Aberdeen is a city in northeast Scotland. It is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 39th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and 227,560 for the local council area. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, Aberdeen has been known as the off-shore oil capital of Europe; the area around Aberdeen has been settled for at least 8,000 years, when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don. The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate, the latter resulting in chilly summers and mild winters. Aberdeen received Royal burgh status from David I of Scotland; the city has two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, Robert Gordon University, awarded university status in 1992, making Aberdeen the educational centre of north-east Scotland.
The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen's seaport. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland. Aberdeen used to host the Aberdeen International Youth Festival, a major international event which attracted up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies but the council ended funding in 2017 and the festival was wound up in 2018. In 2015, Mercer named Aberdeen the 57th most liveable city in the world, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain. In 2012, HSBC named Aberdeen as a leading business hub and one of eight'super cities' spearheading the UK's economy, marking it as the only city in Scotland to receive this accolade. In 2018, Aberdeen was found to be the best city in the UK to start a business in a study released by card payment firm Paymentsense; the Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years.
The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen at the mouth of the river Don. The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I. In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocket, whose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians. During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Aberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308, followed executing the English garrison; the city was rebuilt and extended. The city was fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644 to 1647 the city was plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen and two years it was stormed by a Royalist force under the command of the Marquis of Huntly.
In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed a quarter of the population. In the 18th century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779; the council began major road improvements at the end of the 18th century with the main thoroughfares of George Street, King Street and Union Street all completed at the beginning of the 19th century. The expensive infrastructure works led to the city becoming bankrupt in 1817 during the Post-Napoleonic depression, an economic downturn after the Napoleonic Wars; the increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the construction of the present harbour including Victoria Dock and the South Breakwater, the extension of the North Pier. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865.
The city was incorporated in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen has a separate history and still holds its ancient charter, it is no longer independent, it is an integral part of the city, as is Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of the River Dee. Over the course of the Second World War Aberdeen was attacked 32 times by the German Luftwaffe. One of the most devastating attacks was on Wednesday 21 April 1943 when 29 Luftwaffe Dornier 217s flying from Stavenger, Norway attacked the city between the hours of 22:17 and 23:04. A total of 98 civilians and 27 servicemen were killed, along with 9,668 houses damaged, after a mixture of 127 Incendiary, High Explosive and Cluster Bombs were dropped on the city in one night, it was the last German raid on a Scottish city during the war. Aberdeen became Gaelic-speaking at some time in the medieval period. Old Aberdeen is the approximate location of the first settlement of Aberdeen; the Celtic word aber means "river mouth", as in modern Welsh. The Scottish Gaelic name is Obar Dheathain, in Latin, the Romans
Robert Lewis Thomson is a Canadian former minor league baseball player, the bench coach for the Philadelphia Phillies. During Thomson’s playing career, he was a catcher and third baseman in the Detroit Tigers organization, from 1985 to 1988. Following his years as a player, Thomson wore many minor league hats, including coaching, spending one season as manager of the Oneonta Yankees, several more years in various front office capacities, he served as the Yankees’ bench coach, third base coach, bench coach, again. Thomson was born in Canada, he represented Canada in baseball, a demonstration sport, in the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. For one year, he played baseball for St. Clair County Community College. Thomson was selected by the Detroit Tigers in the 32nd round of the 1985 Major League Baseball draft from the University of Kansas, he played catcher and third base in the Tigers' minor league system until 1988, reaching as high as Class A. In 661 at bats he hit.225/.312/.304 with seven home runs and three steals.
He played 136 games at catcher, 55 games at third base, pitched in one game. Thomson became a minor league coach for the team. In 1990, Thomson joined the New York Yankees organization as a third base coach for the team's Class-A affiliate in Fort Lauderdale, he moved into the front office in 1998 as a Field Coordinator, became Director of Player Development in 2000. Prior to the 2003 season, he was named Vice President of Minor League Development, he was named to the Major League coaching staff in November of the same year. On September 27, 2006, Thomson took over as first base coach of the Yankees in place of Tony Peña, who had learned before the game that his father had died, he filled in at the position for four games, Peña returned in time for the season finale on October 1. Prior to the 2008 season, incoming manager Joe Girardi named Thomson his bench coach. On April 4, 2008, Girardi fell ill with a respiratory infection and designated Thomson to manage that night's game against the Tampa Bay Rays.
It was Thomson's first major league game as a manager, he became the first Canadian to manage a Major League game since George Gibson for the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1934. Thomson managed the April 5 game due to Girardi's illness, he served as the team's third base coach for six seasons, was a member of the coaching staff for the Yankees' 2009 World Series championship. Prior to the 2015 season, he was named bench coach. Thomson was hired as the 2018 bench coach for the Philadelphia Phillies, he was announced as being the team's bench coach for 2019 as well. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Retrosheet Rob Thomson at SABR Rob Thomson Philadelphia Phillies bio
The Grup d'Acció Valencianista is a blaverist organization, created in 1977. They define themselves as "the fighting and warlike faction of real valencianism". Nonetheless, they are considered as an extreme right group due to their activities. Along their history, they have used violence their youth wing; because of their frequent use of both verbal and physical violence, some reports regard GAV as a far-right terrorist group. Some of their threatening actions against education centers, individuals and democratic parties have been made with false names, such as Maulets 1707 or Colectiu Vinatea; the main Valencianism after the Spanish Civil War had a progressive ideology. Its main feature was a breaking-off from Francoist ideology and against the tendencies of traditional Valencianism before the Spanish Civil War; the blaverism was born as a reaction against that. And the GAV was created in order to unify the regionalist people that defended Spain as their nation, they tried to embody "traditional Valencianism".
The ideas of new valencianism were considered by the GAV as the "essence and symbol of the imperialist pancatalanism that aimed at the annexation of the Kingdom of Valencia into the illegal Catalan Countries". With this kind of justification, during the Spanish transition, the GAV tried to create a controversial atmosphere in order to stop the process of the approval of the Valencian Country Statute of Autonomy. According to the critics of blaverism, the GAV had been infiltrated by important men and women from the Francoist right; some people consider it a terrorist group. In fact, the UCD representative, Emilio Attard, introduced members from the GAV into the ranks of his own party. During the festivities of 9 October in 1979, a group of people linked to the GAV burned the Flag of the pre-autonomous Council of the Valencian Country, waving from the balcony of Valencia City Hall, with a fuse, created by Rafael Orellano, a UCD city councillor, and, president of GAV. At the same time, some members of the Pre-Autonomous Council of the Valencian Country were assaulted.
From on, the GAV began to play an important role inside blaverism, it claimed responsibility for violent actions, in order to try to justify their ideals. Nowadays, they have a reduced and limited presence. Nonetheless, they continue their acts of persecution. Two terrorist attacks against Manuel Sanchis i Guarner's and Joan Fuster's lives with powerful explosives were made by people that in some respect were linked with the GAV. Nobody claimed responsibility for these actions. Nobody was prosecuted either. Nonetheless, according to the legal process, they were vandalistic actions; the fact that GAV has never claimed responsibility for these facts, but they have claimed responsibility for one terrorist attack against Sanchis-Guarner in 1978 as a "reaction of the Valencian people against the Catalanist aggression" and as a "not bloody action" show the ideological proximity between the aggressors and this organisation. Two months after these "vandalistic" acts, Sanchis-Guarner died of a heart attack.
On the other hand, Joan Fuster acknowledged in a TV interview in 1992 that he had decided to abandon active social life because that terrorist attack had caused him to be depressed. Nonetheless, the GAV does not define itself as terrorist group. In their magazine, SOM, the GAV justified the terrorist attack against Sanchis-Guarner in October 2002, just after the crime was prescribed, therefore it was not possible to condemn the guilty ones. Among their most famous violent acts, was the boycott of a David Rosenthal speech inside the Llotja de València because of his Tirant lo Blanc's translation into English, in January 1985; some GAV supporters, delivered mice through the Llotja. Juan García Sentandreu acknowledged in front of a Spanish judge that he had attacked a Catalan television car with eggs after an illegal demonstration against the Consell Valencià de Cultura. During this illegal demonstration, the members of this official institution were attacked. On 1 December 2007, GAV members delivered pamphlets in Meliana.
These pamphlets contained photos and personal details of some of the teachers of this high school, such as their personal addresses. They were accused of being "Catalanists". In these pamphlets the neighbours were encouraged to "stand up against them"; these actions are thus similar to making political "black lists". In January 2008, some GAV members wrote threatening and xenophobic graffiti on the walls of the cultural association Ca Revolta and the Centre Social-Bar Terra; these places had a strong link with Valencia's nationalist environment. In the same month; the Casal Jaume I from Acció Cultural del País Valencià in Catarroja, was attacked by unknown people with a bomb of hydrochloric acid while a meeting of the civic platform Salvem Catarroja was held inside it. The victims had declared; some days before, members of this civic platform received death threats by phone, the barrack huts that they used in order to store their materials had been attacked while they were making a demonstration against the speculation.
Several objects were stolen, other ones were broken or painted. The authors had signed in the barrack huts with the acronym "JJGAV". In F