SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Abhidharma

Abhidharma or Abhidhamma are ancient Buddhist texts which contain detailed scholastic reworkings of doctrinal material appearing in the Buddhist sutras, according to schematic classifications. The Abhidhamma works do not contain systematic philosophical treatises, but summaries or abstract and systematic lists. Rewata Dhamma and Bhikkhu Bodhi describe it thus: Whereas the Suttas and Vinaya serve an obvious practical purpose, namely, to proclaim a clear-cut message of deliverance and to lay down a method of personal training, the Abhidhamma Pitaka presents the appearance of an abstract and technical systemization of the doctrine. According to Collett Cox, Abhidhamma started as an elaboration of the teachings of the suttas, but developed independent doctrines; the literal translation of the term Abhidharma is unclear. Two possibilities are most given: abhi "higher, transcending" and dharma, "principles, phenomena," thus making Abhidharma the principles that transcends a normal human's comprehension.

The Theravadin and Sarvastivadin Abhidharmikas considered the Abhidharma to be the pure and literal description of ultimate truth and an expression of unsullied wisdom, while the sutras were considered'conventional' and figurative teachings, given by the Buddha to specific people, at specific times, depending on specific worldly circumstances. They held that Abhidharma was taught by the Buddha to his most eminent disciples, that therefore this justified the inclusion of Abhidharma texts into their scriptural canon; some in the West have considered the Abhidhamma to be the core of what is referred to as "Buddhism and psychology". Other writers on the topic such as Nyanaponika Thera and Dan Lusthaus describe Abhidhamma as a Buddhist phenomenology while Noa Ronkin and Kenneth Inada equate it with Process philosophy. Bhikkhu Bodhi writes that the system of the Abhidhamma Pitaka is "simultaneously a philosophy, a psychology and an ethics, all integrated into the framework of a program for liberation."

According to L. S. Cousins, the suttas deal with sequences and processes, while the Abhidhamma describes occasions and events. Etienne Lamotte described the Abhidharma as "Doctrine pure and simple, without the intervention of literary development or the presentation of individuals"The prominent Western scholar of Abhidharma, Erich Frauwallner has said that these Buddhist systems are "among the major achievements of the classical period of Indian philosophy."Numerous Abhidharma traditions arose in India during the period from the 2nd or 3rd Century BCE to the 5th Century CE. The 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang collected Abhidharma texts from seven different traditions; the various Abhidhammic traditions have fundamental philosophical disagreements with each other. These various Abhidhammic theories were the major cause for the majority of splits in the monastic Sangha, which resulted in the fragmented early Buddhist landscape of the 18 Early Buddhist Schools; however these differences did not mean the existence of independent sects, as noted by Rupert Gethin, "at least some of the schools mentioned by Buddhist tradition are to have been informal schools of thought in the manner of ‘Cartesians,’ ‘British Empiricists,’ or ‘Kantians’ for the history of modern philosophy."In the modern era, only the Abhidharmas of the Sarvāstivādins and the Theravādins have survived intact, each consisting of seven books.

The Theravāda Abhidharma, the Abhidhamma Pitaka, is preserved in Pāli, while the Sarvāstivādin Abhidharma is preserved only in Chinese – the original texts having been lost, though some Tibetan texts are still extant. A small number of other Abhidharma texts of unknown origin are preserved in translation in the Chinese canon, such as the Shariputra Abhidharma Sastra, a text believed to have been part of the Dharmaguptaka school, in Sanskrit fragments from the Schoyen collection; these different traditions have some similarities, suggesting either interaction between groups or some common ground antedating the separation of the schools. Many Abhidharma texts have been lost- more than have survived; this includes texts brought from India by Xuanzang belonging to a variety of Indian schools that were never translated into Chinese. Many Abhidharma sastras discovered among the Gandharan Buddhist texts have no parallel in existing Indic languages or Chinese or Tibetan translation, suggesting the former breadth of Abhidharma literature.

Scholars believe that the Abhidharma emerged after the time of the Buddha, in around the 3rd century BCE. Therefore, the seven Abhidhamma works are claimed by scholars not to represent the words of the Buddha himself, but those of disciples and scholars. Scholar Peter Skilling describes the Abhidharma literature as "the end-product of several centuries of intellectual endeavor."Factors contributing to its development could have been the growth of monastic centers, the growing support for the Buddhist sangha, outside influences from other religious groups. As the last major division of the canon, the Abhidhamma works have had a checkered history, they were not accepted as canonical by several other schools. Another school included most of the Khuddaka Nikaya within the Abhidhamma Pitaka; the Pali version of the Abhidhamma is a Theravada collection, has little in common with the Abhidhamma works recognize

Cardington Workmen's Platform railway station

Cardington Workmen's Platform was a railway station on the Bedford to Hitchin Line which served the Royal Air Force station near the village of Cardington in Bedfordshire, England. A short-lived halt, it opened during the First World War and closed in 1921. During the First World War a Royal Air Force station was established in Cardington which increased passenger and freight traffic on the Bedford to Hitchin Line. In order to provide easier access to the airbase, a halt was opened beside the road bridge carrying the Southill Road over the line. After the halt closed to passenger traffic in 1921, numerous sidings were constructed on the site to serve the camp and these were used to receive materials needed for the construction of the R100 and R101 airships; the site was used during the Second World War for troop specials which enabled conscripts to return home from the RAF camp. Nothing remains of the halt today

OtĂș Norte Fault

The Otú Norte or Otú-Pericos Fault is an inactive sinistral oblique strike-slip fault in the department of Antioquia in northern Colombia. The fault has a total length of 144.4 kilometres and runs along an average north-northwest to south-southeast strike of 346.4 ± 8, cross-cutting the northern part of the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Together with the parallel Bagre Norte Fault the fault separates the Central Ranges from its northeasternmost continuation, the Serranía de San Lucas; the fault was by Feininger et al. in 1972 named after Otú Airport in vereda Otú in Remedios, Antioquia. The Otú Norte Fault crosses the northern part of the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes; the fault appears to branch off the Palestina Fault. The Otú Fault extends in a northwest direction to near Nechí, where it is covered by young Quaternary deposits; the sinistral oblique reverse fault separates blocks of dissimilar geology and lithology. Just west of Remedios, the fault forms the contact between the Cretaceous Antioquia and Jurassic Segovia Batholiths.

The northern end splays into several faults that cross the Nechí River. A rate of less than 0.2 millimetres per year is estimated for the fault, considered inactive. Displaced Quaternary terraces as high as 140 metres are reported and the fault offsets the Tertiary erosion surface of the Central Ranges. A total displacement of the fault has been estimated at 66 kilometres; the fault separates two major gold mining areas in Antioquia. North of Zaragoza, the fault underlies the El Limón mine. Antioquia produces 50% of all gold in Colombia; the ductile zone of the fault produced mylonites in the amphibolite facies of the Segovia Batholith. This ductile behavior was overprinted by fragile tectonics, leaving cataclasis and fault breccias in the fault zone as well as striations in the quartz of the batholith; these deformations are interpreted as second grade Riedel shears. List of earthquakes in Colombia Romeral Fault System Bagre Norte Fault Álvarez Galindez, Milton. 2007. Geología de la zona de influencia de la Falla Otú en el Distrito Minero Segovia-Remedios - Geology of the influence zone of the Otú Fault in the Segovia-Remedios mining district.

Dyna 74. 41–51. Accessed 2018-06-05. Consorcio, GSG. 2015. Memoria Plancha 94 - El Bagre - 1:100,000, 1–196. Servicio Geológico Colombiano. Fonseca P. et al, Héctor Antonio. 2011. Memoria Plancha 133 - Puerto Berrío - 1:100,000, 1–145. INGEOMINAS. Paris, Gabriel. 2000a. Map and Database of Quaternary Faults and Folds in Colombia and its Offshore Regions, 1–66. USGS. Accessed 2017-09-18. González, Humberto. 1999. Mapa Geológico de Antioquia 1:400,000, 1. INGEOMINAS. Accessed 2017-09-21. Paris, Gabriel. 2000b. Map of Quaternary Faults and Folds of Colombia and Its Offshore Regions, 1. USGS. Accessed 2017-09-18. Page, W. D. 1986. Seismic geology and seismicity of Northwestern Colombia, 1–200. San Francisco, Woodward-Clyde Consultants Report for ISA and Integral Ltda. Medellín