Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber, an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine; the force is applied to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy; the first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto. The term internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as described.
Firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars and boats. An ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.
In 1791, John Barber developed the gas turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. In 1794, Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, the first to use liquid fuel, built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In 1807, French engineers Nicéphore and Claude Niépce ran a prototype internal combustion engine, using controlled dust explosions, the Pyréolophore; this engine powered a boat on France. The same year, the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by an electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In 1854 in the UK, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci tried to patent "Obtaining motive power by the explosion of gases", although the application did not progress to the granted stage. In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.
In 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine. In 1886, Karl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed compression ignition engine. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" is any machine. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines". In boating an internal combustion engine, installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives.
Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles and motorcycles. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines. Powered aircraft uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive some of the large electric generators, they are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the co
The M1 Abrams is a third-generation American main battle tank named after General Creighton Abrams and designed by Chrysler Defense. Designed as a mobile main-battle tank for modern armored ground warfare, the M1 is well armed and armored; the Abrams introduced several notable and innovative features such as a powerful 1500 hp AGT1500 multifuel turbine engine, sophisticated Chobham composite armor, a computer fire control system and separate ammunition storage in a blow-out compartment along with NBC protection for crew safety. While the initial models of the M1 were armed with a licensed-produced 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun variants feature a licensed Rheinmetall 120 mm L/44 for increased firepower. Weighing nearly 68 short tons, it is one of the heaviest main battle tanks in service; the M1 Abrams was developed as a result of the cancellation of the MBT-70 project, afflicted with numerous technical issues and cost overruns. In 1971 Congress cancelled the project and ordered for a less costly alternative replacement for the ageing M60.
Both Chrysler and General Motors supplied prototypes and the Chrysler model was selected for further development. The M1 Abrams entered U. S. service in 1980 replacing the M60 tank which had seen two decades of service at the time. The M1 serves as the main battle tank of the United States Army and Marine Corps, is used by the armies of Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Iraq; the Abrams was first tested in combat in the Persian Gulf War and has seen service in both the War in Afghanistan and Iraq War under U. S. service, while Iraqi Abrams tanks have seen combat in the war against ISIL and have seen use by Saudi Arabia during the Yemeni Civil War. The Abrams was due to be replaced by the Future Combat Systems XM1202 but due to the cancellation of the program the U. S. military has opted to continue maintaining and operating the M1 Abrams for the foreseeable future by upgrading the tank with improved optics and firepower. Three main versions of the M1 Abrams have been deployed, the M1, M1A1, M1A2, incorporating improved armament and electronics with each new model.
These improvements and other upgrades to in-service tanks have allowed this long-serving vehicle to remain in front-line service. In addition, development of the improved M1A3 version was first publicly disclosed in 2009. Extensive improvements have been implemented to the latest M1A2C and D versions such as improved composite armor, better optics, digital systems and ammunition; the M1 Abrams was developed during the Cold War as a successor to the canceled MBT-70. The M1 Abrams contract was the first vehicle to adopt Chobham armor. Adaptations before the Persian Gulf War gave the vehicle NBC protection. Being vastly superior to Iraqi tanks few M1 tanks were hit by enemy fire. Upgrades after the war improved fire control unit; the Abrams participated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, exposing vulnerabilities in urban combat that were addressed with the Tank Urban Survival Kit modifications. The Marine Corps sent a company of M1A1 Abrams tanks to Afghanistan in 2010; the first attempt to replace the M60 tank, introduced in 1960, was the MBT-70, developed in partnership with West Germany in the 1960s.
The MBT-70 project, which attained testing readiness in 1968, had advanced features such as a height-adjustable air suspension and a low-profile chassis with the driver located in the turret. The MBT-70 proved to be too heavy and expensive; as a result of the imminent failure of this project, the U. S. Army introduced the XM803, using some technologies from the MBT-70 but removing some of the more troublesome features; this succeeded only in producing an expensive system with capabilities similar to the M60. Congress canceled the MBT-70 in November and XM803 December 1971, redistributed the funds to the XM1 Abrams named after General Creighton Abrams. Prototypes were delivered in 1976 by Chrysler Defense and General Motors armed with the license-built version of the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun along with a Leopard 2 "2K" prototype for comparison; the turbine-powered Chrysler Defense design was selected for development as the M1. Low initial rate production of the vehicle was approved on 7 May 1979.
In February 1982, General Dynamics Land Systems Division purchased Chrysler Defense, after Chrysler built over 1,000 M1s. A total of 3,273 M1 Abrams tanks were produced during 1979–1985 and first entered U. S. Army service in 1980. Production at the government-owned, GDLS-operated Lima Army Tank Plant in Lima, was joined by vehicles built at the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant in Warren, Michigan from 1982 to 1996; the U. S. Army Laboratory Command, under the supervision of the United States Army Research Laboratory, was heavily involved with designing the tank with M1A1 armor resistant shells, M829A2 armor-penetrating rounds, improved weapon range; the M1 was armed with the license-built version of the 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 gun. The tank featured the first of its kind Chobham armor; the M1 Abrams was the first to use this advanced armor. It consisted of an arrangement of ceramic blocks and open space. An improved model called the M1IP was produced in 1984 and contained small upgrades; the M1IP models were used in the Canadian Army Trophy NATO tank gunnery competition in 1985 and 1987.
About 5,000 M1A1 Abra
United States Army Communications-Electronics Command
The Communications-Electronics Command is a Life Cycle Management Command of the United States Army based at Aberdeen Proving Ground, United States. It is one of four such commands under the Army Materiel Command, is the Army's provider and maintainer of Command, Communications, Intelligence and Reconnaissance capabilities; the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure decision relocated CECOM to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of implementing the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure law. Its former home, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey has been closed since 15 September 2011. CECOM has 13,000 military and contract personnel across five CECOM organizations. CECOM specializes in communications-electronics systems and equipment, to include setting up headquarters and command and tactical operations centers in remote areas to installing and maintaining communications systems in vehicles and aircraft. CECOM provides training activities, field support for modifications and upgrades, logistical expertise.
The C4ISR Materiel Enterprise is a subset of the Army's Materiel Enterprise. In 2018 RDECOM, thus CERDEC was transferred to U. S. Army Futures Command; the LCMC, namely United States Army Communications-Electronics Command, the Program Executive Officers are to coordinate with AFC and their Cross-Functional Team's modernization efforts of materiel. The history of the Communications-Electronics Command began with the establishment of a Signal Corps training facility and radio research and development laboratory at Fort Monmouth, NJ in 1917. In 1929, the Signal Corps' Electrical Laboratory of Washington and the Signal Corps Research Laboratory of New York merged with the Radio Laboratories at Fort Monmouth to form the consolidated "Signal Corps Laboratories." In 1949, the Signal Corps Center was established and consolidated many existing Signal functions to include: the Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories, the Signal Corps Board, Signal School, Signal Corps Publications Agency, Signal Corps Intelligence Unit, Pigeon Breeding and Training Center, the Army portion of the Electro Standards Agency, the Signal Corps troop units.
The forerunner of the Army Air Corps and the U. S. Air Force had its roots at Fort Monmouth. In 1928, the first radio-equipped meteorological balloon soared into the upper reaches of the atmosphere, a forerunner of a weather sounding technique universally used today. In 1938, the first U. S. aircraft detection radar was developed at the Signal Corps Center. In 1946, space communications was proved feasible when the Diana Radar was used to bounce electronic signals off the moon; the Army disbanded the technical services and established the Electronics Command at Fort Monmouth in 1962. This CECOM predecessor was charged with managing Signal research and logistics support; as a subordinate element of the newly formed United States Army Materiel Command, ECOM encompassed the Signal Research and Development Laboratories, the Signal Materiel Support Agency, the Signal Supply Agency and its various procurement offices, other Signal Corps logistics support activities. ECOM was fragmented in January 1978 on the recommendation of the Army Materiel Acquisition Review Committee in order to form the following three Commands and one Activity: The Communications and Electronics Materiel Readiness Command, the Communications Research and Development Command, the Electronics Research and Development Command, the Avionics Research and Development Activity.
Reassessment of the changes at Fort Monmouth, begun in August 1980, concluded that, while the emphasis on research and development had increased for the better, there was much duplication of effort. Thus, on 1 March 1981, AMC combined CERCOM and CORADCOM to form the new Communications-Electronics Command, effective 1 May 1981; the 1993 Base Realignment and Closure Commission mandated the closing of the Evans Area, Vint Hill Farms Station, moving the United States Army Communications-Electronics Research and Engineering Center to Fort Monmouth under CECOM. Additionally, CECOM gained some missions and personnel from the Fort Belvoir Research and Development Center; the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission ordered the closure of Fort Monmouth and the relocation of CECOM to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The CECOM flag was cased at Fort Monmouth on 10 September 2010, the colors were uncased on 22 October 2010, marking CECOM’s official arrival at APG, occupying the newly completed C4ISR Center of Excellence.
Comprising six primary organizations, the C4ISR Materiel Enterprise includes three organizations from AMC and three from United States Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition and Technology. AMC organizations include: U. S. Army Communications-Electronics Command. S. Army Communications-Electronics Research and Engineering Center. ASA provides three Program Executive Offices to the team including: Program Executive Office Command Control Communications Tactical. 1918: Standardization and quality control of vacuum tubes for military radios resulted in a total standard for vacuum tube production for both military and civilian applications. 1928: The first radio-equipped weather balloon was launched in 1928. This was the first major development in the application of electronics to the study of weather, of conditions in the upper atmosphere. 1938: Aircraft Detection radar
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid. A carbamate group, carbamate ester, carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally and are interconverted chemically. Carbamate esters are called urethanes. Carbamic acids are unstable. For example, ammonium carbamate is generated by treatment of ammonia with carbon dioxide 2 NH3 + CO2 → NH4Carbamates arise via alcoholysis of chloroformamides: R2NCCl + R'OH → R2NCO2R' + HClAlternatively, cabamates can be formed from chloroformates and amines: R'OCCl + R2NH → R2NCO2R' + HClCarbamates may be formed from the Curtius rearrangement, where isocyanates formed are reacted with an alcohol. RCON3 → RNCO + N2 RNCO + R′OH → RNHCO2R′ Although most of this article concerns organic carbamates, the inorganic salt ammonium carbamate is produced on a large scale as an intermediate in the production of the commodity chemical urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide; the N-terminal amino groups of valine residues in the α- and β-chains of deoxyhemoglobin exist as carbamates.
They help to stabilise the protein, when it becomes deoxyhemoglobin and increases the likelihood of the release of remaining oxygen molecules bound to the protein. This stabilizing effect should not be confused with the Bohr effect; the ε-amino groups of the lysine residues in urease and phosphotriesterase feature carbamate. The carbamate derived from aminoimidazole is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of inosine. Carbamoyl phosphate is generated from carboxyphosphate rather than CO2; the most important carbamate is the one involved in the capture of CO2 by plants since this process is necessary for their growth. The enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase fixes a molecule of carbon dioxide as phosphoglycerate in the Calvin cycle. At the active site of the enzyme, a Mg2+ ion is bound to glutamate and aspartate residues as well as a lysine carbamate; the carbamate is formed when an uncharged lysine side chain near the ion reacts with a carbon dioxide molecule from the air, which renders it charged, therefore, able to bind the Mg2+ ion.
Some of the most common amine protecting groups, such as BOC, FMOC, Cbz and troc are carbamates. The so-called carbamate insecticides feature the carbamate ester functional group. Included in this group are aldicarb, carbaryl, fenobucarb and methomyl; these insecticides kill insects by reversibly inactivating the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The organophosphate pesticides inhibit this enzyme, although irreversibly, cause a more severe form of cholinergic poisoning. Fenoxycarb has a carbamate group but acts as a juvenile hormone mimic, rather than inactivating acetylcholinesterase; the insect repellent icaridin is a substituted carbamate. Carbamate nerve agentsWhile the carbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are referred to as "carbamate insecticides" due to their high selectivity for insect acetylcholinesterase enzymes over the mammalian versions, the most potent compounds such as aldicarb and carbofuran are still capable of inhibiting mammalian acetylcholinesterase enzymes at low enough concentrations that they pose a significant risk of poisoning to humans when used in large amounts for agricultural applications.
Other carbamate based acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are known with higher toxicity to humans, some such as T-1123 and EA-3990 were investigated for potential military use as nerve agents. However, since all compounds of this type have a quaternary ammonium group with a permanent positive charge, they have poor blood-brain barrier penetration, are only stable as crystalline salts or aqueous solutions, so were not considered to have suitable properties for weaponisation. Polyurethanes contain multiple carbamate groups as part of their structure; the "urethane" in the name "polyurethane" refers to these carbamate groups. In contrast, the substance called "urethane", ethyl carbamate, is neither a component of polyurethanes, nor is it used in their manufacture. Urethanes are formed by reaction of an alcohol with an isocyanate. Urethanes made by a non-isocyanate route are called carbamates. Polyurethane polymers have a wide range of properties and are commercially available as foams and solids. Polyurethane polymers are made by combining diisocyanates, e.g. toluene diisocyanate, diols, where the carbamate groups are formed by reaction of the alcohols with the isocyanates: RN=C=O + R′OH → RNHCOR′ Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate is a wood and paint preservative and used in cosmetics.
Urethane was once produced commercially in the United States as a chemotherapy agent and for other medicinal purposes. It was found to be toxic and ineffective, it is used as a veterinary medicine. In addition, some carbamates are used in human pharmacotherapy, for example, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors neostigmine and rivastigmine, whose chemical structure is based on the natural alkaloid physostigmine. Other examples are meprobamate and its derivatives like carisoprodol, felbamate and tybamate, a class of anxiolytic and muscle relaxant drugs used in the 1960s before the rise of benzodiazepines, still used nowadays in some cases. Carbachol is used for various ophthalmic purposes; the protease inhibitor darunavir for HIV treatment contains a carbamate functional group. Carbamate insecticides target human melatonin receptors, along with inhibiting acetylcholi
6th Field Artillery Regiment
The 6th Field Artillery Regiment is a Field Artillery Branch regiment of the United States Army first activated in 1907 from numbered companies of artillery. It was first organized with two battalions. 6th Field Artillery assigned 8 June 1917 to the 1st Expeditionary Division. Note that the lineage of the "6th Regiment of Artillery" constituted 8 March 1898 is carried by the 6th Air Defense Artillery Regiment; the regiment has five battalions. The 1st Battalion, 6th Field Artillery Regiment was constituted 27 April 1798 in the Regular Army as a company in the 3d Battalion, 2d Regiment of Artillerists and Engineers, organized at Fort Jay, New York, as Captain James Stille's Company, 3d Battalion, 2d Regiment of Artillerists and Engineers. Constituted 27 April 1798 in the Regular Army as a company in the 3d Battalion, 2d Regiment of Artillerists and Engineers, organized at Fort Jay, New York, as Captain James Stille's Company, 3d Battalion, 2d Regiment of Artillerists and EngineersRedesignated 1 April 1802 as Captain James Stille's Company, Regiment of Artillerists Redesignated 9 June 1805 as Captain John Fergus's Company, Regiment of Artillerists Redesignated 30 June 1808 as Captain William Wilson's Company, Regiment of Artillerists Redesignated 3 June 1809 as Captain Enoch Humphrey's Company, Regiment of Artillerists Redesignated 11 January 1812 as Captain Enoch Humphrey's Company, Corps of Artillery Redesignated 17 May 1815 as Captain Enoch Humphrey's Company, Corps of Artillery, Southern Division Redesignated 21 August 1816 as Company C, 3d Battalion, Corps of Artillery, Southern Division Redesignated 1 June 1821 as Company B, 4th Regiment of Artillery Reorganized and redesignated 13 February 1901 as the 7th Battery, Field Artillery, Artillery CorpsBattery reorganized and redesignated 11 June 1907 as Battery D, 6th Field Artillery Inactivated 1 August 1940 at Fort Hoyle, Maryland Absorbed 4 January 1941 by Battery A, 6th Field Artillery Battalion Former Battery D, 6th Field Artillery, reconstituted 15 February 1957 in the Regular Army and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 1st Howitzer Battalion, 6th Artillery, assigned to the 1st Armored Division, activated at Fort Polk, Louisiana Redesignated 3 February 1962 as the 1st Battalion, 6th Artillery Relieved 5 May 1971 from assignment to the 1st Armored Division and assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division Redesignated 1 September 1971 as the 1st Battalion, 6th Field Artillery 1st Battalion, 6th Field Artillery, relieved 21 June 1975 from assignment to the 1st Cavalry Division, assigned to the 18th Abn Corps Artillery, Ft Bragg,NC Inactivated 1 October 1983 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina Assigned 16 February 1996 to the 1st Infantry Division and activated in Germany.
Assigned to the 3rd Brigade Combat team of the 1st Infantry Division and headquartered in Bamberg, Germany, 1–6 FA was only a short distance away from the wars in the former Yugoslavia. In 1997, 1st Battalion, 6th Field Artillery deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina in support of Operation Joint Guard from 10 March 1997 until 10 October 1997. During this time they supported Task Force Eagle from a number of operating bases, providing convoy escorts and most fire support coverage of allied operations in the American area of responsibility; the excellence displayed by 1–6 FA resulted in the reception of the Army Superior Unit award upon return to Bamberg, Germany. After their return from Bosnia, the Centaurs returned home and in early 1998, began to transition from the older M109A5 SP Howitzer to the advanced accurate and lethal M109A6 SP Howitzer referred to as the Paladin. In November 1999 the battalion was once again deployed, this time to Kosovo, where it pulled security at Camp Bondsteele and Camp Montieth until redeploying to Bamberg in the summer of 2000.
They deployed to Iraq as part of Multi-National Force - Iraq. Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 1st Battalion, 6th Field Artillery Regiment Relieved 16 April 2007 from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division and assigned to the 3d Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division. 1-6 FA Deployed to Afghanistan June 2008 in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. They are expected to redeploy back to Fort Hood, Texas in mid to late 2009. After redeployment 1–6 FA along with the rest of 3rd BDE will move to Fort Knox, KY. War of 1812: *New Orleans Indian Wars: *Creeks.
In a motor vehicle, the powertrain or powerplant comprises the main components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, drive shafts and the final drive. More in hybrid powertrains the battery, the electric motor and the control algorithm are seen as elements of the powertrain. A motor vehicle's driveline or drivetrain consists of the parts of the powertrain excluding the engine, it is the portion of a vehicle, after the prime mover, that changes depending on whether a vehicle is front-wheel, rear-wheel, or four-wheel drive, or less-common six-wheel or eight-wheel drive. In a wider sense, the powertrain includes all of its components used to transform stored energy into kinetic energy for propulsion purposes; this includes non -- wheel-based vehicles. The most recent developments in powertrain are driven by the electrification of it in multiple components. Electrical energy needs to be provided this leads to larger batteries. Electrical engines can be found as part of other elements, e.g. the axle.
In hybrid powertrains the torque generated by the combustion engine and the electric motor have to be brought together and distributed to the wheels. The control of this process can be quite involved but the rewards are improved acceleration and much lower emissions. Powertrain development for diesel engines involves the following: exhaust gas recirculation, advanced combustion. Spark ignition engine development include: fuel injection, including the gasoline direct injection variant, as well as improving volumetric efficiency by using multi-valves per cylinder, variable valve timing, variable length intake manifolds, turbocharging. Changes include new fuel qualities to allow new combustion concepts. So-called "combined combustion systems" or "diesotto" cycles are based on synthetic fuels. BEVs, FCEVs and PHEV powertrains are expected to reach parity with ICE powertrains in 2025; the manufacturing of powertrain components and systems is important to industry, including the automotive and other vehicle sectors.
Competitiveness drives companies to engineer and produce powertrain systems that over time are more economical to manufacture, higher in product quality and reliability, higher in performance, more fuel efficient, less polluting, longer in life expectancy. In turn these requirements have led to designs involving higher internal pressures, greater instantaneous forces, increased complexity of design and mechanical operation; the resulting designs in turn impose more severe requirements on parts shape and dimension. Quality control over these parameters is achieved through metrology technology applied to all of the steps in powertrain manufacturing processes. In automotive manufacturing, the frame plus the "running gear" makes the chassis. A body, not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. Commercial vehicle manufacturers may have "chassis only" and "cowl and chassis" versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies; these include buses, motor homes, fire engines, etc.
The frame plus the body makes a glider. The final drive is the last in the set of components. In a road vehicle, it incorporates the differential. In a railway vehicle, it sometimes incorporates the reversing gear. Examples include the Self-Changing Gears RF 28 and RF 11 used in the British Rail Class 03 and British Rail Class 04 diesel shunting locomotives. Car safety Electric vehicle Electric vehicle conversion Giubo Gear train Hybrid vehicle drivetrain New powertrain technologies conference, 27 and 28- March-2007. Http://www.caradvice.com.au/105/car-frame-chassis/ Honda F1 Race Car Frame. Drivetrain Quiz HIL Test Bench Technical Paper: A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model
The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle is a family of light, four-wheel drive, military trucks and utility vehicles produced by AM General. It has supplanted the roles performed by the original jeep, others such as the Vietnam War-era M151 jeep, the M561 "Gama Goat", their M718A1 and M792 ambulance versions, the Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle, other light trucks. Used by the United States military, it is used by numerous other countries and organizations and in civilian adaptations; the Humvee saw widespread use in the Gulf War of 1991, where it negotiated the treacherous desert terrain. After going through a replacement process, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle was chosen as its successor. Since the World War II ¼-ton reconnaissance truck was green-lit for mass-deployment, became known as the "jeep", the United States military had continued to rely on jeeps as general utility vehicles, as a mass-transport for soldiers in small groups. Although the US Army had let Ford redesign the jeep from the ground up during the 1950s, the resulting M151 jeep incorporated significant innovations, it adhered to the original concept—a compact, low profile vehicle, with a folding windshield, that a layman could distinguish from the preceding Willys jeeps.
The jeeps were shorter than a Volkswagen Beetle and weighed just over one metric ton, seating three with an 800 lb payload. During and after the war, the light, 1⁄4-ton jeeps were complemented by the 3⁄4-ton Dodge WC and Korea War M37 models. By the mid-1960s, the U. S. military felt a need to reevaluate their ageing light vehicle fleet. For starters, from the mid 1960s, the U. S. Army had tried to modernize, through replacing the larger, purpose-built Dodge M37s by militarized, "commercial off the shelf" 4×4 trucks—initially the M715 Jeep trucks, succeeded in the 1970s by the Dodge M880 series, but these didn't satisfy newer requirements either—what was wanted was a versatile light military truck, that could replace multiple outdated vehicles; when becoming aware of the U. S. Army's desire for a versatile new light weapons carrier / reconnaissance vehicle, as early as 1969 FMC Corporation started development on their XR311 prototype, offered it for testing in 1970. At least a dozen of these were built for testing under the High Mobility Combat Vehicle, or HMCV program much more as an enhanced capability successor to the M151 jeep, than as a general purpose load lugger.
In 1977, Lamborghini developed the Cheetah model in an attempt to meet the Army contract specifications. In 1979, the U. S. Army drafted final specifications for a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, to replace all the tactical vehicles in the 1/4 to 1 1/4-ton range, namely the M151 quarter-ton jeep and M561 Gama Goat, as one "jack-of-all-trades" light tactical vehicle to perform the role of several existing trucks; the specification called for excellent on and off-road performance, the ability to carry a large payload, improved survivability against indirect fire. Compared to the jeep, it was larger and had a much wider track, with a 16 in ground clearance, double that of most sport-utility vehicles; the new truck was to traverse a 40 percent slope. The air intake was to be mounted flush on top of the right fender (or to be raised on a stovepipe to roof level to ford 5 ft of water and electronics waterproofed to drive through 2.5 ft of water were specified. The radiator was to be mounted sloping over the engine on a forward-hinged hood.
Out of 61 companies that showed interest, only three submitted prototypes. In July 1979, AM General, a subsidiary of American Motors Corporation began preliminary design work. Less than a year the first prototype was in testing. Chrysler Defense and Teledyne Continental produced competing designs. In June 1981, the Army awarded AM General a contract for development of several more prototype vehicles to be delivered to the government for another series of tests; the original M998 A0 series had a curb weight of 5,200 lb, a payload of 2,500 lb, a 6.2 L V-8 diesel engine and 6.3 L gasoline, a three-speed automatic transmission. The three companies were chosen to design and build eleven HMMWV prototypes, which covered over 600,000 miles in trials which included off-road courses in desert and arctic conditions. AM General was awarded an initial contract in 1983 for 2,334 vehicles, the first batch of a five-year contract that would see 55,000 vehicles delivered to the U. S. military, including 39,000 vehicles for the Army.
S. and foreign customers by the Persian Gulf War of 1991, 100,000 were delivered by the Humvee's 10th anniversary in 1995. Ft. Lewis and the 2nd Battalion 1st Infantry, 9th Infantry Division was the testing unit to employ HMMWV in the new concept of a motorized division. Yakima Training Center in Yakima, Washington was the main testing grounds for HMMWVs from 1985 through December 1991, when the motorized concept was abandoned and the division inactivated. HMMWVs first saw combat in Operation Just Cause, the U. S. invasion of Panama in 1989. The HMMWV was designed for personnel and light cargo transport behind front lines, not as a front line fighting vehicle. Like the previous jeep, the basic HMMWV has no armor or protection against chemical, radiological or nuclear threats. Losses were low in conventional operations, such as the Gulf War. Vehicles and crews suffered considerable damage and losses during the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993 due to