California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California; the news of gold brought 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. The sudden influx of gold into the money supply reinvigorated the American economy, the sudden population increase allowed California to go to statehood, in the Compromise of 1850; the Gold Rush had severe effects on Native Californians and resulted in a precipitous population decline from disease and starvation. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory, to having one of its first two U. S. Senators, John C. Frémont, selected to be the first presidential nominee for the new Republican Party, in 1856; the effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. Whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called "forty-niners". Outside of California, the first to arrive were from Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, Latin America in late 1848.
Of the 300,000 people who came to California during the Gold Rush, about half arrived by sea and half came overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the gold rush attracted thousands from Latin America, Europe and China. Agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches and other towns were built throughout California. In 1849 a state constitution was written; the new constitution was adopted by referendum vote, the future state's interim first governor and legislature were chosen. In September 1850, California became a state. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of "staking claims" was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. Although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and adopted around the world.
New methods of transportation developed. By 1869, railroads were built from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens of billions of today's US dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few, though many who participated in the California Gold Rush earned little more than they had started with; the Mexican–American War ended on February 3, 1848, although California was a de facto American possession before that. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States; the California Gold Rush began near Coloma. On January 24, 1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, the two tested the metal.
After the tests showed that it was gold, Sutter expressed dismay: he wanted to keep the news quiet because he feared what would happen to his plans for an agricultural empire if there were a mass search for gold. Rumors of the discovery of gold were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher and merchant Samuel Brannan. Brannan hurriedly set up a store to sell gold prospecting supplies, walked through the streets of San Francisco, holding aloft a vial of gold, shouting "Gold! Gold! Gold from the American River!"On August 19, 1848, the New York Herald was the first major newspaper on the East Coast to report the discovery of gold. On December 5, 1848, US President James Polk confirmed the discovery of gold in an address to Congress; as a result, individuals seeking to benefit from the gold rush--later called the "forty-niners"--began moving to the Gold Country of California or "Mother Lode" from other countries and from other parts of the United States. As Sutter had feared, his business plans were ruined after his workers left in search of gold, squatters took over his land and stole his crops and cattle.
San Francisco had been a tiny settlement. When residents learned about the discovery, it at first became a ghost town of abandoned ships and businesses, but boomed as merchants and new people arrived; the population of San Francisco increased from about 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 full-time residents by 1850. Miners lived in wood shanties, or deck cabins removed from abandoned ships. In what has been referred to as the "first world-class gold rush," there was no easy way to get to California. At first, most Argonauts, as they were known, traveled by sea. From the East Coast, a sailing voyage around the tip of South America would take four to five months, cover 18,000 nautical miles. An alternative was to sail to the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, take canoes and mules for a week through the jungle, on the Pacific side, wait for a ship sailing for San Francisco. There was a route across Mexico starting at Veracruz; the companies providing such transportation created vast wealth among their owners and included the U.
S. Mail Steamship Company, the federally subsidized Pacific Mail Steamship Company, the Accessory Tra
Waltham is a city in Middlesex County, United States, was an early center for the labor movement as well as a major contributor to the American Industrial Revolution. The original home of the Boston Manufacturing Company, the city was a prototype for 19th century industrial city planning, spawning what became known as the Waltham-Lowell system of labor and production; the city is now a center for research and higher education, home to Brandeis University and Bentley University. The population was 60,636 at the census in 2010. Waltham is referred to as Watch City because of its association with the watch industry. Waltham Watch Company opened its factory in Waltham in 1854 and was the first company to make watches on an assembly line, it won the gold medal in 1876 at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. The company produced over 35 million watches and instruments before it closed in 1957; the name of the city is pronounced with the primary stress on the first syllable and a full vowel in the second syllable, WAWL-tham, though the name of the Waltham watch was pronounced with a reduced schwa in the second syllable:.
As most would pronounce in the British way, "Walthum", when people came to work in the mills from Nova Scotia, the pronunciation evolved. The "local" version became a phonetic sounding to accommodate French speakers who could not pronounce in the British way. Waltham was first settled in 1634 as part of Watertown and was incorporated as a separate town in 1738. Waltham had no recognizable town center until the 1830s, when the nearby Boston Manufacturing Company gave the town the land that now serves as its central square. In the early 19th century, Francis Cabot Lowell and his friends and colleagues established in Waltham the Boston Manufacturing Company – the first integrated textile mill in the United States, with the goal of eliminating the problems of co-ordination, quality control, shipping inherent in the subcontracting based textile industry; the Waltham -- Lowell system of production derives its name from the founder of the mill. The city is home to a number of large estates, including Gore Place, a mansion built in 1806 for former Massachusetts governor Christopher Gore, the Robert Treat Paine Estate, a residence designed by architect Henry Hobson Richardson and landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted for philanthropist Robert Treat Paine, Jr. and the Lyman Estate, a 400-acre estate built in 1793 by Boston merchant Theodore Lyman.
In 1857, the Waltham Model 1857 watch was produced by the American Watch Company in the city of Waltham, Massachusetts. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Waltham was home to the brass era automobile manufacturer Metz, where the first production motorcycle in the U. S. was built. Another first in Waltham industrial history involves the method to mass-produce the magnetron tube, invented by Percy Spencer at Raytheon. During World War II, the magnetron tube technology was applied to radar. Magnetron tubes were used as components in microwave ovens. Waltham was the home of the Walter E. Fernald State School, the western hemisphere's oldest publicly funded institution serving people with developmental disabilities; the storied and controversial history of the institution has long been covered by local and, at times, national media. Waltham is located at 42°22′50″N 71°14′6″W, about 11 miles north-west of downtown Boston, 3 miles north-west of Boston's Brighton neighborhood; the heart of the city is Waltham Common, home to the City Hall and various memorial statues.
The Common is on Main Street, home to several churches, the town library and Post Office. The city contains several dams; the dams were used to power textile mills and other endeavors in the early years of the industrial activity. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.6 square miles, of which 12.7 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. Waltham has several neighborhoods or villages, including: It is bordered to the west by Weston and Lincoln, to the south by Newton, to the east by Belmont and Watertown, to the north by Lexington; as of the census in 2000, there were 59,226 people, 23,207 households, 12,462 families in the city. The population density was 4,663.4/mile². There were 23,880 housing units at an average density of 1,880.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.98% White, 4.41% African American, 0.16% Native American, 7.29% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 3.20% from other races, 1.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.49% of the population.
There were 23,207 households, of which 20.3% included those under the age of 18, 41.3% were married couples living together, 8.9% were headed by a single mother, 46.3% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.01. The age distribution is as follows: 15.5% under 18, 16.8% from 18 to 24, 34.4% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 13.1% 65 or older. The median age was 34. For every 100 females, there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 95.6 males. The median income for a household was $54,010, the median income for a family was $64,595; these figures increased to $60,434 and $79,877 according to an estimate in 2007. Males had a median income of $42,324, as opposed to $33,931 for females; the per capita income was $26,364. 7% of the population and 3.6% of families lived below the poverty line. 4.8% of those under 18 and 8.4% of those 65 and
Sentinel Waggon Works
Sentinel Waggon Works Ltd was a British company based in Shrewsbury, Shropshire that made steam-powered lorries, railway locomotives, diesel engined lorries and locomotives. Alley & MacLellan was based in Polmadie, Glasgow; this company continued in operation until the 1950s. Manufacturing valves and compressors for steam engines, whole steamships, Alley & MacLellan acquired Simpson and Bibby of Horsehay, manufacturer of steam powered road vehicles, in 1903, they began producing steam road vehicles in 1905 and in 1906 introduced a 5 ton vertical-boiler wagon, which featured a 2-cylinder undertype engine and chain drive. Around 1915 Alley & McLellan moved the steam wagon production to a new factory in England and it continued under a separate company, and in 1918 the company opened a third factory in Worcester specialising in valve manufacture. Both factory buildings were prefabricated in Glasgow for local assembly and in both cases core Scottish employees transferred to the new sites. Alley & MacLellan continued to operate in the original Sentinel Works in Jessie Street, Glasgow until the 1950s.
They produced a wide range of engineering products including compressors, etc. The'Sentinel' name continued to be used for the products of the original Glasgow works until the mid 20th Century. A new company Sentinel Waggon Works Ltd was formed when steam wagon production was switched to a new factory, opened at Shrewsbury in 1915. There were several other slight changes to the name over the company's lifetime when further infusions of working capital were required to obviate financial problems. Alley & MacLellan's early wagon was so successful that it remained in production with few updates until the launch of Sentinel's famous Super in 1923; the company produced steam railway locomotives and railcars, for railway companies and industrial customers. In 1917, the company was bought by William Co. Ltd.. In 1920, after financial problems, the company was reorganised as Sentinel Waggon Works Ltd; the Sentinel'Super' model that followed in 1923 was assembled in a radical new plant at Shrewsbury, with a flow line based on Henry Ford’s Model T factory at Highland Park, with 1,550 vehicles produced.
Sentinel, along with Foden, dominated the steam market, but the 1930s saw the demise of both companies' ranges as new legislation forced the development of lighter lorries, Sentinel surviving the longest. In 1934 Sentinel launched a new and advanced steamer – the S type which had a single-acting 4-cylinder underfloor engine with longitudinal crankshaft and an overhead worm-drive axle, their Sentinel Waggon Works' design of 1935 led to the production of 3,750 Sentinel'Standards' in the seventeen years that followed, the biggest selling steam lorry ever. It was lighter and featured a modernised driver's cab with a set-back boiler and was available in four and eight-wheel form, designated S4, S6 and S8. In spite of its sophisticated design, however, it could not compete with contemporary diesel trucks for all-round convenience and payload capacity, was phased out in the late 1930s, it was not the end of Sentinel's involvement with steam, however. It has been stated that Sentinel were never paid for the last batch of the Río Turbio production run.
At least two of the Río Turbio waggons survive in Argentina to this day. In 1946 Thomas Hill's signed an agency agreement with Sentinel for repair and maintenance of diesel vehicles. In 1947 Sentinel offered to extend the agreement for diesel vehicles to include the steam locomotives and an agency was accepted by Thomas Hill for sales and servicing. In 1947 the company became Sentinel Ltd, had developed a new range of diesel lorries. Despite Sentinel's superbly engineered vehicles, sales diminished throughout the 1950s, by 1956 the company was forced to cease lorry production; the factory was acquired by Rolls-Royce for diesel engine production, the remaining stock of parts and vehicles was taken over by Sentinel's chief dealer, North Cheshire Motors Ltd of Warrington, who formed a new company, Transport Vehicles Ltd, in 1957 to produce Sentinel-based designs under the TVW name. In 1963 Thomas Hill's decided to renew the loco agreement and relinquish the diesel vehicle agency, concentrating all efforts on the steam locomotive work.
Despite the various interesting developments, Rolls Royce did not consider railway locomotives to be part of their core business. They had agreed to complete all steam locos on order, four steam receiver locos ordered by Dorman Long in 1956, but only after much consideration did Rolls-Royce agree at the end of 1957 to design and build a diesel locomotive of similar weight and power to the 200 hp steam loco that had sold so well. Thomas Hill's would assist in the design and development of these diesel machines and would be the sole distributor. In 1958 the last two Sentinel steam locos were delivered marking the end of an era. Two of the newly developed steam receiver locos were delivered and proved satisfactory in service, but Dorman Long were not happy. There had been a change of heart among their engineers as well as a change of circumstances, they were now favouring diesel locomotives; the last two steam receiver locos were built but never delivered and all four were converted to diesel hydraulic.
The prototype Sentinel diesel locomotive was built and ready to commence trials on the former Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Railway early in 1959. It met with the approval and enthusiasm of the Company's prospective customers and before the end of the year 17 locomotives
Stanley Motor Carriage Company
The Stanley Motor Carriage Company was an American manufacturer of steam-engine vehicles. The cars made by the company were colloquially called Stanley Steamers, although several different models were produced. Twins Francis E. Stanley and Freelan O. Stanley founded the company, after selling their photographic dry plate business to Eastman Kodak, they made their first car in 1897. During 1898 and 1899, they produced and sold over 200 cars, more than any other U. S. maker. In 1899, Freelan and his wife Flora drove one of their cars to the top of Mount Washington in New Hampshire, the highest peak in the northeastern United States; the ascent took more than two hours and was notable as being the first time a car had climbed the 7.6 miles long Mount Washington Carriage Road. The Stanleys sold the rights to this early design to Locomobile, in 1902 they formed their own Stanley Motor Carriage Company. Early Stanley cars had light wooden bodies mounted on tubular steel frames by means of full-elliptic springs.
Steam was generated in a vertical fire-tube boiler, mounted beneath the seat, with a vaporizing gasoline burner underneath. The boiler was reinforced by several layers of piano wire wound around it, which gave it a strong but light-weight shell. In early models, the vertical fire-tubes were made of copper, were expanded into holes in the upper and lower crown sheets. In models, the installation of a condenser caused oil-fouling in the expansion joints, welded steel fire-tubes had to be used; the boilers were reasonably safe. If these failed, any dangerous over pressure would rupture one of the joints long before the boiler shell itself could burst; the resulting leakage would relieve the boiler pressure and douse the burner, with little risk to the passenger. There is not a single documented incident of a Stanley boiler exploding; the engine had two double-acting cylinders, side-by-side and equipped with slide-valves, it was a simple-expansion type. Drive was transmitted directly by the crankshaft to a rear-mounted differential through using a chain.
Owners modified their Locomobiles by adding third-party accessories, including improved lubricators and devices which eased the laborious starting procedure. To overcome patent difficulties with the design they had sold to Locomobile, the Stanley brothers developed a new model with twin-cylinder engines geared directly to the rear axle. Models had aluminium coachwork that resembled the internal combustion cars of the time, but they retained steam-car features by having no transmission, clutch, or driveshaft, they had a sprung tubular steel frame. When they moved the steam boiler to the front of the vehicle, the owners dubbed it the "coffin nose." The compact engine ran at considerable steam pressure, with the 10-horsepower boiler described in 1912 at having the safety valve set at 650 pounds per square inch, with the burner set to automatically cut back when pressure reached 500 pounds per square inch. The twin-cylinder steam engines were at that time 10 horsepower, with 3 1⁄4-inch bore and 4 1⁄4-inch stroke, 20 horsepower with 4-inch bore and 5-inch stroke, made extensive use of ball bearings.
In order to improve range, condensers were added from 1915. A Stanley Steamer set the world record for the fastest mile in an automobile in 1906; this record was not broken by any automobile until 1911, although Glen Curtiss beat the record in 1907 with a V-8-powered motorcycle at 136 mph. The record for steam-powered automobiles was not broken until 2009. Production rose to 500 cars in 1917; the Stanley Steamer was sometimes nicknamed "The Flying Teapot". At least one Stanley Steamer found its way to Castle Hill, New South Wales, Australia where it was driven in the late 1920s. During the mid to late 1910s, the fuel efficiency and power delivery of internal combustion engines improved and using an electric starter instead of the crank, notorious for injuring its operators, led to the rise of the gasoline-powered automobile, much cheaper; the Stanley company produced a series of advertising campaigns trying to recover the car-buying public away from the "internal explosion engine," but it was unsuccessful.
Their advertising slogan was, "Power – Correctly Generated, Correctly Controlled, Correctly Applied to the Rear Axle." These were early examples of the fear and doubt advertising campaign, since their aim was not to convince buyers of the advantages of the Stanley Steamer but to suggest that internal combustion automobiles could explode. In 1918, after Francis Stanley's accidental death, Freelan Stanley sold his interests to Prescott Warren; the company suffered a period of decline and technological stagnation. Production specifications show that no model with a power output of more than 20 hp was produced after 1918. Better cars were now available at much lower cost. For example, a 1924 Stanley 740D sedan cost $3950, compared to less than $500 for a Ford Model T; the widespread use of electric starters in internal combustion cars, beginning in 1912, eroded the remaining technological advantages of the steam car. The smaller scale of merchandising, a lack of effective advertising, the general desire of motorists for higher speeds and faster starting than offered by Stanley vehicles were the primary causes of the company's demise.
The factory closed permanently in 1924. An entire song entitled "The Stanley Steamer" appear
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
The Bancroft Library in the center of the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, is the university's primary special-collections library. It was acquired from its founder, Hubert Howe Bancroft, in 1905, with the proviso that it retain the name Bancroft Library in perpetuity; the collection at that time consisted of 50,000 volumes of materials on the history of California and the North American West. It is the largest such collection in the world; the building the library is located in, the Doe Annex, was completed in 1950. The Bancroft Library's inception dates back to 1859, when William H. Knight, in Bancroft's service as editor of statistical works relative to the Pacific coast, was requested to clear the shelves around Bancroft's desk to receive every book in the store having reference to this country. Looking through his stock he was agreeably surprised to find some 75 volumes. There was no fixed purpose at this time to collect a library. Noticing accidentally some old pamphlets in an antiquarian book-store, he thought to add these to his nucleus.
During his next visit to the eastern states, without special pains or search, he secured whatever fell under his observation in second-hand stores of New York and Philadelphia. He had begun to feel satisfied. "When, however, I visited London and Paris, rummaged the enormous stocks of second-hand books in the hundreds of stores of that class, my eyes began to open.... And so it was, when the collection had reached one thousand volumes, I fancied. Special journeys were made to all parts of Europe, as well as the Americas, in the interest of his collection. "And not only was every nook and corner of the world thus ramsacked, but whole libraries were purchased as opportunity offered." While his vague ideas of materials for writing a history assumed more definite form, Bancroft had as yet no idea of writing a history himself. As the collecting proceeded his subject enlarged, until the territory covered was the entire western part of North America from Panama to Alaska, including the Rocky Mountain region, all Central America and Mexico, or about one-twelfth of the earth's entire surface.
The bibliophile reached the settled determination to make his collection as complete as it was possible to make it. Neither time, nor money, nor personal attention would be spared. Agents were appointed in all the leading book marts of the world. By buying up at auction in European cities' individual collections, libraries, the Bancroft Library was enriched beyond measure. In 1869, it is reported that Bancroft held, including about 16,000 volumes; these were lodged on the fifth floor of the Market Street building, the original home of the library having been a corner of the second story of the building on Merchant Street. Bancroft now decided to begin literary work, but the collecting went forward without interruption. Trembling for the safety of the library through fear of fire, he lent a willing ear to his nephew's proposal to absorb the fifth floor for the purposes of the manufacturing department, of which he had charge, he would erect on some convenient spot a fireproof library building. Among the places considered were Oakland, San Rafael, San Mateo, Menlo Park.
The library was moved to the building October 9, 1881. There the library stood for years; when the question of State purchase was taken up, the Bancroft Library was said to contain from 50,000 to 60,000 volumes of books, pamphlets and manuscripts. Prof. Joseph Cummings Rowell, Librarian of the State University, after careful personal examination, estimated the number at 40,000 as a total. For many years, the collection had been offered for sale, Bancroft holding it at US$250,000, but a fractional part of the original cost and yet doubtless above the market price, which Rowell estimated at about $140,000, if the complete subject index be included. In 1887, a bill was presented in the State Legislature to purchase the library for the State for $250,000, but the proposition was defeated; some years the University of Chicago considered buying it. In 1905, Reuben Gold Thwaites, Librarian of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, one of the foremost book experts in America, was invited to examine the Bancroft Library, "with a view to ascertaining its condition and, so far as may be, its marketable value."
In his report, Thwaites characterized the collection of documents, books and other materials, estimating the total value at upwards of $300,000. The report itself was published November 1905, as a 20-page pamphlet; the Report of the Secretary to the Regents of the University of California, year ending June 30, 1906 noted, "The Bancroft Library, incomparably superior to any other existing collection as a mine of primary historical material for all western America, a collection which could not remotely be imitated, at no matter what cost, was acquired by the University on November 24, 1905, at a cost of $250,000. Of this amount Mr. H. H. Bancroft, whose ingenuity and skill created this collection, donated $100,000. Of th
Doble steam car
The Doble steam car was an American steam car maker from 1909 to 1931. Its latter models of steam car, with fast firing boiler and electric start, were considered the pinnacle of steam car development; the term "Doble steam car" comprises any of several makes of steam-powered automobile in the early 20th century, including Doble Detroit, Doble Steam Car, Doble Automobile, severally called a "Doble" because of their founding by Abner Doble. There were four Doble brothers: Abner, William and Warren, their father became wealthy. All were at one time associated with the automobile company, with Abner and Warren as the leading lights. Abner Doble built his first steam car between 1906 and 1909 while still in high school, with the assistance of his brothers, it was based on components salvaged from a wrecked White Motor Company steamer, driving a new engine of the Doble brothers' own design. It did not run well, but it inspired the brothers to build two more prototypes in the following years. Abner moved to Massachusetts in 1910 to attend MIT, but dropped out after just one semester to work with his brothers on their steam cars.
Their third prototype, the Model B, led Abner to file patents for the innovations incorporated in it which included a steam condenser which enabled the water supply to last for as much as 1,500 miles, instead of the typical steam car's 20–50 miles. The Model B protected the interior of the boiler from the common steam vehicle nuisances of corrosion and scale by mixing engine oil with feedwater. While the Model B did not possess the convenience of an internal combustion engined vehicle, it attracted the attention of contemporary automobile trade magazines with the improvements it displayed over previous steam cars; the Model B was silent compared to contemporary gasoline engines. It possessed no clutch or transmission, which were superfluous due to the substantial torque produced by steam engines from 0 rpm; the Model B could accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in just 15 seconds, whereas a Ford Model T of the period took 40 seconds to reach its top speed of 40–50 mph. In 1915 Abner drove a Model B from Massachusetts to Detroit to seek investment.
He managed to acquire the sum of $200,000, which he used to set up the General Engineering Company in Detroit. The Doble brothers at once began work on their Model C, planned to extend and expand upon the innovations pioneered in the Model B; the Doble Detroit incorporated key ignition, doing away with the need for manual ignition of the boiler system. John Doble constructed a flash boiler with rectangular casing in which atomized kerosene fuel was ignited with a spark plug, in a carburetor-type venturi and used forced draft provided by an electrically driven fan; this heated the feedwater contained in vertical grids of tubes welded to horizontal headers. The steam-raising part of the boiler was partitioned off by a wall of heat-resisting material jacketed with planished steel from a smaller compartment in which were similar grids of tubes for feedwater heating. There seem to have been at least two versions of this boiler, the first with the burner and combustion chamber at the bottom, the other with them at the top of the casing.
Boiler operation was electro-mechanically automated: the bottom of the boiler housed a metal tray with a row of quartz rods. As heat increased, the tray expanded, shutting off the burner; as the system cooled, the quartz rods receded. The Detroit could start from cold in as little as 90 seconds. A two-cylinder double-acting uniflow engine was mounted under the floor driving the back axle; the car had only four controls — a steering wheel, a brake pedal, a trip pedal for variable cut-off and reversing, a foot-operated throttle. The layout of the chassis put the boiler at the front end of the car under the hood, the engine and the rear axle forming an integrated unit; the weight distribution and low center of gravity contributed much to the ride and handling of all Doble cars. These improvements promised a steam car that would at last provide all of the convenience associated with a conventional automobile, but with higher speed, simpler controls, what was a noiseless power plant; the only defect sometimes noted throughout the Doble car era was less than perfect braking, common in automobiles of all types before 1930.
A car of 1920s only had two rear-mounted mechanical drum brakes, although those fitted to Dobles were of larger than usual proportions. Dobles achieved reliability by eliminating most of the mechanical items that tended to malfunction in conventional automobiles: they had no clutch, no transmission, no distributor, no points. Doble steam cars achieved several hundred thousand miles of use before a major mechanical service was necessaryThe Doble Detroit caused a sensation at the 1917 New York Motor Show and over 5,000 deposits were received for the car, with deliveries scheduled to begin in early 1918. However, the Doble brothers had not worked out various design and manufacturing issues, although the car received good notices and several thousand advance orders were placed few were built, estimates ranging from 11 to as many as 80. Abner Doble blamed his company's production failure on the steel shortages caused by World War I, but the Doble Detroit was mechanically unsatisfactory; those few customers who had received completed cars complained that they were sluggish and unpredictable, some reversing when they should have gone forw