The city is spread across 14 islands on the coast in the southeast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago and the Baltic Sea. The area has settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC. It is the capital of Stockholm County, Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the countrys GDP and it is an important global city, and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some of Europes top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and it hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the citys most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is known for its decoration of the stations. Swedens national football arena is located north of the city centre, Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city.
The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Ministers residence is adjacent at the Sager House. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already a number of people living in the present-day Stockholm area. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable, at the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholms location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne, the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade.
The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification, the second part of the name means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. Stockholms core, the present Old Town was built on the island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League, Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time
Kungsleden is a hiking trail in northern Sweden, approximately 440-kilometre long, between Abisko in the north and Hemavan in the south. It passes through, near the end, the Vindelfjällen Nature Reserve. In the winter Kungsleden is a ski trail with approximately the same route, the history of Kungsleden is connected to the Swedish Tourism Association. This association was formed in 1885 by scientists at Uppsala in order to access to Swedish mountains. From the late century, the association had the idea of creating a royal road through the Lapone mountains. The proposed route was to link the present-day Abisko to Kvikkjokk, construction of the Malmbanan railway line between Kiruna and Narvik in 1902 gave this project the required access. STF bought three officer cabins from the Swedish Railways including one at Abisko, with the very limited funds available, it gradually transformed the cabin at Abisko into a tourism station. It built chalets, the first ones being those of Abiskojaure, between Abisko and Abiskojaure, the trail followed an old road used to transport materials.
In addition to the cottages, the association brought in boats for the lakes between Abisko and Vakkotavare, the plans were changed, such that the trail runs along the eastern end of park instead. Initially, the trail was not marked or named, in 1920, in a book on Kebnekaise, the trail appeared under the name Alesvaggeleden. The trail between Abisko and Vakkotavare was finally marked in 1926 and 1927, in 1928, without any ceremony or inauguration the name Kungsleden appeared for the first time, with the opening of the Kvikkjokk station. The construction of the cottages was slow given the economic means of association. There was still no proper path to speak of and the sentiment for the trail was very limited at first. The trail was extended in a relatively discrete way, in 1941, the Kungsleden went from Abisko to Jäkkvik and early 1950s, it reached up to Ammarnäs. Some hikers at the time included Kungsleden in all STF trail networks in the mountains, in 1975, the trail was officially extended to Hemavan with the creation of the Vindelfjällen Nature Reserve.
The section further south however, is sometimes called Södra Kungsleden, Kungsleden runs for about 440 kilometres between Abisko in the north and Hemavan in the south. The trail is separated in four portions which each represent approximately one week of hiking, the most practiced part is by far the northernmost, between Abisko and Kebnekaise. The winter season runs from mid February to the end of April, huts have been constructed along the trail, separated by a distance that a walker could expect to cover during the day, about 9-22 kilometres
Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles by the possession of a neocortex, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. All female mammals nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands, Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales. The basic body type is a quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme, all modern mammals give birth to live young, most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha, the next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora. Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria and Theriiformes There are around 5450 species of mammal, in some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses, the Prototheria, that is, the order Monotremata, and the Theria, or the infraclasses Metatheria and Eutheria.
The marsupials constitute the group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones. Much of the changes reflect the advances of cladistic analysis and molecular genetics, findings from molecular genetics, for example, have prompted adopting new groups, such as the Afrotheria, and abandoning traditional groups, such as the Insectivora. The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade, the early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period, this group diverged from the line that led to todays reptiles. Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies, most mammals are polygynous, but some can be monogamous or polyandrous.
They provided, and continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as commodities such as meat, dairy products, wool. Mammals are hunted or raced for sport, and are used as model organisms in science, Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, and appear in literature, film and religion. Defaunation of mammals is primarily driven by anthropogenic factors, such as poaching and habitat destruction, Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is accepted, McKenna & Bell and Wilson & Reader provide useful recent compendiums. Though field work gradually made Simpsons classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to a classification of mammals
Kiruna is the northernmost town in Sweden, situated in the province of Lapland. It had 18,148 inhabitants in 2010 and is the seat of Kiruna Municipality in Norrbotten County, Esrange Space Center was established in Kiruna in the 1960s. Also in Kiruna are the Institute of Space Physics and the Department of Space Science belonging to Luleå University of Technology, archeological findings have shown that the region around Kiruna has been inhabited for at least 6,000 years. Centuries before Kiruna was founded in 1900, the presence of iron ore at Kiirunavaara and Luossavaara had been known by the local Sami population, in 1696, Samuel Mört, a bookkeeper of the Kengis works, wrote on the presence of iron in the two hills. Despite the findings of large amounts of ore, no mining was initiated because of the remote location, some ore was extracted in the 19th century. It was extracted in summer and transported in winter, using sleds drawn by reindeer, in 1884, a concession for a railway from Luleå to Narvik was granted to The Northern of Europe Railway Company.
The provisional railway between Luleå and Malmberget was finished in 1888 and the first train left Malmberget in March. Around the same time, the English company went bankrupt and had to sell the line to the Swedish state for 8 million Swedish crowns, after a significant rebuild, the railway to Gällivare could be used again and iron ore was extracted at Malmberget by Aktiebolaget Gellivare Malmfält. At the initiative of Robert Schoug, the Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag was founded in 1890, in 1893, Gustaf Broms became CEO of both LKAB and AGM. LKAB pressed for continuing Malmbanan via Luossavaara and Kiirunavaara to the ice-free coast of Norway, the continuation of the railway line to Narvik was controversial, because opponents feared the influence of Russia on an international railway line. The decision to build was finally taken in 1898, the railway came to Kiruna 15 October 1899 and the Swedish and Norwegian sections were joined 15 November 1902. For LKAB, the great expense almost led to bankruptcy in 1901, king Oscar II only opened the railway line 14 July 1903, preferring summer over winter to travel north.
On 27 April 1900, Hallmans plan was officially accepted, Gustaf Broms proposed to name the settlements Kiruna, a short and practical name that could be pronounced by Swedish speaking inhabitants. LKAB appointed Hjalmar Lundbohm, who had finished high school nor his geology studies. Also, provisional buildings served as a church, a school, a hospital, a hotel and a police station. However, official residences were built at a pace. The very first building, B,1, is preserved, in 1899,18 people were registered as living in soon-to-be Kiruna. This increased to 222 in 1900,7,438 in 1910 and 12,884 in 1930, Kiruna became a municipalsamhälle in 1908
Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents. The squirrel family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, marmots, flying squirrels, Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas and Africa, and were introduced by humans to Australia. The earliest known date from the Eocene period and are most closely related to the mountain beaver. That word squirrel, first attested in 1327, comes from the Anglo-Norman esquirel which is from the Old French escurel and this Latin word was borrowed from the Ancient Greek word σκίουρος, which means shadow-tailed, referring to the bushy appendage possessed by many of its members. The native Old English word for the squirrel, ācweorna, survived only into Middle English before being replaced, Squirrels typically have slender bodies with bushy tails and large eyes. In general, their fur is soft and silky, although much thicker in some species than others, the color of squirrels is highly variable between—and often even within—species.
In general, the limbs are longer than the fore limbs. Their paws include a poorly developed thumb, and have soft pads on the undersides. Unlike most mammals, Tree squirrels can descend a tree head-first and they do so by rotating their ankles 180 degrees so the hind paws are backward-pointing and can grip the tree bark. Squirrels live in almost every habitat from tropical rainforest to desert, avoiding only the high polar regions. They are predominantly herbivorous, subsisting on seeds and nuts, but many will eat insects, as their large eyes indicate, in general squirrels have an excellent sense of vision, which is especially important for tree-dwelling species. They have very versatile and sturdy claws for grasping and climbing, many have a good sense of touch, with vibrissae on their heads and limbs. The teeth of sciurids follow the typical rodent pattern, with large gnawing incisors that grow throughout life, the typical dental formula for sciurids is 188.8.131.52.0.1.3. Many juvenile squirrels die in the first year of life, adult squirrels can have a lifespan of 5 to 10 years in the wild.
Some can survive 10 to 20 years in captivity, Squirrels breed once or twice a year and give birth to a varying number of young after three to six weeks, depending on species. The young are naked and blind. In most species of squirrel, only the female looks after the young, in general, ground-dwelling species are social animals, often living in well-developed colonies, but the tree-dwelling species are more solitary. Squirrels cannot digest cellulose, so they must rely on foods rich in protein, during these times, squirrels rely heavily on the buds of trees
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian Mountains are often thought to be equivalent to the Scandinavian Caledonides. The western sides of the mountains drop precipitously into the North Sea and Norwegian Sea, forming the fjords of Norway, to the north they form the border between Norway and Sweden, still reaching 2,000 m high at the Arctic Circle. The mountain range just touches northwesternmost Finland, but are more than hills at their northernmost extension at the North Cape. The combination of a location and moisture from the North Atlantic Ocean has caused the formation of many ice fields. In Northern Norway, permafrost becomes common from about 800 to 900 meters AMSL on the western slope, the Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands terrestrial ecoregion is closely associated with the mountain range. Its names in the Scandinavian languages are, in Swedish Skandinaviska fjällkedjan, Skanderna, Fjällen or Kölen, the names Kölen and Kjølen are often preferentially used for the northern part, where the mountains form a narrow range near the border region of Norway and Sweden.
In southern Norway there is a scatter of mountain regions with individual names, such as Dovrefjell, Jotunheimen. The mountain chains highest summits are mostly concentrated in an area between Stavanger and Trondheim in southern Norway, with peaks over 1300 m and some peaks over 2000 m. Around Trondheim Fjord peaks decrease in altitude to about 400–500 m rising again to heights in excess of 1900 m further north in Swedish Lapland, the southern part of the mountain range contains the highest mountain of Northern Europe, Galdhøpiggen at almost 2500 m. This part of the chain is broader and contains a series of plateaux. In south-western Norway the plateaux and gently undulating surfaces are strongly dissected by fjords, the mountain chain is present in Sweden from northern Dalarna northwards, south of this point the Scandinavian Mountains lie completely within Norway. Most of the Scandinavian Mountains lack alpine topography, and where it does have it does relate to altitude, to the east the Scandinavian Mountains proper bounds with mountains that are lower and less dissected and are known as the förfjäll.
Generally the förfjäll do not surpass 1000 m. a. s. l, as a geomorphic unit the förfjäll extends across Sweden as a 650 km long and 40 to 80 km broad belt from Dalarna in the south to Norrbotten in the north. The origin of mountain topography is debated by geologists. In Scandinavia the Caledonian Mountains begun a post-orogenic collapse in the Devonian implying tectonic extension, despite occurring in about the same area the ancient Caledonian Mountains and the modern Scandinavian Mountains are unrelated. The Scandinavian Mountains attained its height by tectonic processes different from orogeny, a two-stage model of uplift has been proposed for the Scandinavian Mountains in southern Norway. A first stage in the Mesozoic and a stage starting from the Oligocene
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe