Aberfeldy is a burgh in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, on the River Tay. A small market town, Aberfeldy is located in Highland Perthshire, it is famous for being mentioned in the poem The Birks Of Aberfeldy by Robert Burns. The Scottish Census of 2001 recorded the town's population as 1,895. Perth and Kinross Council estimates the current population to be 2,292, but the town is growing. The council forecasts that by 2028, its population will have expanded to 2,832. Beyond its association with Burns, who mentioned Aberfeldy in his poem The Birks of Aberfeldy, the town is known for Wade's Bridge, built in 1733 and designed by architect William Adam, father of the more famous Robert Adam. General George Wade considered this bridge to be his greatest accomplishment. Aberfeldy is mentioned in the traditional "Loch Tay Boat Song"; the town includes a memorial to the Black Watch, an 18-hole golf course, a children's park, a town square that features stores and art galleries. In 2002, Aberfeldy was granted Fairtrade Town status, renewed by the Fairtrade Foundation on 15 December 2003.
The Aberfeldy Footbridge over the River Tay is constructed of composite materials. It connects two holes of the town's golf course on either side of the River Tay. Breadalbane Cricket Club, founded in 1869, play; the team are the Perthshire Cup Winners for 2007 and 2008, Strathmore Cricket Union Division One Champions in 2006 & 2007, Division Two Champions in 2014 & 2018. Aberfeldy is situated in Strath Tay on the upper reaches of the River Tay, which begins up-strath from Aberfeldy at Loch Tay and carries on south and east from Aberfeldy until it discharges at its estuary east of Perth at the Firth of Tay. Lying in an u-shaped strath common to Scotland's glaciated landscape, the terrain in and around Aberfeldy is undulating. Farming and agriculture border the town in the strath. Areas further outside of Aberfeldy give way to the extensive Grampian Mountains, with scenic peaks such as Creag Odhar, Farragon Hill, Ben Lawers and Sron Mhor punctuating the landscape. Aberfeldy lies at the intersection of two A roads, the A826 to Crieff and the A827, which leads east and south towards the main A9 trunk road.
Aberfeldy is reached from southern locations by taking the A9 to the Ballinluig exit the A827 to get to the town. Owing to its location off the A9 trunk road, Aberfeldy is less geared toward tourists than its cousin Pitlochry. From July 1865 until May 1965, the town was served by a Highland Railway branch from Ballinluig. Although most of the trackbed leading into the town is still extant, the site of the station has vanished under modern housing developments; the entrance to the Birks of Aberfeldy – a well known gorge and scenic walk – lies on the southern outskirts of Aberfeldy on the A826. The Birks is classified as a "Site of Special Scientific Interest" and contains many varieties of flora and fauna, some of which are protected. Glen Lyon regarded as one of Scotland's most stunning and least-visited glens, lies about 8 kilometres from the outskirts of Aberfeldy. Evidence of fort construction by Roman legions several thousand years ago exists to this day, further evidence of the region's historical as well as geographical relevance.
At the mouth of Glen Lyon lies the village of Fortingall, legendary birthplace of Pontius Pilate and home to the Fortingall Yew Tree, reputed to be more than 5,000 years old. The town is home to Breadalbane Academy. Based in Aberfeldy since the nineteenth century, Breadalbane Academy is an all-through school catering to children from the ages of three to eighteen years; the nursery and primary departments serve pupils from its immediate surroundings. The secondary department is the main secondary school for the whole of Highland Perthshire. Children from Glenlyon, Kenmore, Kinloch Rannoch and Dunkeld all receive their secondary education in Aberfeldy. In fifth and sixth, pupils from the Pitlochry catchment area attend Breadalbane Academy to study for their Highers and Advanced Highers. Rebuilt in the early years of the twenty-first century, the school re-opened in December 2010 as a community campus; as well as nursery and secondary departments, the new Breadalbane Community Campus includes a library, a swimming pool, squash courts, a gym, a cafe and a range of other facilities.
These amenities are open to the public throughout the day. Only access to the school areas is restricted to authorised personnel. Aberfeldy Parish Church meets in the former Breadalbane Church building in Taybridge Road, the first new building of the Free Church after the Disruption in 1843, it reunited with the former parish church, St Andrew's in Crieff Road, built in 1884, for a while was used as halls for the united congregation, until 2005 when the Crieff Road building was closed and a modern interior and suite of halls was added to the Taybridge Road building, providing excellent facilities for adult and youth work. There is a Roman Catholic church in Home Street; the buildings used as Congregational and Episcopal churches are now all used for other purposes. Jehovah's Witnesses meet in the local Kingdom Hall; the town is home to the award-winning Aberfeldy Watermill Bookshop Gallery and Cafe. Aberfeldy does not have a music hall; however it does have two community venues, used for music and drama, in the Town Hall and the Locus Centre.
Legio IX Hispana written Legio nona Hispana or Legio VIIII Hispana, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that existed from the 1st century BC until at least AD 120. The legion fought in various provinces of early Roman Empire, it was stationed in Britain following the Roman invasion in 43 AD. The legion disappears from surviving Roman records after c. AD 120 and there is no extant account of what happened to it; the unknown fate of the legion has been the subject of considerable speculation. One theory was that the legion was wiped out in action in northern Britain soon after 108, the date of the latest datable inscription of the Ninth found in Britain during a rising of northern tribes against Roman rule; this view was popularised by the 1954 novel The Eagle of the Ninth in which the legion is said to have marched into Caledonia, after which it was "never heard of again". This theory fell out of favour among modern scholars as successive inscriptions of IX Hispana were found in the site of the legionary base at Nijmegen, suggesting the Ninth may have been based there from c.
120 than the legion's supposed annihilation in Britain. The Nijmegen evidence has led to suggestions that IX Hispana was destroyed in conflicts of the 2nd century. Suggestions include the Bar Kokhba revolt or Marcus Aurelius' war against Parthia in Armenia. However, some scholars have ascribed the Nijmegen evidence to a mere detachment of IX Hispana, not the whole legion. In any event, it is clear that the IX Hispana did not exist during the reign of the emperor Septimius Severus, as it is not included in two identical but independent lists of the 33 legions existing in this period; the origin of the legion is uncertain, but a 9th legion seems to have participated in the siege of Asculum during the Social War in 90 BC. When Julius Caesar became governor of Cisalpine Gaul in 58 BC, he inherited four legions, numbered VII VIII IX X, that were based there; the Ninth may have been quartered in Aquileia "to guard against attacks from the Illyrians". Caesar created two more legions, using all six for his attack on the Helvetii initiating the Gallic wars.
The Caesarian Ninth Legion fought in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus and in the African campaign of 46 BC. After his final victory, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled the veterans in the area of Picenum. Following Caesar's assassination, Caesar's ally Ventidius Bassus made attempts to recreate the 7th, 8th and 9th legions, but "it is not clear that any of these survived to the time of Philippi". Octavian recalled the veterans of the Ninth to fight against the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. After defeating Sextus, they were sent to the province of Macedonia; the Ninth remained with Octavian in his war of 31 BC against Mark Antony and fought by his side in the Battle of Actium. With Octavian, whom the Senate titled Augustus, established as sole ruler of the Roman world, the legion was sent to Hispania to take part in the large-scale campaign against the Cantabrians; the nickname Hispana is first found during the reign of Augustus and originated at that time. After this, the legion was part of the imperial army in the Rhine borderlands, campaigning against the Germanic tribes.
Following the abandonment of the eastern Rhine area, the Ninth was relocated in Pannonia. In AD 43, the legion most participated in the Roman invasion of Britain led by the emperor Claudius and general Aulus Plautius, because they soon appear amongst the provincial garrison. In AD 50, the Ninth was one of two legions. Around the same year, the legion constructed Lindum Colonia, at Lincoln. Under the command of Caesius Nasica they put down the first revolt of Venutius between 52 and 57; the Ninth suffered a serious defeat at the Battle of Camulodunum under Quintus Petillius Cerialis in the rebellion of Boudica, when most of the foot-soldiers were killed in a disastrous attempt to relieve the besieged city of Camulodunum. Only the cavalry escaped; the legion was reinforced with legionaries from the Germania provinces. When Cerialis returned as governor of Britain ten years he took command of the Ninth once more in a successful campaign against the Brigantes in 71–72, to subdue north-central Britain.
Around this time they constructed a new fortress at York, as shown by finds of tile-stamps from the site. The Ninth participated in Agricola's invasion of Caledonia in 82–83. According to Tacitus, the legion narrowly escaped destruction when the Caledonians beyond the Forth launched a surprise attack at night on their fort; the Caledonians "burst upon them as they were terrified in their sleep". In desperate hand-to-hand fighting the Caledonians entered the camp, but Agricola was able to send cavalry to relieve the legion. Seeing the relief force, "the men of the Ninth Legion recovered their spirit, sure of their safety, fought for glory", pushing back the Caledonians; the legion participated in the decisive Battle of Mons Graupius. The last attested activity of the Ninth in Britain is during the rebuilding in stone of the legionary fortress at York in 108; this is recorded in an inscribed stone tablet discovered in 1864. Several inscriptions attesting IX Hispana have been found in the site of the legionary fortress on the lower Rhine river at Noviomagus Batavorum.
These include some tile-stamps.
Wang Dongming is Research Director at the French National Center for Scientific Research. He was awarded Wen-tsün Wu Chair Professor at the University of Science and Technology of China in 2001, Changjiang Scholar of the Chinese Ministry of Education in 2005, Bagui Scholar of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China in 2014, he was elected Member of the Academia Europaea in 2017. Wang worked on algorithmic elimination theory, geometric reasoning and knowledge management, applications of symbolic computation to qualitative analysis of differential equations. In 1993 he proposed an elimination method for triangular decomposition of polynomial systems, referred to as Wang's method and compared with other three methods. On he introduced the concepts of regular systems and simple systems and devised algorithms for regular and simple triangular decompositions, he developed a package, called Epsilon, which implements his methods. Wang popularized the use of methods and tools of computer algebra for symbolic analysis of stability and bifurcation of differential and biological systems.
He constructed a class of cubic differential systems with six small-amplitude limit cycles and rediscovered the incompleteness of Kukles' center conditions of 1944, which stimulated the study of Kukles' system in hundred papers. Since 2004 he has been involved in research projects on geometric knowledge management and discovery. With co-workers he developed an algorithmic approach for automated discovery of geometric theorems from images of diagrams. Wang served as General Chair of ISSAC 2007 and is founding Editor-in-Chief and Managing Editor of Mathematics in Computer Science and Executive Associate Editor-in-Chief of SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, he works as Professor at Beihang University and Guangxi University for Nationalities, China on leave from CNRS. Wang Dongming at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Wang's personal website