Joseph is a figure in the Gospels, married to Mary, Jesus' mother, was Jesus' legal father. Joseph is venerated as Saint Joseph in the Catholic Church, Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, Anglicanism and Methodism, is known as Joseph the carpenter; some differing views are due to theological interpretations versus historical views. In both Catholic and Protestant traditions, Joseph is regarded as the patron saint of workers and is associated with various feast days. Pope Pius IX declared him to be both the patron and the protector of the Catholic Church, in addition to his patronages of the sick and of a happy death, due to the belief that he died in the presence of Jesus and Mary. In popular piety, Joseph is regarded as a model for fathers and has become patron of various dioceses and places. Several venerated images of Saint Joseph have been granted a canonical coronation by a Pope. In popular religious iconography he is associated with a spikenard. With the present-day growth of Mariology, the theological field of Josephology has grown and since the 1950s centers for studying it have been formed.
In the Apocrypha, Joseph was the father of James, Jude, at least two daughters. According to Epiphanius and the apocryphal History of Joseph the Carpenter, these children were from a marriage which predated the one with Mary, a belief, accepted by some select Christian denominations; the Pauline epistles make no reference to Jesus' father. The first appearance of Joseph is in the gospels of Luke; each contains a genealogy of Jesus showing ancestry from King David, but through different sons. All the names between David and Joseph are different; some scholars such as Harry A. Ironside reconcile the genealogies by viewing the Solomonic lineage in Matthew as Joseph's major royal line, the Nathanic lineage in Luke to be Mary's minor line; the epistles of Paul are regarded as the oldest extant Christian writings. These do not refer to his father; the Book of Mark, believed to be the first gospel to be written and with a date about two decades after Paul does not mention Jesus' father. Joseph first appears in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, both dating from around 80–90 AD.
The issue of reconciling the two accounts has been the subject of debate. Like the two differing genealogies, the infancy narratives appear only in Matthew and Luke and take different approaches to reconciling the requirement that the Messiah be born in Bethlehem with the tradition that Jesus in fact came from Nazareth. In Matthew, Joseph obeys the direction of an angel to marry Mary. Following the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, Joseph is told by an angel in a dream to take the family to Egypt to escape the massacre of the children of Bethlehem planned by Herod, the ruler of the Roman province of Judea. Once Herod has died, an angel tells Joseph to return, but to avoid Herod's son he takes his wife and the child to Nazareth in Galilee and settles there, thus in Matthew, the infant Jesus, like Moses, is in peril from a cruel king, like Moses he has a father named Joseph who goes down to Egypt, like the Old Testament Joseph this Joseph has a father named Jacob, both Josephs receive important dreams foretelling their future.
In the Gospel book of Luke, Joseph lives in Nazareth, Jesus is born in Bethlehem because Joseph and Mary have to travel there to be counted in a census. Subsequently, Jesus was born there. Luke's account makes no mention of him being visited by angels, the Massacre of the Innocents, or of a visit to Egypt; the last time Joseph appears in person in any Gospel book is in the story of the Passover visit to the Temple in Jerusalem when Jesus is 12 years old, found only in Luke. No mention is made of him thereafter; the story emphasizes Jesus' awareness of his coming mission: here Jesus speaks to his parents of "my father," meaning God, but they fail to understand.. Christian tradition represents Mary as a widow during the adult ministry of her son. Joseph is not mentioned as being present at the Wedding at Cana at the beginning of Jesus' mission, nor at the Passion at the end. If he had been present at the Crucifixion, he would under Jewish custom have been expected to take charge of Jesus' body, but this role is instead performed by Joseph of Arimathea.
Nor would Jesus have entrusted his mother to the care of John the Apostle if her husband had been alive. While none of the Gospels mentions Joseph as present at any event during Jesus' adult ministry, the synoptic Gospels share a scene in which the people of Nazareth, Jesus' hometown, doubt Jesus' status as a prophet because they know his family. In Mark 6:3, they call Jesus "Mary's son" instead of naming his father. In Matthew, the townspeople call Jesus "the carpenter's son," again without naming his father. In Luke 3:23 "And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being the son of Joseph, of Heli." In Luke the tone is positive, whereas in Matthew it is disparaging. This incident does not appear at all in John, but in a parallel story the disbelieving neighbors refer to "Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know". Joseph appears in Luke as the father of Jesus and in a "variant reading in Matthew". Matthew and Luke both contain a genealogy of Jesus showing his ancestry from David, but through different sons.
The Davidic line or House of David refers to the tracing of lineage to King David through the texts in the Hebrew Bible, in the New Testament, through the succeeding centuries. According to the Tanakh, upon being chosen and becoming king, one was customarily anointed with holy oil poured on one's head. In David's case, this was done by the prophet Samuel. David was king over the Tribe of Judah only and ruled from Hebron, but after seven and a half years, the other Israelite tribes, who found themselves leaderless after the death of Ish-bosheth, chose him to be their king as well. All subsequent kings in both the ancient first united Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah claimed direct descent from King David to validate their claim to the throne in order to rule over the Israelite tribes. After the death of David's son, King Solomon, the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel rejected the Davidic line, refusing to accept Solomon's son and instead chose as king Jeroboam and formed the northern Kingdom of Israel.
This kingdom was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BCE which exiled much of the Northern Kingdom population and ended its sovereign status. The bulk population of the Northern Kingdom of Israel was forced to relocate to Mesopotamia and disappeared from history as The Ten Lost Tribes or intermixed with exiled Judean populations two centuries while the remaining Israelite peoples in Samaria highlands have become known as Samaritans during the classic era and to modern times. Following the conquest of Judah by Babylon and the exile of its population, the Babylonian Exilarchate was established; the highest official of Babylonian Jewry was the exilarch. Those who held the position traced their ancestry to the House of David in the male line; the position holder was regarded as a king-in-waiting, residing in Babylon and in the Achaemenid Empire during the classic era. Zerubbabel of the Davidic line is mentioned as one of the leaders of the Jewish community in the 5th century BCE, holding the title of Achaeminid Governor of Yehud Medinata.
The Hasmoneans known as the Maccabees, were a priestly group from the Tribe of Levi. They established their own monarchy in Judea following their revolt against the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty; the Hasmoneans were not considered connected to the Davidic line nor to the Tribe of Judah. The Levites had always been excluded from the Israelite monarchy, so when the Maccabees assumed the throne in order to rededicate the defiled Second Temple, a cardinal rule was broken. According to scholars within Orthodox Judaism, this is considered to have contributed to their downfall and the eventual downfall of Judea. During the Hasmonean period the Davidic line was excluded from the royal house in Judea, but some members had risen to prominence as religious and communal leaders. One of the most notable of those was Hillel the Elder, who moved to Judea from his birthplace in Babylon, his great grandson Simeon ben Gamliel became one of the Jewish leaders during the Great Revolt. The Exilarchate institution in Sasanian Persia was abolished as a result of revolt by the Mar-Zutra II in the late 5th century, with his son Mar-Zutra III being denied of the office and relocating to Tiberias - within the Byzantine Empire.
Mar Ahunai lived in the period succeeding Mar Zutra II, but for fifty years after the failed revolt he did not dare to appear in public, it is not known whether then he acted as Exilarch. The names of Kafnai and his son Haninai, who were Exilarchs in the second half of the 6th century, have been preserved; the Exilarchate in Mesopotamia was restored after the Arab conquest in the 7th century and continued to function during the early Caliphates. Haninai's posthumous son Bostanai was the first of the Exilarchs under Arabic rule. Exilarchs continued to be appointed until the 11th century, with some members of the Davidic line dispersing across the Islamic world. Natronai ben Habibai for instance was a rival Exilarch candidate of Judah Zakkai, but was defeated and sent to the West in banishment. There are conflicting accounts of the fate of the Exlarch family in the 11th century - according to one version Hezekiah, the last Exilarch and the last Gaon, was imprisoned and tortured to death. Two of his sons fled to al-Andalus, where they found refuge with Joseph, the son and successor of Samuel ha-Nagid.
However, Jewish Quarterly Review mentions that Hezekiah was liberated from prison, became head of the academy, is mentioned as such by a contemporary in 1046. An unsuccessful attempt of David ben Daniel of the Davidic line to establish an Exilarchate in the Fatimid Caliphate failed and ended with his downfall in 1094. Descendants of the house of exilarchs were living in various places long after the office became extinct. A descendant of Hezekiah, Hiyya al-Daudi, Gaon of Andalucia, died in 1154 in Castile according to Abraham ibn Daud. Several families, as late as the 14th century, traced their descent back to Josiah, the brother of David ben Zakkai, banished to Chorasan; the descendants of the Karaite Exilarchs have been referred to above. A number of Jewish families in the Iberian peninsula and within Mesopotamia continued to preser
Ehud ben‑Gera is described in the biblical Book of Judges as a judge, sent by God to deliver the Israelites from Moabite domination. He is described as being left-handed and a member of the Tribe of Benjamin. According to Judges 3:12-30, Ehud was sent to the Moabite King Eglon on the pretext of delivering the Israelites' annual tribute, he made a double-edged shortsword about a cubit useful for a stabbing thrust. Being left-handed, he could conceal the sword on his right thigh. Once they met, Ehud told Eglon. Eglon allowed Ehud to meet him in private. Ehud said, "I have a message from God for you", drew his sword, stabbed the king in his abdomen. After Ehud stabbed the king, the end of Judges 3:22 reads in Hebrew vayyetze hap-parshedonah, a phrase of uncertain meaning; the sword disappeared into the wound and Ehud left it there. He left. Eglon's assistants found the doors locked. Assuming that he was relieving himself, they waited "to the point of embarrassment" before unlocking the door and finding their king dead.
Ehud escaped to the town of Seraiah in Ephraim. He sounded the shofar and rallied the Israelite tribes, who killed the Moabites, cutting off the fords of the Jordan River, invaded Moab itself, killing about 10,000 Moabite soldiers. After the death of Eglon, the narrative reports. Coogan argues that the story of Ehud was a folk tale of local origin, edited by the Deuteronomistic historians; the Deuteronomistic historians “incorporated a variety of existing sources into their narrative of life in early Israel” and the story of Ehud is one such example of a “previously existing source”, edited to include “the cyclical pattern” typical of the stories of the major judges. This pattern consists of apostasy, crying out to the Lord, rescue and it is present in the tale of Ehud: apostasy and hardship occur in Judges 3.12, “The Israelites again did what was evil in the sight of the Lord. The “crying out to the Lord” and the subsequent rescue are evident in Judges 3.15: “but when the Israelites cried out to the Lord, the Lord raised up for them a deliverer, Ehud son of Gera.”
The rather lively and glorious tale is ended with the refrain of “and the land had rest 80 years,” an editorially constructed ending typical to Gideon and other “major” judge stories in the book of Judges. He was the second judge chosen by God. Barry Webb sees Ehud as "directed by the Lord, who used this most unlikely hero to bring deliverance to his undeserving but desperate people"; the etymology of Ehud's name is unknown. Biblical judges Book of Judges Book of Judges article of the Jewish Encyclopedia The story of Ehud retold for children
Easton's Bible Dictionary
The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, better known as Easton's Bible Dictionary, is a reference work on topics related to the Christian Bible compiled by Matthew George Easton. The first edition was published in 1893, a revised edition was published the following year; the most popular edition, was the third, published by Thomas Nelson in 1897, three years after Easton's death. The last contains nearly 4,000 entries relating to the Bible. Many of the entries in Easton's are encyclopedic in nature, although there are short dictionary-type entries; because of its age, it is now a public domain resource. Bauer lexicon Smith's Bible Dictionary, another popular 19th century Bible dictionary Easton, Matthew George, ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... New York: Harper & Bros. Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, Matthew George. "Table of contents". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons.
Easton's Bible Dictionary, Christian Classics Ethereal Library Igor Apps, Bible Dictionary, Google Play Store Android app. Igor Apps, Bible Dictionary, iTunes Store iOS app
Obadiah is a Biblical theophorical name, meaning "servant of God" or "worshiper of Yahweh". The form of Obadiah's name used in the Septuagint is Obdios; the Bishops' Bible has it as Abdi. The political situation implied in the prophecy points to a time after the Exile in the mid-fifth century B. C. No value can be attributed to traditions identifying this prophet with King Ahab's steward or with King Ahaziah's captain. — The Interpreters' Bible According to the Talmud, Obadiah is said to have been a convert to Judaism from Edom, a descendant of Eliphaz, the friend of Job. He is identified with the Obadiah, the servant of Ahab, it is said that he was chosen to prophesy against Edom because he was himself an Edomite. Moreover, having lived with two such godless persons as Ahab and Jezebel without learning to act as they did, he seemed the most suitable person to prophesy against Esau. Obadiah is supposed to have received the gift of prophecy for having hidden the "hundred prophets" from the persecution of Jezebel.
He hid the prophets in two caves, so that if those in one cave should be discovered those in the other might yet escape. Obadiah was rich, but all his wealth was expended in feeding the poor prophets, until, in order to be able to continue to support them he had to borrow money at interest from Ahab's son Jehoram. Obadiah's fear of God was one degree higher than that of Abraham. In some Christian traditions he is said to have been born in "Sychem", to have been the third centurion sent out by Ahaziah against Elijah; the date of his ministry is unclear due to certain historical ambiguities in the book bearing his name, but is believed to be around 586 B. C, he is regarded as a saint by several Eastern churches. His feast day is celebrated on the 15th day of the Coptic Month Tobi in the Coptic Orthodox Church; the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite celebrate his memory on November 19. He is celebrated on February 28 in the Syriac and Malankara Churches, with the other Minor prophets in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31.
According to an old tradition, Obadiah is buried in Sebastia, at the same site as Elisha and where the body of John the Baptist was believed to have been buried by his followers. It is related to "Abdeel", "servant of God", cognate to the Arabic name "Abdullah" or "Obaidullah"; the equivalent Turkish name is Abdi. Other individuals named Obadiah in the Old Testament are listed as: the servant of king Ahab of Israel. According to the rabbinic tradition, the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, this is the same individual as the prophet; the son of Hananiah, a descendant of king David of Israel through Solomon the son of Uzzi, a descendant of the Hebrew patriarch Issachar the son of Azel, a descendant of King Saul of Israel through Jonathan the son of Shemaiah, a descendant of the Hebrew patriarch Levi a warrior of the Tribe of Gad who served King David the father of Ishmaiah, governor of the tribe of Zebulun during the reign of King David a prince of the southern kingdom of Judah during the reign of King Jehoshaphat a Levite, overseer of the reconstruction efforts during the reforms of King Josiah of Judah the son of Joab, one of the individuals who returned from the Babylonian captivity with the priestly scribe Ezra, the Levite mentioned in as a porter of Jerusalem's gates after the city's reconstruction under Nehemiah BookHolweck, F. G.
A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co. 1924. Prophet Obadiah Orthodox icon and synaxarion
The Sistine Chapel is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the pope, in Vatican City. Known as the Cappella Magna, the chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored it between 1477 and 1480. Since that time, the chapel has served as a place of both functionary papal activity. Today, it is the site of the process by which a new pope is selected; the fame of the Sistine Chapel lies in the frescos that decorate the interior, most the Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Last Judgment by Michelangelo. During the reign of Sixtus IV, a team of Renaissance painters that included Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Cosimo Rosselli, created a series of frescos depicting the Life of Moses and the Life of Christ, offset by papal portraits above and trompe-l'œil drapery below; these paintings were completed in 1482, on 15 August 1483 Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel for the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
Between 1508 and 1512, under the patronage of Pope Julius II, Michelangelo painted the chapel's ceiling, a project which changed the course of Western art and is regarded as one of the major artistic accomplishments of human civilization. In a different climate, after the Sack of Rome, he returned and, between 1535 and 1541, painted The Last Judgment for Popes Clement VII and Paul III; the fame of Michelangelo's paintings has drawn multitudes of visitors to the chapel since they were revealed five hundred years ago. While known as the location of Papal conclaves, the primary function of the Sistine Chapel is as the chapel of the Papal Chapel, one of the two bodies of the Papal household, called until 1968 the Papal Court. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV in the late 15th century, the Papal Chapel comprised about 200 people, including clerics, officials of the Vatican and distinguished laity. There were 50 occasions during the year on which it was prescribed by the Papal Calendar that the whole Papal Chapel should meet.
Of these 50 occasions, 35 were masses, of which 8 were held in Basilicas, in general St. Peter's, were attended by large congregations; these included the Christmas Easter masses, at which the Pope himself was the celebrant. The other 27 masses could be held in a smaller, less public space, for which the Cappella Maggiore was used before it was rebuilt on the same site as the Sistine Chapel; the Cappella Maggiore derived its name, the Greater Chapel, from the fact that there was another chapel in use by the Pope and his retinue for daily worship. At the time of Pope Sixtus IV, this was the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V, decorated by Fra Angelico; the Cappella Maggiore is recorded as existing in 1368. According to a communication from Andreas of Trebizond to Pope Sixtus IV, by the time of its demolition to make way for the present chapel, the Cappella Maggiore was in a ruinous state with its walls leaning; the present chapel, on the site of the Cappella Maggiore, was designed by Baccio Pontelli for Pope Sixtus IV, for whom it is named, built under the supervision of Giovannino de Dolci between 1473 and 1481.
The proportions of the present chapel appear to follow those of the original. After its completion, the chapel was decorated with frescoes by a number of the most famous artists of the High Renaissance, including Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Pietro Perugino, Michelangelo; the first mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on 15 August 1483, the Feast of the Assumption, at which ceremony the chapel was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The Sistine Chapel has maintained its function to the present day, continues to host the important services of the Papal Calendar, unless the Pope is travelling. There is a permanent choir, the Sistine Chapel Choir, for whom much original music has been written, the most famous piece being Gregorio Allegri's Miserere. One of the functions of the Sistine Chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. On the occasion of a conclave, a chimney is installed in the roof of the chapel, from which smoke arises as a signal.
If white smoke,which is created by burning the ballots of the election, appears, a new Pope has been elected. If a candidate receives less than a two-thirds vote, the cardinals send up black smoke—created by burning the ballots along with wet straw and chemical additives—it means that no successful election has yet occurred; the first papal conclave to be held on the Sistine Chapel was the conclave of 1492, which took place from August 6 from August 11 of the same year and in which Pope Alexander VI known as Rodrigo Borja, was elected. The conclave provided for the cardinals a space in which they could hear mass, in which they could eat and pass time attended by servants. From 1455, conclaves have been held in the Vatican. Since 1996, John Paul II's Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici gregis requires the cardinals to be lodged in the Domus Sanctae Marthae during a papal conclave, but to continue to vote in the Sistine Chapel. Canopies for each cardinal-elector were once used during conclaves—a sign of equal dignity.
After the new Pope accepts his election, he would give his new name. Until reforms instituted by Saint Pius X, the canopies were of different colours to designate which Cardinals had been appointed by which Pope. Paul
According to the biblical narrative, Zerubbabel was a governor of the Persian Province of Judah and the grandson of Jehoiachin, penultimate king of Judah. Zerubbabel led the first group of Jews, numbering 42,360, who returned from the Babylonian captivity in the first year of Cyrus, King of Persia; the date is thought to have been between 538 and 520 BC. Zerubbabel laid the foundation of the Second Temple in Jerusalem soon after. In all of the accounts in the Hebrew Bible that mention Zerubbabel, he is always associated with the high priest who returned with him, Joshua son of Jozadak. Together, these two men led the first wave of Jewish returnees from exile and began to rebuild the Temple. Old Testament theologian John Kessler describes the region of Judah as a small province that contained land extending 25 km from Jerusalem and was independently ruled prior to the Persian rule. Zerubbabel was the governor of this province. King Darius I of Persia appointed Zerubbabel governor of the Province.
It was after this appointment. Elias Bickerman speculates that one of the reasons that Zerubbabel was able to rebuild the Temple was because of "the widespread revolts at the beginning of the reign of Darius I in 522 BC, which preoccupied him to such a degree that Zerubbabel felt he could initiate the rebuilding of the temple without repercussions"; the Davidic line from Jeconiah had been cursed by Jeremiah, saying that no offspring of "Coniah" would sit on the throne. Zerubbabel was of the main Davidic line through Jeconiah; the prophets Zechariah and Haggai both give unclear statements regarding Zerubbabel's authority in their oracles, in which Zerubbabel was either the subject of a false prophecy or the receiver of a divine promotion to kingship. He could be viewed as a governor of a state within another nation and thus technically "not on the throne" of a nation. Either way, he was given the task of rebuilding the Temple in the second year of the reign of Darius I, along with the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak.
Muslim historian Ya'qubi attributed the recovery of the Torah and the Books of the Prophets to him instead of Ezra. The Seder Olam Zutta lists him as the Exilarch in Babylon to succeed Shealtiel; the texts are conflicting as to whether Zerubbabel was the son of his nephew. His son Meshullam succeeded him as Exilarch, was followed by another son Hananiah, his other sons were Hashubah, Berechiah and Jushab-hesed. He had a daughter called Shelomith. If the name Zerubbabel is Hebrew, it may be a contraction of Zərua' Bāvel, meaning "the one sown of Babylon", referring to a child conceived and born in Babylon. If the name is not Hebrew but Assyrian-Babylonian, it may contract, Zəru Bābel, meaning, "Seed of Babylon", the one conceived in Babylon. Zerubbabel may have had a Babylonian style name because of his interaction with the Babylonian court. Ezra begins with Cyrus the Great entrusting the Temple vessels to Sheshbazzar. Both are both credited with laying the foundation of the Temple. A number of explanations have been proposed, including: the two are the same person.
Zerubbabel appears in the prophecies of Zechariah. "'On that day, says the Lord of Hosts, I will take you Zerubbabel, son of Shealtiel, my servant, wear you like a signet ring. This is the word of the Lord of Hosts'"; this quotation from the Book of Haggai illustrates the messianic expectations that are associated with Zerubbabel. The term, "my servant," describes Zerubbabel as God's servant; this term is associated with King David. Walter Rose concludes that: "the epithet'servant' is hardly used for kings after David may be related to the fact that most of them were disappointing in their performance as kings appointed by YHVH". Rose emphasizes. Scholars have analyzed the phrase "I will take you." Rose associates this term with a mission, change, or protection. For Zerubbabel, this mission was the rebuilding of the second Temple; the most debated part of this prophecy is the phrase, "wear you like a signet ring." A signet ring is an authoritative symbol, associated with power. Rose interprets this passage by comparing it to the passage in Jeremiah 22:24, in through which he concludes that the King is a signet ring on God's hand.
John Kessler interprets the idea of the nature of the Signet ring as such that "the real true figure of speech at issue is a personification of which the simile or metaphor is only a part. The real trope consists of the personification of Yahweh, likened to the owner of a signet". However, this word when in Hebrew has been translated as meaning both seal and signet ring, it is unclear whether Haggai's prophecy claims that Zerubbabel is going to be the King of the Land of Judah or if he is just to build the second Temple. Many scholars have interpreted