Abijah of Judah

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Abijah
King of Judah
Abijam.jpg
Reignc. 913 - 911 BC
PredecessorRehoboam, his father
SuccessorAsa, his son
BornJerusalem
Died911 BC
possibly Jerusalem
Burial
Jerusalem
Spouse14 wives
Issue22 sons and 16 daughters
Hebrew nameאבים בן-רחבעם
’Aviyam ben Rehav’am
HouseHouse of David
FatherRehoboam
MotherMaacah, or Micaiah, daughter of Uriel of Gibeah, and granddaughter of Absalom (Abishalom)
ReligionJudaism

Abijam[a] was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the fourth king of the House of David and the second of the Kingdom of Judah. He was the son of Rehoboam and the grandson of Solomon;[2][3][4] the Chronicler refers to him as Abijah.[b]

Family[edit]

Abijam is reported in the books of Kings and Chronicles as being related to Maacah, Micaiah, and King Asa of Judah. Scholars have found the biblical accounts of Abijam's family to be contradictory.[6] While a number of theories have been suggested,[7][8][9][c] no explanation can accommodate all available sources or has proved definitively compelling.[10][11] Abijah married fourteen wives, and had 22 sons and 16 daughters.[12]

Abijah in the Hebrew Bible[edit]

Reign of Abijah[edit]

Following the death of Rehoboam, his son Abijah succeeded the throne as King of Judah,[13] he began his three-year reign (2 Chr. 12:16; 13:1, 2) with a strenuous but unsuccessful effort to bring back the ten tribes of the northern Kingdom of Israel to their allegiance.[14]

Following Abijah's ascension to the throne in the 18th year of King Jeroboam I of Israel, he marched north with the purpose of winning Israel back to the Davidic kingdom.[13] Jeroboam surrounded Abijah's army, engaging in the battle of Mount Zemaraim.[13] Abijah captured the Israelite cities of Jeshanah, Ephron (et-Taiyibeh) and Bethel.[13]

Commentaries[edit]

According to the Deuteronomist,[15] "God gave him a lamp in Jerusalem by raising up a son to succeed him" (1 Kings 15:4); the wording in the Septuagint is "the Lord gave him a remnant".[16] Thus the unconditional covenant blessing of YHWH guaranteed his promise to King David, to stabilize the Kingdom of David despite its ruler; the Chronicler also emphasizes YHWH's promise as seen by Abijah's success against every effort by Jeroboam to defeat him.[13] "Judah prevailed because they relied upon the Lord God of their fathers." (2 Chr. 13:18) God gave the Kingdom to David and his descendants (1 Chr. 17:14) by a covenant of salt, meaning, of permanence (cf. Leviticus 2:13).[17]

Rabbanic Literature[edit]

Although Abijah took up God's cause against Jeroboam, the idolatrous king of Israel, he was not permitted to enjoy the fruits of his victory over the latter for any considerable time, dying as he did shortly after his campaign (Josephus, "Ant." viii. 11, § 3). The rabbis recount many transgressions committed by Abijah against his fellow men, which resulted in drawing God's vengeance upon him more speedily than upon Jeroboam's idolatries, thus it is stated that he mutilated the corpses of Jeroboam's soldiers, and even would not permit them to be interred until they had arrived at a state of putrefaction. Nor did Abijah show himself zealous in God's cause after all; for when, by the conquest of Bethel (II Chron. xiii. 19), the golden calves came into his possession, he did not destroy them as the law (Deut. vii. 25) enjoined. The rabbis also point out that it was improper for Abijah to accuse the whole of Israel of idolatry and to proclaim the appointment of Jeroboam as king to have been the work of "vain men, the children of Belial" (II Chron. xiii. 7), since in point of fact it was the prophet Ahijah, the Shilonite, who made him king (I Kings, xi. 37). For these reasons Abijah's reign was a short one.[18]

Chronological discrepancies[edit]

According to 2 Chronicles 13:1-2, Abijah became king of Judah in the 18th year of the reign of Jeroboam, and reigned for three years.

William F. Albright has dated his reign to 915–913 BCE.

E. R. Thiele offers the dates 914/913 – 911/910 BCE.[19] As explained in the Rehoboam article, Thiele's chronology for the first kings of Judah contained an internal inconsistency that later scholars corrected by dating these kings one year earlier, so that Abijah's dates are taken as 915/914 to 912/911 BCE in the present article.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hebrew: אֲבִיָּם, Modern: Aviyam, Tiberian: Āḇîyām, "father of the sea" or "my father is the sea"; Greek: Αβιου, romanizedAviou; Latin: Abiam)[1]
  2. ^ Hebrew: אֲבִיָּה, ʼĂḇiyyāh, "my father is Yah"; Greek: Αβια; Latin: Abia).[5]
  3. ^ Note also the testimony of Josephus: "Asa his son succeeded in the kingdom; and the young man's mother was Michaiah." (Josephus 1737, p. 231, VII.11.3)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "1 Kings 15:1 Multilingual: Now in the eighteenth year of King Jeroboam the son of Nebat, Abijam began to reign over Judah". mlbible.com.
  2. ^ Pulkrabek 2007, p. 39.
  3. ^ Provan, Hubbard & Johnston 2012, p. 189.
  4. ^ Zucker 2013, p. 194.
  5. ^ "2 Chronicles 12:16 Multilingual: And Rehoboam slept with his fathers and was buried in the city of David, and Abijah his son reigned in his place". mlbible.com.
  6. ^ Sweeney 2007, p. 191.
  7. ^ Myers 1965, p. 79.
  8. ^ Falk 1996, p. 145-147.
  9. ^ Tenney & Silva 2010, p. 30.
  10. ^ Japhet 1993, p. 671.
  11. ^ Arbeli 1985, p. 165-170.
  12. ^ 2 Chronicles 13:21
  13. ^ a b c d e Merrill 2008, p. 347.
  14. ^ Easton 1894, p. 6, Abi’jah (5.).
  15. ^ Eerdmans 2000, p. 6, ABIJAH 3..
  16. ^ "1 Kings 15 Brenton Septuagint Translation". biblehub.com.
  17. ^ Wycliffe 1962, p. 873.
  18. ^ Jewish encyclopedia Abijah This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  19. ^ Thiele 1951, p. 81, 82, 217.

Works cited[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Abijah of Judah
Cadet branch of the Tribe of Judah
Contemporary King of Israel: Jeroboam I
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rehoboam
King of Judah
913 BC – 912 BC
Succeeded by
Asa