many thousands of smaller ones," according to Britannica.
In 1961, Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin Wall. Reuters was one of the first news agencies to transmit financial data over oceans via computers in the 1960s. In 1973, Reuters "began making computer-terminal displays of foreign-exchange rates available to clients." In 1981, Reuters began making electronic transactions on its computer network and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters was floated as a public company in 1984, when Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin Wall being breached in 1989; the share price grew during the dotcom boom fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Brittanica wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies: the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Reuters merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange.
The last surviving member of the Reuters family founders, Baroness de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009. The parent company Thomson Reuters is headquartered in Toronto, provides financial information to clients while maintaining its traditional news-agency business. In 2012, Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO; every major news outlet in the world subscribed to Reuters as of 2014. Reuters operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20 languages as of 2014. In July 2016, Thomson Reuters agreed to sell its intellectual property and science operation for $3.55 billion to private equity firms. In October 2016, Thomson Reuters announced relocations to Toronto; as part of cuts and restructuring, in November 2016, Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated 2,000 worldwide jobs out of its around 50,000 employees. Reuters employs 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters journalists use the Reuters Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for reliability, accuracy and exclusivity relies.
In May 2000, Kurt Schork, an American reporter, was killed in an ambush while on assignment in Sierra Leone. In April and August 2003, news cameramen Taras Protsyuk and Mazen Dana were killed in separate incidents by U. S. troops in Iraq. In July 2007, Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh were killed when they w
West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall, located in Edmonton, Canada, is the largest shopping mall in North America, followed by King of Prussia Mall, the 23rd largest in the world by gross leasable area. It was the world's largest mall until 2004; the mall was founded by the Ghermezian brothers, who emigrated from Iran in 1959. Its anchors are Hudson's Bay, London Drugs, La Maison Simons, The Brick, Winners/HomeSense. West Edmonton Mall covers a gross area of about 490,000 m2. There are over 800 stores and services including nine attractions, two hotels and over 100 dining venues in the complex, parking for more than 20,000 vehicles. More than 24,000 people are employed at the property; the mall receives about 32 million visitors per year. The mall was valued at $926 million in January 2007, in 2016, for tax purposes, it was valued at $1.3034 billion, making it the most valuable property in Edmonton. West Edmonton Mall first opened its doors to the public on 15 September 1981; the mall was developed in four phases, completed in 1981, 1983, 1985 and 1999.
It was the largest indoor shopping centre in the world until 2004, was named such in the Guinness Book of Records. The four phases of construction are used in a colour-coded system as a guideline for finding stores and attractions; the Mindbender indoor roller coaster had a fatal accident on 14 June 1986 when one of the rear cars derailed from the track and slammed into a nearby concrete pillar. Three people died and one was injured in the accident. On 11 July 2004, the mall suffered millions of dollars in damage when a severe storm of hail and rain caused roofs to fail and drains to overflow; the Ice Palace and surrounding sections were the most damaged, the World Waterpark had a sewage overflow. The damage was promptly repaired. Sears Canada Target Canada Zellers Red's Woodward's 2nd Bay Store HMV Eatons Past and current West Edmonton Mall world records include. - WEM's parking lot Most bungee jumps in 24 hours record while indoors was set by Peter Charney, on 6–7 November 2007 at the World Waterpark, completing 225 jumps.
Galaxyland was known as "Fantasyland. It is an indoor amusement park located on the north side of the mall, it is the second-largest indoor amusement park in the world, behind Ferrari World, features 24 rides and attractions. There are 8 beginner rides, 9 intermediate rides, 7 thrill rides, the triple loop Mindbender roller coaster; the Mindbender is the world's largest indoor triple loop roller coaster. The latest attraction in Galaxyland, which opened in 2018, named HAVOC; the Drop of Doom was shut down in the early 2000s. The tower area was replaced shortly after by a more modern launch ride, the Space Shot, a S&S Double Shot Tower Ride; the World Waterpark is the world's second largest indoor waterpark, built in 1985, with a size of 20,903 square metres. The park has the world's largest indoor wave pool; the highest slides in the park are the Cyclone, which are each 25.3 metres high. The wavepool has six wave bays, each with two panels with a total of 1,500 horsepower generating waves up to two metres high.
Ice Palace is a scaled down version of a National Hockey League regulation-sized ice rink located in the centre of the mall. The Edmonton Oilers practised at the Ice Palace during the 1980s; the Oilers' contract for using the rink has since expired. The rink is used for various hockey and other sporting tournaments. In 2015, the Ice Palace was renamed Mayfield Toyota Ice Palace after the mall sold the naming rights to a local auto dealership. During special events, such as Remembrance Day, the ice rink is covered with fabric for a ceremony to be held on it. In 2017, West Edmonton Mall announced that the Mayfield Toyota Ice Palace will get a $3 million renovation. Due to this, it was closed for the summer and reopened in December 2017. Professor WEM's Adventure Golf is an 18-hole miniature golf course; the miniature golf course was known as Pebble Beach Mini Golf, was designed to be a mini golf version of Pebble Beach Golf Links. The course was given the Professor WEM theme in the mid-1990s. Fantasyland Hotel, located within the mall.
An indoor shooting range Large-scale replica of the Santa María, one of the ships sailed by Christopher Columbus in 1492 to San Salvador Island. The deck can be booked for private functions. 24-hour Gym, Crunch Fitness Dinner Theatre: Jubilations Dinner The
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Lindsay Dee Lohan is an American actress, fashion designer, film producer, singer. Born and raised in New York, Lohan was signed to Ford Models as a child. Having appeared as a regular on the television soap opera Another World at age 10, her breakthrough came in the Walt Disney Pictures film The Parent Trap; the film's success led to appearances in a string of televised films for Disney Channel and the movie Freaky Friday. Lohan's work won her childhood stardom, the sleeper hit Mean Girls affirmed her status as a teen idol. After starring in Herbie: Fully Loaded, she became the subject of intense media coverage following a series of personal struggles and legal trouble, as well as stints in rehabilitation facilities, which led to the loss of several roles and impacted her career and public image. Thereafter, she focused on smaller, more mature roles in A Prairie Home Companion and Chapter 27. In the 2010s, she appeared in films The Canyons, among others. Following a publicized interview with Oprah Winfrey, Lohan was subject of the OWN documentary series Lindsay.
Between 2014 and 2015, she made her stage debut in the London West End production of Speed-the-Plow, in 2018, had a recurring role on the British series Sick Note, in 2019, began appearing in the MTV reality series Lindsay Lohan's Beach Club. Lohan came to prominence in music after signing with Casablanca Records and releasing two studio albums, Speak and A Little More Personal, which were certified platinum and gold in the United States and saw the commercial success of the singles "Rumors" and "Over", she has contributed vocals to the soundtracks of her acting projects. Lohan dabbled in fashion, beginning a line of her own titled 6126 and serving as artistic advisor for Emmanuel Ungaro in 2009. In 2016, she opened the Lohan Nightclub in Athens, in 2018, two Lohan Beach Houses in the Cyclades islands. Lindsay Lohan was born on July 2, 1986, in The Bronx borough of New York City, grew up in Merrick and Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island, New York, she is the eldest child of Michael Lohan. Her father, a former Wall Street trader, has been in trouble with the law on several occasions, while her mother is a former singer and dancer.
Lohan has three younger siblings, all of whom have been models or actors: Michael Jr. who appeared with Lohan in The Parent Trap, known as "Ali," and Dakota "Cody" Lohan. Lohan is of Irish and Italian heritage, she was raised as a Catholic, her maternal antecedents were "well known Irish Catholic stalwarts" and her great-grandfather, John L. Sullivan, was a co-founder of the Pro-life Party on Long Island. Lohan attended Cold Spring Harbor High School and Sanford H. Calhoun High School, where she did well in science and mathematics, until grade 11, when she started homeschooling. Lohan is a natural red head. Lohan's parents married in 1985, separated when Lindsay was three, reunited, they separated again in 2005 and finalized their divorce in 2007. Lohan began her career as a child model with Ford Models at the age of three, she modeled for Calvin Klein Kids and Abercrombie, appeared in over 60 television commercials for brands like Pizza Hut and Wendy's, as well as a Jell-O spot with Bill Cosby.
By the age of 10, when Lohan played Alexandra "Alli" Fowler in the television soap opera Another World, Soap Opera Magazine said she was considered a show-business veteran. Lohan remained in her role on Another World for a year, before leaving to star in Disney's 1998 family comedy The Parent Trap, a remake of the 1961 movie, she played dual roles of twins, separated in infancy, who try to reunite their long-divorced parents, played by Dennis Quaid and Natasha Richardson. The film earned $92 million worldwide, received positive reviews. Lohan received unanimous acclaim for her debut performance. Critic Kenneth Turan called Lohan "the soul of this film as much as Hayley Mills was of the original," going on to say that "she is more adept than her predecessor at creating two distinct personalities." The film won Lohan a Young Artist Award for best performance in a feature film as well as a three-film contract with Disney. At the age of 14, Lohan played Bette Midler's daughter in the pilot episode of the short-lived series Bette, but she resigned her role when the production moved from New York to Los Angeles.
She starred in two Disney television movies: Life-Size alongside Tyra Banks in 2000, Get a Clue in 2002. In 2003, Lohan starred alongside Jamie Lee Curtis in the 2003 remake of Disney's family comedy Freaky Friday, playing a mother and daughter who switch bodies and have to take on each other's roles. At Lohan's initiative, her character was rewritten and changed from a Goth style to be more mainstream, her performance was once again met with significant praise. Critic Roger Ebert wrote that Lohan "has that Jodie Foster sort of seriousness and intent focus beneath her teenage persona." Freaky Friday earned Lohan the award for Breakthrough Performance at the 2004 MTV Movie Awards and, as of 2015, it remained her most commercially successful film, earning $160 million worldwide as well as an 88 percent approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes. In 2004, Lohan had lead roles in two major motion pictures; the first film, Disney's teen comedy Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen, earned a domestic box office total of $29 million, with Brandon Gray of Box Office Mojo commenting that it was "well above expectations as it was for young girls."
But the film did not meet with critical acclaim. Robert K. Elder of the Chicago Tribune wrote that "though still a promising star, Lohan will have to do a little penance